Skip to main content

At-Home Tooth Whitening

Abstract

Peroxides have been used to whiten teeth for over a hundred years. The popularity of dental whitening has increased with the introduction of nightguard vital whitening in 1989, as the appearance of the dentition and the color of the teeth have increasingly become a concern for a large number of people. Current methods for at-home whitening include materials prescribed by dental professionals, bleaching products available over the counter to use without the involvement of a dental professional, and “do-it-yourself” methods widely advertised on the Internet. This chapter compares the efficacy of the most popular at-home whitening techniques, including dental professional-prescribed at-home tray whitening with carbamide peroxide (a precursor of hydrogen peroxide), over-the-counter whitening, and combined in-office with at-home tray whitening. At-home tooth whitening with a custom-fitted tray is the safest and most effective technique if carried out under the supervision of a dental professional. This chapter reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different at-home whitening techniques, respective side effects, and treatment recommendations based on current scientific information. Clinical cases will illustrate clinically relevant at-home whitening techniques.

Keywords

  • Dental Fluorosis
  • Dental Professional
  • Whitening Agent
  • Tooth Sensitivity
  • Whitening Effect

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-38849-6_6
  • Chapter length: 43 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-38849-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   179.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   179.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 6.1
Fig. 6.2
Fig. 6.3
Fig. 6.4
Fig. 6.5
Fig. 6.6
Fig. 6.7
Fig. 6.8
Fig. 6.9
Fig. 6.10
Fig. 6.11
Fig. 6.12
Fig. 6.13
Fig. 6.14
Fig. 6.15
Fig. 6.16
Fig. 6.17

Notes

  1. 1.

    The terms “whitening” and “bleaching” are used interchangeably in the literature.

  2. 2.

    Hydremide is a trademark by Evolve Dental Technologies, Inc. Tri-barrel hydremide peroxide is 1 barrel of hydrogen peroxide gel, 1 barrel of carbamide peroxide gel, and the third barrel contains an activator. The term hydremide derives from combining HYDROgen (peroxide) with carbaMIDE (peroxide).

  3. 3.

    The chance of a mismatch between the advertised concentration and the actual concentration is very high (Matis et al. 2013).

  4. 4.

    Carbomer 934P or Carbopol 934P (The Lubrizol Corporation) is primarily used in commercially available oral formulations, including bleaching gels for tray whitening.

References

  • Abou-Rass M (1988) Long-term prognosis of intentional endodontics and internal bleaching of tetracycline-stained teeth. Compend Contin Educ Dent 19:1034–1038, 1040–2, 1044 passim

    Google Scholar 

  • ADA Council on Scientific Affairs (2010) Tooth whitening/bleaching: treatment considerations for dentists and their patients. http://www.ada.org/~/media/ADA/About%20the%20ADA/Files/whitening_bleaching_treatment_considrations_for_patients_and_dentists.ashx. Accessed 14 Dec 2015

  • ADA Council on Scientific Affairs (2012) Statement on the safety and effectiveness of tooth whitening products. http://www.ada.org/en/about-the-ada/ada-positions-policies-and-statements/tooth-whitening-safety-and-effectiveness. Accessed 14 Dec 2015

  • ADA Seal Product Category. http://www.ada.org/en/science-research/ada-seal-of-acceptance/ada-seal-products/product-category/?category=Whitening+Products%2c+Dentist+Dispensed%2fHome-Use. Accessed 19 Dec 2015

  • Al Shethri S, Matis BA, Cochran MA, Zekonis R, Stropes M (2003) A clinical evaluation of two in-office-bleaching products. Oper Dent 28:488–495

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (2004) http://www.aacd.com/proxy/files/Publications%20and%20Resources/Can%20a%20new%20smile%20make%20you%20appear%20more%20intelligent%20article.doc. Accessed 18 Dec 2015

  • American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Council on Clinical Affairs (2015) Policy on the use of dental bleaching for child and adolescent patients. Pediat Dent 37(6 Suppl):76–78

    Google Scholar 

  • Amir FA, Gutmann JL, Witherspoon DE (2001) Calcific metamorphosis: a challenge in endodontic diagnosis and treatment. Quintessence Int 32:447–455

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson DG, Chiego DJ Jr, Glickman GN, McCauley LK (1999) A clinical assessment of the effects of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on human pulp tissue. J Endod 25:247–250

