Delimiting Performance Outcomes

  • Arch Woodside
  • Rouxelle de Villiers
  • Roger Marshall


Conventional correlational analysis and conventional null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) (e.g., multiple regression analysis including structural equation modeling) assume symmetrical relationships between the independent variables and a dependent variable (Fiss, 2011; Ragin, 2006b, 2008a; Woodside, 2013). The conventional methods represent a “net effects” estimation approach to research (Ragin, 2006b). This means that if the researcher using traditional statistical analysis models a high performance outcome (e.g. the ability to develop product innovations) then the inverse (namely the inability for inventors to successfully develop innovations) results from the same causes, except that the sign of the coefficients change (Fiss, 2011). Net-effects thinking is problematic since significant correlations among the independent variables almost always occur in studies with high numbers of variables (e.g. 10 or more).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arch Woodside
    • 1
  • Rouxelle de Villiers
    • 2
  • Roger Marshall
    • 3
  1. 1.Boston CollegeChestnut HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of MarketingUniversity of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Marketing, Advertising, Retailing & SalesAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand

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