Hybrid Constructed Wetlands for the National Parks in Poland – The Case Study, Requirements, Dimensioning and Preliminary Results

  • Krzysztof JóźwiakowskiEmail author
  • Magdalena Gajewska
  • Michał Marzec
  • Magdalena Gizińska-Górna
  • Aneta Pytka
  • Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko
  • Bożena Sosnowska
  • Stanisław Baran
  • Arkadiusz Malik
  • Robert Kufel


Poland is proud of 23 National Parks (NPs) which were established to protect unique European areas. Through cooperation between Life Science University in Lublin and the NPs, highly effective methods for environmental protection were introduced in Roztoczański and Poleski National Parks. One method is a hybrid treatment wetland (HTW) for wastewater treatment. HTWs, if well designed and maintained, can effectively treat wastewater generated in houses and museum buildings in the area of the NPs. In 2014, three HTWs were constructed in Roztoczański National Park (RNP) (A – Kosobudy, B – Zwierzyniec, C – Florianka). One of these installations was constructed in the shape of a fir tree (A – Kosobudy). In 2015 another one, in a turtle shape, was built in Poleski National Park (PNP) (D – Stare Załucze). Similar wastewater treatment technology was applied in all facilities. The technology consisted of three steps: (i) mechanical treatment in three septic tank chambers, (ii) biological treatment in two or three stages of vertical and horizontal beds, and (iii) inactivation of phosphorus in p-filter with calcium-silica rock. Since the very beginning all facilities have been monitored and the results indicate very low concentrations of pollutants in the final effluents. It can be concluded that HTWs working according to the assumed technology fulfill the strict requirements for wastewater treatment in NP areas in Poland.


Water protection Protected areas Biogenic compounds removal Phosphorus removal Wastewater treatment 



This paper was financed by the Provincial Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in Lublin. The authors thank Sarah Widney for language improvement of the chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Magdalena Gajewska
    • 2
  • Michał Marzec
    • 1
  • Magdalena Gizińska-Górna
    • 1
  • Aneta Pytka
    • 1
  • Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko
    • 1
  • Bożena Sosnowska
    • 3
  • Stanisław Baran
    • 4
  • Arkadiusz Malik
    • 1
  • Robert Kufel
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Production Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and GeodesyUniversity of Life Sciences in LublinLublinPoland
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Water and Wastewater TechnologyGdańsk University of TechnologyGdańskPoland
  3. 3.Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Food CommodityUniversity of Life Sciences in LublinLublinPoland
  4. 4.Faculty of Agrobioengineering, Institute of Soil Science, Engineering and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Life Science in LublinLublinPoland
  5. 5.“Ceramika Kufel” Robert KufelKraśnikPoland

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