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Armênio RV, Fitarelli F, Armênio MF, Demarco FF, Reis A, Loguercio AD (2008) The effect of fluoride gel use on bleaching sensitivity: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. J Am Dent Assoc 139:592–597

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ayad F, Arcuri H, Brevilieri E, Laffi S, Lemos AM, Yoshioka M, Baines E, Sheth J, DeVizio W (1999) Efficacy of two dentifrices on removal of natural extrinsic stain. Am J Dent 12:164–166

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barghi N, Godwin JM (1994) Reducing the adverse effect of bleaching on composite-enamel bond. J Esthet Dent 6:157–161

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Basting RT, Rodrigues AL Jr, Serra MC (2005) The effect of 10% carbamide peroxide, carbopol and/or glycerin on enamel and dentin microhardness. Oper Dent 30:608–616

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Basting RT, Amaral FL, França FM, Flório FM (2012) Clinical comparative study of the effectiveness of and tooth sensitivity to 10% and 20% carbamide peroxide home-use and 35% and 38% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching materials containing desensitizing agents. Oper Dent 37:464–473

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ben-Amar A, Liberman R, Gorfil C, Bernstein Y (1995) Effect of mouthguard bleaching on enamel surface. Am J Dent 8:29–32

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bernardon J, Sartori N, Ballarin A, Perdigao J, Lopes GC, Baratieri L (2010) Clinical performance of vital bleaching techniques. Oper Dent 35:3–10

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bitter NC (1998) A scanning electron microscopy study of the long term effect of bleaching agents on the enamel surface in vivo. Gen Dent 46:84–88

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bizhang M, Chun YH, Damerau K, Singh P, Raab WH, Zimmer S (2009) Comparative clinical study of the effectiveness of three different bleaching methods. Oper Dent 34:635–641

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bodden MK, Haywood VB (2003) Treatment of endemic fluorosis and tetracycline staining with macroabrasion and nightguard vital bleaching: a case report. Quintessence Int 34:87–91

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Boushell LW, Ritter AV, Garland GE, Tiwana KK, Smith LR, Broome A, Leonard RH (2012) Nightguard vital bleaching: side effects and patient satisfaction 10 to 17 years post-treatment. J Esthet Restor Dent 24:211–219

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bowles WH, Bokmeyer TJ (1997) Staining of adult teeth by minocycline: binding of minocycline by specific proteins. J Esthet Dent 9:30–34

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bowles WH, Thompson LR (1986) Vital bleaching: the effects of heat and hydrogen peroxide on pulpal enzymes. J Endod 12:108–112

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Browning WD, Chan DC, Myers ML, Brackett WW, Brackett MG, Pashley DH (2008) Comparison of traditional and low sensitivity whiteners. Oper Dent 33:379–385

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bruzell EM, Pallesen U, Thoresen NR, Wallman C, Dahl JE (2013) Side effects of external tooth bleaching: a multi-centre practice-based prospective study. Br Dent J 215, E17

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Buchalla W, Attin T (2007) External bleaching therapy with activation by heat, light or laser – a systematic review. Dent Mater 23:586–596

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cardoso PC, Reis A, Loguercio A, Vieira LC, Baratieri LN (2010) Clinical effectiveness and tooth sensitivity associated with different bleaching times for a 10 percent carbamide peroxide gel. J Am Dent Assoc 141:1213–1220

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Caro I (1980) Discoloration of the teeth related to minocycline therapy for acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 3:317–318

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cavalli V, Reis AF, Giannini M, Ambrosano GM (2001) The effect of elapsed time following bleaching on enamel bond strength of resin composite. Oper Dent 26:597–602

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cavalli V, Giannini M, Carvalho RM (2004) Effect of carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on tensile strength of human enamel. Dent Mater 20:733–739

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Celik EU, Yildiz G, Yazkan B (2013) Clinical evaluation of enamel microabrasion for the aesthetic management of mild-to-severe dental fluorosis. J Esthet Restor Dent 25:422–430

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cheek CC, Heymann HO (1999) Dental and oral discolorations associated with minocycline and other tetracycline analogs. J Esthet Dent 11:43–48

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chen HP, Chang CH, Liu JK, Chuang SF, Yang JY (2008) Effect of fluoride containing bleaching agents on enamel surface properties. J Dent 36:718–725

