Vesicoureteric Reflux

  • Freddy AvniEmail author
  • Marianne Tondeur
  • Frederica Papadopoulou
  • Annie Lahoche
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


In case of urinary tract infection (UTI), vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is considered a significant factor for the recurrence of UTIs and for the development of progressive renal damage. Optimizing its detection is important for the identification of patients at risk. This necessitates a good knowledge of the pathogenesis, the circumstances of occurrence, and the natural history of the disease. In addition, the techniques used for demonstrating VUR must be used at their best and for good purposes (The RIVUR trial investigators 2014; Garin et al. 1998; Hellström and Jacobsson 1999; Jakobsson et al. 1999; Ismaili et al. 2006a, b).


  1. Anderson PAM, Rickwood AMK (1991) Features of primary VUR detected by prenatal US. Br J Urol 67:267–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arant BS (1991) VUR and renal injury. Am J Kidney Dis 17:491–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arlen AM, Merriman LS, Kirsch JM et al (2015) Early effects of AAP UTI guidelines on radiographic imaging and diagnosis of VUR in the emergency room setting. J Urol 193:1760–1765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ascenti G, Zimbaro G, Mazziotti S et al (2004) Harmonic US imaging of vesicoureteric reflux in children: usefulness of a second generation US contrast agent. Pediatr Radiol 34:481–487PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Assael BM, Guez S, Marra G et al (1998) Congenital reflux nephropathy: follow-up of 108 cases diagnosed perinatally. Br J Urol 82:252–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atiyeh B, Hussman D, Baum M (1992) Contralateral renal abnormalities in MDKD. J Pediatr 121:65–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avni FE, Schulman CC (1996) The origin of VUR in male newborns: further evidence in favor of a transient fetal urethral obstruction. Br J Urol 78:454–459PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avni FE, Ayadi K, Rypens F, Hall M, Schulman CC (1997) Can careful US examination of the urinary tract exclude VUR in the neonate? Br J Radiol 70:977–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avni FE, Hall M, Schulman CC (1998) Congenital uronephropathies: is routine VCU always warranted? Clin Radiol 53:247–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Awas M, Rehman A, Zaman MV et al (2015) Recurrent UTI in young children: role of DMSA in detecting VUR. Pediatr Radiol 45:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bayram MT, Kavucku S, Alaygut D et al (2014) Place of ultrasonography in predicting vesicoureteral reflux in patients with mild renal scarring. Urology 83:904–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bailey RR, Lynn KL, Smith AH (1992) Long-term follow-up of infants with gross VUR. J Urol 148:1709–1711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baunin C, Puget C, Moscvici J, Juskiewenski S et al (1993) Vessie immature de l’enfant: présentation d’un syndrome radiologique à partir de 138 cystographies. Rev Im Med 5:93–97Google Scholar
  14. Bernstein J, Arant BS (1992) Morphological characteristics of segmental scarring in VUR. J Urol 148:1712–1714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berrocal T, Gayá F, Arjonilla A et al (2001) Vesicoureteral reflux: diagnosis and grading with echo-enhanced cystosonography versus voiding cystourethrography. Radiology 221:359–365PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berrocal T, Gayá F, Arjonilla A (2005) Vesicoureteral reflux: can the urethra be adequately assessed by using contrast-enhanced voiding US of the bladder? Radiology 234:235–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Blane CE, Zerin MJ, Bloom DA (1994) Bladder diverticula in children. Radiology 190:695–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blyth B, Passerini-Glazel G, Camuffo C et al (1993) Endoscopic incision of ureteroceles: intravesical versus ectopic. J Urol 149:556–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bomalaski MD, Hirschl RB, Bloom DA (1997) VUR and UPJ obstruction: association, treatment options and outcome. J Urol 157:969–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cain MP, Pope JC, Casale AJ et al (1998) Natural history of refluxing distal ureteral stumps. J Urol 160:1026–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caione P, Villa M, Capozza N et al (2004) Predictive risk factors for chronic renal failure in primary high grade VUR. BJU Int 93:1309–1312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cascio S, Paran S, Puri