European Fortifications in West Africa as Architectural Containers and Oppressive Contraptions

  • Henry Nii Adziri Wellington
  • Rexford Assasie Oppong
Part of the African Histories and Modernities book series (AHAM)


The opening section of the chapter takes a broad look at the fortifications in West Africa as architectural designs reflecting European philosophy and spatial conceptualisation. The second section then presents a prototypical architectural component of the European Fortifications, namely the dungeons, as a configuration of the fortifications that not only held trade goods but also served as a contraption for the oppression of human captives. The features of forts and castles that are discussed in this chapter are referenced in terms of significance, meaning and messages. The aim is to provide heritage interpreters and managers with more authentic data on the ill effects of the human cargo that transited through the European imperial fortifications built for the transatlantic slave trade.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry Nii Adziri Wellington
    • 1
  • Rexford Assasie Oppong
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Archaeology and Heritage StudiesUniversity of GhanaLegonGhana
  2. 2.Department of Architecture, College of Art and Built EnvironmentKwame Nkrumah University of Science and TechnologyKumasiGhana

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