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chng HK, Ramli HN, Yap AU, Lim CT (2005) Effect of hydrogen peroxide on intertubular dentine. J Dent 33:363–369

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Christensen GJ (2003) Bleaching teeth – which way is best? J Esthet Restor Dent 15:137–139

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cibirka RM, Myers M, Downey MC, Nelson SK, Browning WD, Hawkins IK, Dickinson GL (1999) Clinical study of tooth shade lightening from dentist-supervised, patient-applied treatment with two 10% carbamide peroxide gels. J Esthet Dent 11:325–331

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper JS, Bokmeyer TJ, Bowles WH (1992) Penetration of the pulp chamber by carbamide peroxide bleaching agents. J Endod 18:315–317

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cortes G, Pini NP, Lima DA, Liporoni PC, Munin E, Ambrosano GM, Aguiar FH, Lovadino JR (2013) Influence of coffee and red wine on tooth color during and after bleaching. Acta Odontol Scand 71:1475–1480

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Croll TP (1990) Enamel microabrasion for removal of superficial dysmineralization and decalcification defects. J Am Dent Assoc 120:411–415

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Croll TP (1994) Tooth bleaching for children and teens: a protocol and examples. Quintessence Int 25:811–817

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Croll TP (1997) Enamel microabrasion: observations after 10 years. J Am Dent Assoc 128(Issue Suppl):45S–50S

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Croll TP (2009) Fluorosis. J Am Dent Assoc 140:278–279 (Comment on: J Am Dent Assoc 2008 Nov;139(11):1457–68)

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Croll TP, Cavanaugh RR (1986a) Enamel color modification by controlled hydrochloric acid-pumice abrasion. I. Technique and examples. Quintessence Int 17:81–87

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Croll TP, Cavanaugh RR (1986b) Hydrochloric acid-pumice enamel surface abrasion for color modification: results after six months. Quintessence Int 17:335–341

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Croll TP, Donly KJ (2014) Tooth bleaching in children and teens. J Esthet Restor Dent 26:147–150

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cullen SI (1978) Low-dose minocycline therapy in tetracycline-recalcitrant acne vulgaris. Cutis 21:101–104

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cutress TW, Suckling GW (1990) Differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis. J Dent Res 69 Spec No:714–720, discussion 721

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cvitko E, Denehy GE, Swift EJ Jr, Pires JA (1991) Bond strength of composite resin to enamel bleached with carbamide peroxide. J Esthet Dent 3:100–102

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • da Silva AP, de Oliveira R, Cavalli V, Arrais CA, Giannini M, de Carvalho RM (2005) Effect of peroxide-based bleaching agents on enamel ultimate tensile strength. Oper Dent 30:318–324

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dabbagh B, Alvaro E, Vu DD, Rizkallah J, Schwartz S (2002) Clinical complications in the revascularization of immature necrotic permanent teeth. Pediatr Dent 34:414–417

    Google Scholar 

  • Davies PA, Little K, Aherne W (1962) Tetracyclines and yellow teeth. Lancet 279(7232):743

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dawson PF, Sharif MO, Smith AB, Brunton PA (2011) A clinical study comparing the efficacy and sensitivity of home vs combined whitening. Oper Dent 36:460–466

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • de Geus JL, Bersezio C, Urrutia J, Yamada T, Fernández E, Loguercio AD, Reis A, Kossatz S (2015a) Effectiveness of and tooth sensitivity with at-home bleaching in smokers: a multicenter clinical trial. J Am Dent Assoc 146:233–240

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • de Geus JL, de Lara MB, Hanzen TA, Fernández E, Loguercio AD, Kossatz S, Reis A (2015b) One-year follow-up of at-home bleaching in smokers before and after dental prophylaxis. J Dent 43:1346–1351

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • de Geus JL, Rezende M, Margraf LS, Bortoluzzi MC, Fernández E, Loguercio AD, Reis A, Kossatz S (2015c) Evaluation of genotoxicity and efficacy of at-home bleaching in smokers: a single-blind controlled clinical trial. Oper Dent 40:E47–E55

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deliperi S, Bardwell D, Papathanasiou A (2004) Clinical evaluation of a combined in-office and take-home bleaching system. J Am Dent Assoc 135:628–634

