Normal Values

  • Ekkehard Ring
  • Hans-Joachim Mentzel
  • Michael RiccabonaEmail author
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Correct interpretation of different data in disease states requires comparison with data obtained in a normal situation. This is valid especially during childhood as, for example, a given value may be normal for an adolescent but is pathologic for an infant. Selected data important for daily routine are discussed in this chapter. For some data, the reader is referred to other chapters of this book. Comments are added where appropriate. However, as intrinsically with all measurements, they always have to be seen in the individual context taking variability and assessment restrictions into consideration; calculating mean values from several measurements will help to reduce errors. A properly standardized initial technique however is mandatory, though even this approach may reveal some variance of measurements taken from the same object during the same investigation (e.g., sonographically measured kidney length, particularly if taken from different access or positions).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ekkehard Ring
    • 1
  • Hans-Joachim Mentzel
    • 2
  • Michael Riccabona
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of General PediatricsUniversity Hospital GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Section of Paediatric RadiologyInstitute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital JenaJenaGermany
  3. 3.Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric RadiologyUniversity Hospital GrazGrazAustria

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