P (1999) Associated urological anomalies in children with unilateral renal agenesis. J Urol 162:1081–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chan Y, Chan K, Roebuck D et al (1999) Potential utility of MRI in the evaluation of children at risk of renal scarring. Pediatr Radiol 29:856–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Claudon M, Ben Sira L, Lebowitz RL (1999) Lower pole reflux in children: uroradiologic appearances and pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol 172:795–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Couthard MG (2008) Is reflux nephropathy preventable and will the NICE childhood UTI guidelines help. Arch Dis Child 93:196–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dalirani R, Mahyiar A, Sharifan M et al (2014) The value of direct radionuclide cystography in the detection of vesicoureteral reflux in children with normal voiding cystourethrography. Pediatr Nephrol 29:2341–2345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Damry N, Avni F, Guissard G et al (2005) Compensatory hypertrophy of renal parenchyma presenting as a mass lesion. Pediatr Radiol 35:832–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Darge K, Duetting T, Zieger B et al (1998) Diagnosis of VUR with echo-enhanced voiding urosonography. Radiology 38:405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Darge K, Moeller RT, Trusen A et al (2005) Diagnosis of VUR with low dose contrast enhanced harmonic US imaging. Pediatr Radiol 35:73–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Darge K, Troeger J (2002) Vesicoureteral reflux grading in contrastenhanced voiding urosonography. Eur J Radiol 43:122–128PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Darge K, Troeger J, Duetting T et al (1999) Reflux in young patients: comparison of voiding US of the bladder and retrovesical space with echo enhancement versus voiding cystourethrography for diagnosis. Radiology 210(1):201–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Sadeleer C, De Boe V, Keuppens F et al (1994) How good is technetium-99mmercaptoacetyltriglycine indirect cystography? Eur J Nucl Med 21:223–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Palma D, Manzoni G (2013) Different imaging strategies in febrile urinary tract infection in childhood. What, when, why? Pediatr Radiol 43:436–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Di Pietro MA, Blane CE, Zerin JM (1997) VUR in older children: concordance of US and VCU findings. Radiology 205:821–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duran C, del Riego J, Riera L et al (2012) Voiding urosonography including urethrosonography: high-quality examinations with an optimised procedure using a second-generation US contrast agent. Pediatr Radiol 42:660–667PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duran C, Valera A, Alguersuari A et al (2009) Voiding urosonography: the study of the urethra is no longer a limitation of the technique. Pediatr Radiol 39:124–131PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fernbach SK, Feinstein KA, Schmidt MB (2000) Pediatric VCU: a pictorial guide. Radiographics 20:155–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fettich J, Colarinha P, Fischer S et al (2003) Guidelines for direct radionuclide cystography in children under the auspices of the paediatric committee of the European association of nuclear medicine. Eur J Nucl Med 30(5):B39–B44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Finnell SME, Carroll AE, Downs SM, Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection (2011) Diagnosis and management of an initial UTI in febrile infants and young children. Pediatrics 128:e749–e770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fotter R, Kopp W, Klein E et al (1986) Unstable bladder in children: functional evaluation by modified VCU. Radiology 161:811–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Garin EH, Campos A, Homsy Y (1998) Primary VUR: review of current concepts. Pediatr Nephrol 12:249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gelfand MJ, Koch BL, Elgazzar AH et al (1999) Cyclic cystography: diagnostic yield in selected pediatric populations. Radiology 213:118–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gobet R, Cisek LJ, Chang B et al (1999) Experimental fetal VUR induces renal tubular and glomerular damage and is associated with persistent bladder instability. J Urol 162:1090–1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goldraich N, Goldraich IH (1992) Follow-up of conservatively treated children with high- and low-grade VUR: a prospective study. J Urol 148:1688–1692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gonzales ET (1992) Anomalies of the renal pelvis and ureter. In: Kelalis PP, King L, Belman AB (ed) Clinical pediatric urology, 3rd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 530–579. Goonasekera CDA, Dillon MJ (1999) Hypertension in reflux nephropathy. Br J Urol 83 [Suppl]:1–12Google Scholar