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deliperi S, Congiu MD, Bardwell DN (2006) Integration of composite and ceramic restorations in tetracycline-bleached teeth: a case report. J Esthet Restor Dent 18:126–134

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Denehy GE, Swift EJ Jr (1992) Single-tooth home bleaching. Quintessence Int 23:595–598

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dodd MA, Dole EJ, Troutman WG, Bennahum DA (1998) Minocycline-associated tooth staining. Ann Pharmacother 32:887–889

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Donly KJ, O’Neill M, Croll TP (1992) Enamel microabrasion: a microscopic evaluation of the “abrosion effect”. Quintessence Int 23:175–179

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Efeoglu N, Wood DJ, Efeoglu C (2007) Thirty-five percent carbamide peroxide application causes in vitro demineralization of enamel. Dent Mater 23:900–904

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg E (1975) Anomalies of the teeth with stains and discolorations. J Prev Dent 2(7–14):16–20

    Google Scholar 

  • European Commission Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (2007) Opinion on hydrogen peroxide, in its free form or when released, in oral hygiene products and tooth whitening products. http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_122.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2016

  • Fejerskov O, Manji F, Baelum V (1990) The nature and mechanisms of dental fluorosis in man. J Dent Res 69:692–700

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fischer DE (1992) Method for bleaching teeth. US Patent 5098303 A. Available online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US5098303.pdf. Accessed 16 Dec 2015

  • Fischer DE (1995) Dental bleaching compositions and methods for bleaching teeth surfaces. US Patent US5409631 A. Available online https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US5409631.pdf. Accessed 16 Dec 2015

  • Fugaro JO, Nordahl I, Fugaro OJ, Matis BA, Mjör IA (2004) Pulp reaction to vital bleaching. Oper Dent 29:363–368

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gassner E, Sayegh FS (1968) The nature of tetracycline complex in hard tissue of bovine teeth. Arch Oral Biol 13:597–599

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gerlach RW, Gibb RD, Sagel PA (2000) A randomized clinical trial comparing a novel 5.3% hydrogen peroxide whitening strip to 10%, 15%, and 20% carbamide peroxide tray-based bleaching systems. Compend Contin Educ Dent Suppl 21:S22–S28, S42–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Gokay O, Tuncbilek M, Ertan R (2000) Penetration of the pulp chamber by carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on teeth restored with a composite resin. J Oral Rehabil 27:428–431

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hanks CT, Fat JC, Wataha JC, Corcoran JF (1993) Cytotoxicity and dentin permeability of carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide vital bleaching materials, in vitro. J Dent Res 72:931–938

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hannig C, Weinhold HC, Becker K, Attin T (2011) Diffusion of peroxides through dentine in vitro with and without prior use of a desensitizing varnish. Clin Oral Investig 15:863–868

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB (1997a) Nightguard vital bleaching: current concepts and research. J Am Dent Assoc 128(suppl):19S–25S

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB (1997b) Nightguard vital bleaching. Dent Today 16:86, 88, 90–1

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB (2002) Greening of the tooth-amalgam interface during extended 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching of tetracycline-stained teeth: a case report. J Esthet Restor Dent 14:12–17

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB (2003) Frequently asked questions about bleaching. Compend Contin Educ Dent 24:324–338

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB (2005) Treating sensitivity during tooth whitening. Compend Contin Educ Dent 26(9 Suppl 3):11–20

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB, Heymann HO (1989) Nightguard vital bleaching. Quintessence Int 20:173–176

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB, Leonard RH (1998) Nightguard vital bleaching removes brown discoloration for 7 years: a case report. Quintessence Int 29:450–451

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB, Parker MH (1999) Nightguard vital bleaching beneath existing porcelain veneers: a case report. Quintessence Int 30:743–747

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB, Houck V, Heymann HO (1991) Nightguard vital bleaching: effects of varying pH solutions on enamel surface texture and color change. Quintessence Int 22:775–782

    Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB, Caughman WF, Frazier KB, Myers ML (2001) Tray delivery of potassium nitrate-fluoride to reduce bleaching sensitivity. Quintessence Int 32:105–109

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haywood VB, Cordero R, Gendreau L, Kotler M, LittleJoh S, Smith S, Fabyanski J, Rupp R, Fernandez PM (2005) A study of KNO3/F toothpaste as a pretreatment to bleaching. J Dent Res 84(Spec Iss A): Abstract 2126

