Advertisement

Fort Metal Cross: Commercial Epicentre of the British on the Gold Coast

  • Fritz Biveridge
Chapter
Part of the African Histories and Modernities book series (AHAM)

Abstract

This chapter investigates the consequences of the English presence at Dixcove (Efiema) and how the encounter impacted the indigenous Ahanta who occupy Dixcove and the local economy from 1620 to 1900 A.D. Archaeological, historical and ethno-historical sources constitute the primary data sources used. The archaeological study discussed in this chapter revealed that prior to the advent of the English and their construction of Fort Metal Cross in 1692, fishing, palm oil and salt production constituted the mainstays of the economy. The period subsequent to arrival of the English, however, witnessed the development of vibrant commercial relations between the two groups and inland polities such as Wassa and Aowin involving the exchange of exotic European merchandise such as ceramics, glass beads, textiles, firearms, metal implements and tobacco for traditional African commodities such as gold, ivory , timber and “slaves”.

Bibliography

Archival sources

  1. National Archives, London.Google Scholar
  2. C.O. 1/20.Google Scholar
  3. C.O.1. 20. (1668).Google Scholar
  4. C.O.1/20 (1668).Google Scholar
  5. T. 70/1433/7. (Correspondence from Barbados to the RAC, 14 August, 1686).Google Scholar
  6. T. 70/640.Google Scholar
  7. T. 70/120.Google Scholar
  8. T. 70/146.Google Scholar
  9. T. 70/5/31 (12 July–1 August, 1707).Google Scholar
  10. T. 70/5 (19 February, 1707).Google Scholar
  11. T. 70/378. (Correspondence from Cape Coast to RAC to London, 9 February, 1703).Google Scholar
  12. T. 70/368. Cape Coast Castle Journal, 23 June, 1683.Google Scholar
  13. T. 70/1463/10. Cape Coast Castle Memo, 12 February, 1703.Google Scholar
  14. T. 70/1130 (1750).Google Scholar
  15. T. 70/153.23, 92 (1792).Google Scholar
  16. T. 70/1455. F.1. (Entry by Richard Miles to Gilbert Petrie. 28 Sept, 1778).Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Aitken, W. C. “Brass and Brass Manufactures”, The Resources, Products and Industrial History of Birmingham and the Midland Hardware District ed. by S. Timmins. (London, 1866) 225–380.Google Scholar
  2. Anquandah, J. K., Castles and Forts of Ghana. (Paris: Atalante, 1999).Google Scholar
  3. Anquandah, J.K., ‘Archaeological Investigations at Fort St. Jago, Elmina Ghana’, Archaeology in Ghana, 3 (1992) 38–45.Google Scholar
  4. Barbot, J., A Description of the Coast of North and South Guinea. Churchill’s Collection of Voyages and Travels. vol. 5. ed. by A. Churchill. (London, 1732).Google Scholar
  5. Beckles, Hillary M. & Shepherd, Verene A. Trading Souls: Europe’s Trans-Atlantic Trade in African (Miami: Ian Randle, 2007).Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, Norman R. and Brooks, George E., ‘New England Merchants in Africa: A History through Documents 1802–1865’, Boston University African Research Studies. vol. 7. (Boston: 1965).Google Scholar
  7. Blake, J. W. Europeans in West Africa 1450–1560. vol 1. (Wiesbaden. Hakluyt Society, 1967).Google Scholar
  8. Coombs, Douglas, The Gold Coast, Britain and the Netherlands 1850–1874 (London. Oxford University Press, 1963).Google Scholar
  9. Cruickshank, Brodie, Eighteen Years on the Gold Coast of Africa including an Account of the Native Tribes, and their Intercourse with Europeans, 2 vols. (1853; London: Frank Cass, 1966).Google Scholar
  10. Daaku, Kwame Yeboa. Trade and Politics on the Gold Coast 1600–1720: A Study of the African Reaction to European Trade (London: Clarendon Press, 1970).Google Scholar
  11. DeCorse, C. R., ‘The Europeans in West Africa: Culture Contact, Continuity and Change’, Transformations in West Africa: Essays on Africa’s Later Past, Edited by Graham Connah (London: Leicester University Press, 1998) 219–244.Google Scholar
  12. DeCorse, C. R., An Archaeology of Elmina. Africans and Europeans on the Gold Coast. 1400–1900. (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  13. de Marees, Pieter, Description and Historical Account of the Gold Kingdom of Guinea (1602). Translated and annotated by Albert van Dantzig and Adam Jones (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  14. Dickson, K. B., A Historical Geography of Ghana (Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  15. Dow, George Francis, Slave Ships and Slaving (Salem, MA: Marine Research Society, 1927).Google Scholar
  16. Fage, J. D., The History of West Africa (London: Routledge, 1967).Google Scholar
  17. Francis, Peter, Beads of the World (Alglen PA: Schiffer Publishing, 1995).Google Scholar
  18. Garrard, Timothy F., Akan Weights and the Gold Trade (New York: Longman, 1980).Google Scholar
  19. Goucher, C. L., ‘Iron is Iron ‘til it is rust: Trade and Ecology in the decline of West African Iron Smelting’, Journal of African History, 22 (1981) 179–189.Google Scholar
  20. Hair, P. E. H., Adam Jones and Robin Law, eds., Barbot on Guinea: The Writings of Jean Barbot on West Africa, 1678–1712 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1992).Google Scholar
  21. Hallett, R., ‘The European Approach to the Interior of Africa in the Eighteenth Century’, Journal of African History. vol. IV. no. 2. (1963).Google Scholar
  22. Justesen, Ole, Danish Sources for the History of Ghana 1657–1754. vol 1 & 2 (Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 2005).Google Scholar
  23. Kense, F. & Okoro, Ako J., ‘Changing Perspectives on Traditional Iron Production in West Africa’, The Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals and Towns, edited by Thurstan Shaw, Paul Sinclair, Bassey Andah & Alex Okpoko (London: Routledge, 1993) 449–458.Google Scholar
  24. Lawrence, A. W., Trade Castles and Forts of West Africa (London: Jonathan Cape, 1963).Google Scholar
  25. Meredith, Henry, An Account of the Gold Coast of Guinea (London: Frank Cass, 1812).Google Scholar
  26. Metcalfe, G. E., Great Britain and Ghana: Documents of Ghana History, 1807–1957 (London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1964).Google Scholar
  27. Milo, T.H., ‘Portuguese Trade and Shipping with the Netherlands after the Discoveries’, Congresso International de Historia dos Descombrimentos, 3 (1961) 423–432.Google Scholar
  28. Owusu-Ansah, David, Historical Dictionary of Ghana (Toronto: Scarecrow Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  29. Priestley, Margaret, West African Trade and Coast Society (London: Oxford University Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  30. St. Clair, William. The Grand Slave Emporium: Cape Coast and the British Slave Trade (London: Profile Books, 2006).Google Scholar
  31. Van Dantzig, Albert, Forts and Castles of Ghana (Accra: Sedco, 1980).Google Scholar
  32. Vogt, John, Portuguese Rule on the Gold Coast: 1469–1682 (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fritz Biveridge
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Archaeology and Heritage StudiesUniversity of GhanaLegonGhana

Personalised recommendations