  46. Gordon I (1995) VUR, UTI and renal damage in children. Lancet 346:489–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gordon I, Colarinha P, Fettich J et al (2001) Guidelines for indirect radionuclide cystography. Under the auspices of the paediatric committee of the European association of nuclear medicine. Eur J Nucl Med 28:BP16–BP20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hari P, Hari S, Sinha A et al (2015) Antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of VUR Pediatr Nephrol 2015;30:479–486Google Scholar
  49. Hansson S, Dhamey M, Sigstrom O et al (2004) Dimercapto-Succinic Acid scintigraphy instead of voiding cystourethrography for infants with urinary tract infection. J Urol 172:1071–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heale WF (1997) Hereditary VUR: phenotypic variation and family screening. Pediatr Nephrol 11:504–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hellström M, Jacobsson B (1999) Diagnosis of vesico-ureteric reflux. Acta Pediatr 431(Suppl):1–12Google Scholar
  52. Herndon CDA, McKenna PH, Kolon TF et al (1999) A multicenter outcomes analysis of patients with neonatal VUR presenting with prenatal hydronephrosis. J Urol 162:1203–1205PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hernandez RH, Goodsitt M (1996) Reduction of radiation dose in pediatric patients using pulsed fluoroscopy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 167:1247–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hiraoka M, Kasuga K, Hori C et al (1994) US indicators of VUR in the newborn. Lancet 343:519–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hiraoka M, Hashimoto G, Hori C et al (1997) Use of US in the detection of VUR in children suspected of having UTI. J Clin Ultrasound 25:195–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoberman A, Charron M, Hickey RW et al (2003) Imaging studies after a febrile urinary tract infection in young children. N Engl J Med 348:195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hulbert WC, Rosenberg HK, Cartwright PC et al (1992) The predictive value of US in evaluation of infants with posterior urethral valves. J Urol 148:122–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ismaili K, Avni FE, Piepsz A et al (2006) VUR in children. EAU-EBU update series 4, European Urology Publ p 129–140Google Scholar
  59. Ismaili K, Hall M, Piepsz A et al (2006b) Primary VUR detected in neonates with a history of fetal renal pelvis dilatation. J Pediatr 148:222–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jakobsson B, Jacobson SG, Hjâlmas K (1999) VUR and other risk factors for renal damage: identification of high- and low-risk children. Acta Paediatr 431 [Suppl]:31–39. Jacobsson SH, Hansson S, Jakobsson B (1999) Vesico-ureteric reflux: occurrence and long-term risks. Acta Pediatr 431 [Suppl]: 22–30Google Scholar
  61. Jodal U, Lindberg U (1999) Guidelines for management of children with UTI and VUR. Recommendations from a Swedish state of the art conference. Acta Paediatr 431(Suppl):87–89Google Scholar
  62. Jodal U, Hansson S, Hjälmas K (1999) Medical or surgical management for children with VUR. Acta Pediatr 431(Suppl):53–61Google Scholar
  63. Jungers P, Houilier P, Chauveau D et al (1996) Pregnancy in women with reflux nephropathy. Kidney Int 50:393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaefer M, Keating MA, Adams MC et al (1995) Posterior urethral valves, pressure pop-off and bladder function. J Urol 154:708–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kis E, Nyitrai A, Várkonyi I et al (2010) Voiding urosonography with 2nd generation contrast agent versus voiding cystourethrography. Pediatr Nephrol 25:2289–2293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kleinman PK, Diamond DA, Karellas A et al (1994) Tailored low-dose fluoroscopic VCU for the reevaluation of VUR in girls. AJR Am J Roentgenol 162:1151–1154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Koff SA (1992) Relationship between dysfunctional voiding and reflux. J Urol 148:1703–1706PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Koyicigit A, Yuksel S, Bayram R et al (2014) Efficacy of MRU in detecting renal scars in children with VUR. Pediatr Nephrol 29:1215–122OCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kraus SJ, Lebowitz RL, Royal SA (1999) Renal calculi in children. Pediatr Radiol 29:624–630CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Läckgren