    Google Scholar 

  • Hendrie CA, Brewer G (2012) Evidence to suggest that teeth act as human ornament displays signalling mate quality. PLoS One 7, e42178

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heyeraas KJ, Kvinnsland I (1992) Tissue pressure and blood flow in pulpal inflammation. Proc Finn Dent Soc 88(Suppl 1):393–401

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Holcomb JB, Gregory WB Jr (1967) Calcific metamorphosis of the pulp: its incidence and treatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 24:825–830

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Horowitz HS, Driscoll WS, Meyers RJ, Heifetz SB, Kingman A (1984) A new method for assessing the prevalence of dental fluorosis—the Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis. J Am Dent Assoc 109:37–41

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Javaheri DS, Janis JN (2000) The efficacy of reservoirs in bleaching trays. Oper Dent 25:149–151

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Johnston S (2013) Feeling blue? Minocycline-induced staining of the teeth, oral mucosa, sclerae and ears - a case report. Br Dent J 215:71–73

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Joiner A (2006) The bleaching of teeth: a review of the literature. J Dent 34:412–419

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Joiner A (2007) Review of the effects of peroxide on enamel and dentine properties. J Dent 35:889–896

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Joiner A (2010) Whitening toothpastes: a review of the literature. J Dent 38(Suppl 2):e17–e24

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jordan RE, Boksman L (1984) Conservative vital bleaching treatment of discolored dentition. Compend Contin Educ Dent 5(803–5):807

    Google Scholar 

  • Jorgensen MG, Carroll WB (2002) Incidence of tooth sensitivity after home whitening treatment. J Am Dent Assoc 133:1076–1082

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kihn PW, Barnes DM, Romberg E, Peterson K (2000) A clinical evaluation of 10 percent vs. 15 percent carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening agents. J Am Dent Assoc 131:1478–1484

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kim JH, Kim Y, Shin SJ, Park JW, Jung IY (2010) Tooth discoloration of immature permanent incisor associated with triple antibiotic therapy: a case report. J Endod 36:1086–1091

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kirsten GA, Freire A, de Lima AA, Ignacio SA, Souza EM (2009) Effect of reservoirs on gingival inflammation after home dental bleaching. Quintessence Int 40:195–202

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kishta-Derani M, Neiva G, Yaman P, Dennison J (2007) In vitro evaluation of tooth-color change using four paint-on tooth whiteners. Oper Dent 32:394–398

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kör Whitening. http://www.korwhitening.com/how-does-kor-work/. Accessed 18 Dec 2015

  • Kose C, Reis A, Baratieri LN, Loguercio AD (2011) Clinical effects of at-home bleaching along with desensitizing agent application. Am J Dent 24:379–382

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kugel G (2003) Over-the-counter tooth-whitening systems. Compend Contin Educ Dent 24:376–382

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kugel G, Perry RD, Hoang E, Scherer W (1997) Effective tooth bleaching in 5 days: using a combined in-office and at-home bleaching system. Compend Contin Educ Dent 18:378–383

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kurthy R (2001) Improve your bleaching results with bleaching trays that fit. Dent Today 20(68–70):72

    Google Scholar 

  • Lai SC, Tay FR, Cheung GS, Mak YF, Carvalho RM, Wei SH, Toledano M, Osorio R, Pashley DH (2002) Reversal of compromised bonding in bleached enamel. J Dent Res 81:477–481

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • LaPorta VN, Nikitakis NG, Sindler AJ, Reynolds MA (2005) Minocycline-associated intra-oral soft-tissue pigmentation: clinicopathologic correlations and review. J Clin Periodontol 32:119–122

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Leonard RH Jr, Haywood VB, Phillips C (1997) Risk factors for developing tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation associated with nightguard vital bleaching. Quintessence Int 28:527–534

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Leonard RH Jr, Van Haywood B, Caplan DJ, Tart ND (2003) Nightguard vital bleaching of tetracycline-stained teeth: 90 months post treatment. J Esthet Restor Dent 15:142–152, discussion 153

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Leonard RH Jr, Smith LR, Garland GE, Caplan DJ (2004) Desensitizing agent efficacy during whitening in an at-risk population. J Esthet Restor Dent 16:49–55, discussion 56

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Li Y (2000) Peroxide-containing tooth whiteners: an update on safety. Compend Contin Educ Dent Suppl 21(28):S4–S9

    Google Scholar 

  • Li Y (2011) Safety controversies in tooth bleaching. Dent Clin North Am 55:255–263

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lopes GC, Bonissoni L, Baratieri LN, Vieira LC, Monteiro S Jr (2002) Effect of bleaching agents on the hardness and morphology of enamel. J Esthet Restor Dent 14:24–30

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Luque-Martinez I, Reis A, Schroeder M, Muñoz MA, Loguercio AD, Masterson D, Maia LC (2016) Comparison of efficacy of tray-delivered carbamide and hydrogen peroxide for at-home bleaching: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Invest. [Epub ahead of print]. DOI:10.1007/s00784-016-1863-7

    Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA (2004) Ask the experts – in-office bleaching. J Esthet Restor Dent 16:87–88

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Cochran MA, Eckert G, Carlson TJ (1998) The efficacy and safety of a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel. Quintessence Int 29:555–563

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Gaiao U, Blackman D, Schultz FA, Eckert GJ (1999) In vivo degradation of bleaching gel used in whitening teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 130:227–235

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Mousa HN, Cochran MA, Eckert GJ (2000) Clinical evaluation of bleaching agents of different concentrations. Quintessence Int 31:303–310

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Yousef M, Cochran MA, Eckert GJ (2002) Degradation of bleaching gels in vivo as a function of tray design and carbamide peroxide concentration. Oper Dent 27:12–18

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Wang Y, Eckert GJ, Cochran MA, Jiang T (2006) Extended bleaching of tetracycline-stained teeth: a 5-year study. Oper Dent 31:643–651

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Cochran MA, Eckert GJ, Matis JI (2007) In vivo study of two carbamide peroxide gels with different desensitizing agents. Oper Dent 32:549–555

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Cochran MA, Eckert G (2009a) Review of the effectiveness of various tooth whitening systems. Oper Dent 34:230–235

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Cochran MA, Wang G, Eckert GJ (2009b) A clinical evaluation of two in-office bleaching regimens with and without tray bleaching. Oper Dent 34:142–149

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Matis JI, Wang Y, Monteiro S, Al-Qunaian TA, Millard R (2013) Labeled vs actual concentration of bleaching agents. Oper Dent 38:334–343

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matis BA, Wang G, Matis JI, Cook NB, Eckert GJ (2015) White diet: is it necessary during tooth whitening? Oper Dent 40:235–240

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCracken MS, Haywood VB (1996) Demineralization effects of 10 percent carbamide peroxide. J Dent 24:395–398

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McKay FS, Black GV (1916) An investigation of mottled teeth: an endemic developmental imperfection of the enamel of the teeth, heretofore unknown in the literature of dentistry. Dental Cosmos 58:627–644

    Google Scholar 

  • Meireles SS, Heckmann SS, Leida FL, dos Santos IS, Della Bona A, Demarco FF (2008a) Efficacy and safety of 10% and 16% carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening gels: a randomized clinical trial. Oper Dent 33:606–612

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meireles SS, Heckmann SS, Santos IS, Della Bona A, Demarco FF (2008b) A double blind randomized clinical trial of at-home tooth bleaching using two carbamide peroxide concentrations: 6-month follow-up. J Dent 36:878–884

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meireles SS, dos Santos IS, Della Bona A, Demarco FF (2009) A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial of 10 percent versus 16 percent carbamide peroxide tooth-bleaching agents: one-year follow-up. J Am Dent Assoc 140:1109–1117

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meireles SS, Santos IS, Bona AD, Demarco FF (2010) A double-blind randomized clinical trial of two carbamide peroxide tooth bleaching agents: 2-year follow-up. J Dent 38:956–963

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Navarra CO, Reda B, Diolosà M, Casula I, Di Lenarda R, Breschi L, Cadenaro M (2014) The effects of two 10% carbamide peroxide nightguard bleaching agents, with and without desensitizer, on enamel and sensitivity: an in vivo study. Int J Dent Hyg 12:115–120

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Niat AB, Yazdi FM, Koohestanian N (2012) Effects of drying agents on bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems to enamel immediately after bleaching. J Adhes Dent 14:511–516