G, Wählin N, Sternberg A (1999) Endoscopic treatment of children with VUR. Acta Paediatr 431(Suppl):62–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lebowitz RL, Avni EF (1980) Misleading appearances in pediatric uroradiology. Pediatr Radiol 10:15–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lebowitz RL, Olbing H, Parkkulainen KV et al (1985) International Reflux Study in children: international system of radiographic grading of vesico-ureteric reflux. Pediatr Radiol 15:105–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee RS, Cendron R, Kinnamon DD et al (2006a) Antenatal hydronephrosis as a prediction of postnatal outcome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 118:586–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lee H, Hyun Soh B, Hee Hong C et al (2009) The efficacy of ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid scan in predicting vesicoureteral reflux in children below the age of 2 years with their first febrile urinary tract infection. Pediatr Nephrol 24:2009–2013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lee RS, Diamond DA, Chow JS (2006b) Applying the ALARA concept to the evaluation of vesicoureteric reflux. Pediatr Radiol 36(Suppl 2):185–191PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leroy S, Vantalon S, Larabek A, Ducou Lepointe H, Bensman A (2010) VUR in children with UTI: comparison of diagnostic accuracy of renal US. Radiology 255:890–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mana G, Oppezzo C, Ardissino G et al (2004) Severe VUR and chronic renal failure. J Pediatr 144:677–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mandell J, Lebowitz RL, Peters CA et al (1992) Prenatal diagnosis of the megacystis-megaureter association. J Urol 148:1487–1489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Marra G, Barbieri G, Moioli C et al (1994) Mild fetal hydronephrosis indicating VUR. Arch Dis Child 70:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Matsumo T, Fukushima Motoyama H, Higushi E et al (1996) Color flow imaging for detection of VUR. Lancet 347:757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Matsuoka H, Oshima K, Sakamoto K et al (1994) Renal pathology in patients with reflux nephropathy. Eur Urol 26:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mentzel HJ, Vogt S, Patzer L et al (1999) Contrast-enhanced sonography of VUR in children: primary results. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173:737–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Merrick M, Notghi A, Chalmers N et al (1995) Long-term follow-up to determine the prognostic value of imaging after UTI. 1. Reflux. Arch Dis Child 72:388–392PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Montini G, Hewitt I (2009) Urinary tract infection: to prophylaxis or not to prophylaxis. Pediatr Nephrol 24:1605–1609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mozley PD, Heyman S, Duckett JW et al (1994) Direct vesicoureteral scintigraphy: quantifying early outcome predictors in children with primary reflux. J Nucl Med 35:1602–1608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Najmaldin A, Burge DM, Atwell JD (1990) Fetal VUR. Br J Urol 65:403–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Newell SJ, Morgan ME, McHugo JM (1990) Clinical significance of antenatal calyceal dilatation detected by US. Lancet 336:372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Olbing H, Claësson I, Ebel K et al (1992) Renal scars and parenchymal thinning in children with VUR. J Urol 148:1653–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Papadopoulou F, Efremidis SC, Oiconomou A et al (2002) Cycling VCU: is VUR missed with standart VCU. Eur Radiol 12:666–670PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Papadopoulou F, Tsampoulas C, Siomou E et al (2006) Cyclic contrast-enhanced Urosonography for the evaluation of reflux. Can we keep the cost of the examination low? Eur Radiol 16(11):2521–2526PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Papadopoulou F, Evangelou E, Riccabona M et al (2012) Contrast enhanced voiding urosonography for diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in comparison to conventional methods: a meta-analysis. ECR Book of Abstracts, Insights Imaging 3:SS 1712, B-0860Google Scholar
  92. Papadopoulou F, Ntoulia A, Siomou E, Darge K (2014) ce- VUS with intravesical administration of a second-generation US contrast agent for diagnosis of VUR: propspective evaluation of contrast safety in 1,010 children. Pediatr Radiol 44:719–728PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pennesi M, Travan L, Peratoner L et al (2008) Is antibiotic prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux effective in preventing pyelonephritis and renal scars? A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 121:1489–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pfister C, Dacher JN, Gaucher S et al (1999) The usefulness of a minimal urodynamic evaluation and pelvic floor feedback in children with chronic voiding dysfunction. BJU Int 84:1054–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Piepsz A, Ham HR (2006) Pediatric applications of renal nuclear medicine. Semin Nucl Med 36:16–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ransley PG, Risdon RA (1975) Renal papillary morphology and intrarenal reflux in young pigs. Urol Res 3:105–109PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Riccabona M (2002) Cystography in children and infants. Eur Radiol 12:2910–2918PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Riccabona M, Avni FE, Damasio MB et al (2012) ESPR Uroradiology Task Force and ESUR Paediatric Working Group–Imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part V: childhood cystic kidney disease, childhood renal transplantation and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in children. Pediatr Radiol 42(10):1275–1283PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Riccabona M, Avni FE, Blickman JG et al (2008) Imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology: minutes of the ESPR workgroup session on urinary tract infection, fetal hydronephrosis, urinary tract ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography, Barcelona, Spain, June 2007. Pediatr Radiol 38(2):138–145PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ring E, Peritsch P, Riccabona M et al (1993) Primary VUR in infants with a dilated fetal urinary tract. Eur J Pediatr 152:523–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Robben SGE, Boesten M, Linmans J et al (1999) Significance of thickening of the wall of the renal collecting system in children an US study. Pediatr Radiol 29:736–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Roberts KB (2011) Urinary tract infection: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics 128:595–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Robinson JL, Finlay JC, Lang ME et al (2014) UTI in infants and children: diagnosis and management. Paediatr Child Health 19:315–325PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rolleston GL, Maling TMJ, Hodson CJ (1974) Intrarenal reflux and the scarred kidney. Arch Dis Child 49:531–539PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Roussey-Kesler G, Gadjos V, Idres N et al (2008) Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in children with low-grade vesicoureteral reflux: results from a prospective randomized study. J Urol 179:674–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rypens F, Avni F, Bank WO et al (1992) The uretero-vesical junction in children: US findings after surgical or endoscopic treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol 158:837–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Salih M, Baltaci S, Kilic S et al (1994) Color flow Doppler US in the diagnosis of VUR. Eur Urol 26:93–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schulman CC, Pamart D, Hall M et al (1990) VUR in children: endoscopic management. Eur Urol 17:314–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Shanon A, Feldman W (1990) Methodologic limitations in the literature on VUR: a critical review. J Pediatr 117:171–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sillen U (1999a) Bladder dysfunction in children with VUR. Acta Paediatr 431(Suppl):40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sillen U (1999b) VUR in infants. Pediatr Nephrol 13:355–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sillen U, Hjalmas K, Aili M et al (1992) Pronounced detrusor hypercontractibility in infants with gross bilateral VUR. J Urol 148:598–599PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Smellie JM, Tamminen-Mobius T, Olbing H et al (1992) International reflux study in children 5-year study of medical or surgical treatment in children with severe reflux: radiological renal findings. Pediatr Nephrol 6:223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Snodgrass W (1998) The impact of treated dysfunctional voiding on the non-surgical management of VUR. J Urol 160:1823–1825PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Song JT, Ritchey ML, Zerin JM, Bloom DA (1995) Incidence of VUR in children with unilateral renal agenesis. J Urol 153:1249–1251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Springer A, Subramanian R (2014) Relevance of current guidelines in the management of VUR. Eur J Pediatr 173:835–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stock JA, Wilson D, Hanna MN (1998) Congenital reflux nephropathy and severe unilateral reflux. J Urol 160:1017–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stocks A, Richards D, Frentzen B et al (1996) Correlation of prenatal renal pelvic antero-posterior diameter with outcome in infancy. J Urol 155:1050–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stokland E, Hellström M, Jakobsson B et al (1999) Imaging of renal scarring. Acta Paediatr Scand 431(Suppl):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Strehlau J, Winkler P, de la Roche J (1997) The ureterovesical jet as a functional diagnostic tool in childhood hydronephrosis. Pediatr Nephrol 11:460–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management (2011) Urinary tract infection: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics 128:595–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tekgul S, Riedmiller H, Hoebeke P et al (2012) EAU guidelines on vesicoureteral reflux in children. Eur Urol 62:534–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. The RIVUR trial investigators (2014) Antimicrobial prophylaxis for children with vesicoureteral reflux. N Engl J Med 370:2367–2376PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Thomson AS, Dabhoiwala NF, Verbeek FJ et al (1994) The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction. Br J Urol 73:284–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tsai JD, Huang FY, Tsai TC (1998) Asymptomatic VUR detected by neonatal US screening. Pediatr Nephrol 12:206–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Unver T, Alpay H, Biyikli NK et al (2006) Comparison of direct radionuclide cystography and voiding cystourethrography in detecting vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatr Int 48:287–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Eerde AM, Mertgent MH, De Jong TPVM et al (2007) VUR in children with prenatally detected hydronephrosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:463–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Van Gool JD (1995) Dysfunctional voiding: a complex of bladder-sphincter dysfunction, urinary tract infections and VUR. Acta Urol Belg 63:27–33PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Vassiou K, Vlychou M, Moisidou R et al (2004) Contrast enhanced US detection of VUR in children. Rofo 176:1453–1457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Verrier-Jones K (1999) Prognosis for vesico-ureteric reflux. Arch Dis Child 81:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Walsh G, Dubbins PA (1996) Antenatal renal pelvis dilatation: a predictor of VUR? AJR Am J Roentgenol 167:897–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wan J, Greenfield SP, Ng M et al (1996) Sibling reflux: a dual center retrospective study. J Urol 156677–679Google Scholar
  133. Ward VL, Strauss KJ, Barnewolt CE et al (2008) Pediatric radiation exposure and effective dose reduction during voiding cystourethrography. Radiology 249:1002–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Weiss R, Tamminen-Möbius T, Koskimies O et al (1992) Characteristics at entry of children with severe primary reflux recruited for a multicenter international therapeutic trial comparing medical and surgical management. J Urol 148:1644–1649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Willi U, Lebowitz RL (1979) The so-called megaureter-megacystis syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol 133:409–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Yeung CK, Godley ML, Dhillon HK et al (1997) The characteristics of primary VUR in male and female infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Br J Urol 80:319–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Yu TJ, Chen W, Chen HY (1997) Early versus late surgical management of fetal reflux nephropathy. J Urol 157:1416–1419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zerin M, Ritchey M, Chang A (1993) Incidental VUR in neonates with antenatally detected hydronephrosis and other renal abnormalities. Radiology 187:157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Freddy Avni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marianne Tondeur
    • 2
  • Frederica Papadopoulou
    • 3
  • Annie Lahoche
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric RadiologyJeanne de Flandre Hospital, Lille University HospitalLilleFrance
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear MedicineSaint Pierre HospitalBrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.RadiologyIoannina UniversityIoanninaGreece
  4. 4.Department of Pediatric NephrologyJeanne de Flandre HospitalsLilleFrance

Personalised recommendations