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Oliver TL, Haywood VB (1999) Efficacy of nightguard vital bleaching technique beyond the borders of a shortened tray. J Esthet Dent 11:95–102

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Özcan M, Abdin S, Sipahi C (2014) Bleaching induced tooth sensitivity: do the existing enamel craze lines increase sensitivity? A clinical study. Odontology 102:197–202

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Paic M, Sener B, Schug J, Schmidlin PR (2008) Effects of microabrasion on substance loss, surface roughness, and colorimetric changes on enamel in vitro. Quintessence Int 39:517–522

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Paris S, Meyer-Lueckel H (2009) Masking of labial enamel white spot lesions by resin infiltration – a clinical report. Quintessence Int 40:713–718

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Paris S, Meyer-Lueckel H, Kielbassa AM (2007) Resin infiltration of natural caries lesions. J Dent Res 86:662–666

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perdigao J (2010) Dental whitening-revisiting the myths. Northwest Dent 89(19–21):23–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Perdigao J, Lopes MM (2006) At-home vs. in-office whitening: Effects on the enamel ultra-morphology. J Dent Res 85(Special Iss A): Abstract 1949

    Google Scholar 

  • Perdigao J, Francci C, Swift EJ Jr, Ambrose WW, Lopes M (1998) Ultra-morphological study of the interaction of dental adhesives with carbamide peroxide-bleached enamel. Am J Dent 11:291–301

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perdigao J, Dutra-Correa M, Saraceni CHC, Delazari MA, Kodama RM, Bergamini MR (2013) Clinical evaluation of 10% carbamide peroxide with different desensitizers. J Dent Res 92(Spec Iss B): Abstract 603

    Google Scholar 

  • Poliak SC, DiGiovanna JJ, Gross EG, Gantt G, Peck GL (1985) Minocycline-associated tooth discoloration in young adults. JAMA 254:2930–2932

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Price RB, Sedarous M, Hiltz GS (2000) The pH of tooth-whitening products. J Can Dent Assoc 66:421–426

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reinhardt JW, Eivins SE, Swift EJ Jr, Denehy GE (1993) A clinical study of nightguard vital bleaching. Quintessence Int 24:379–384

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rezende M, Loguercio AD, Reis A, Kossatz S (2013) Clinical effects of exposure to coffee during at-home vital bleaching. Oper Dent 38:E229–E236

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ritter AV, Leonard RH, St Georges AJ, Caplan DJ, Haywood VB (2002) Safety and stability of nightguard vital bleaching: 9 to 12 years post-treatment. J Esthet Rest Dent 14:275–285

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson FG, Haywood VB (2000) Bleaching and temporomandibular disorder using a half tray design: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 83:501–503

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson C, Kirkham J (1990) The effect of fluoride on the developing mineralized tissues. J Dent Res 69:685–691

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson C, Hallsworth AS, Weatherell JA, Künzel W (1976) Arrest and control of carious lesions: a study based on preliminary experiments with resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. J Dent Res 55:812–818

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rotstein I, Lehr Z, Gedalia I (1992) Effect of bleaching agents on inorganic components of human dentin and cementum. J Endod 18:290–293

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Salman RA, Salman DG, Glickman RS, Super S, Salman L (1985) Minocycline induced pigmentation of the oral cavity. J Oral Med 40:154–157

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sánchez AR, Rogers RS 3rd, Sheridan PJ (2004) Tetracycline and other tetracycline-derivative staining of the teeth and oral cavity. Int J Dermatol 43:709–715

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Seltzer S, Bender IB, Ziontz M (1963) The dynamics of pulp inflammation: correlations between diagnostic data and actual histologic findings in the pulp. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 16:846–871

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Senestraro SV, Crowe JJ, Wang M, Vo A, Huang G, Ferracane J, Covell DA Jr (2013) Minimally invasive resin infiltration of arrested white-spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial. J Am Dent Assoc 144:997–1005

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Serraglio CR, Zanella L, Dalla-Vecchia KB, Rodrigues-Junior SA (2016) Efficacy and safety of over-the-counter whitening strips as compared to home-whitening with 10 % carbamide peroxide gel-systematic review of RCTs and metanalysis. Clin Oral Investig 20:1–14

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Seymour RA, Heasman PA (1995) Tetracyclines in the management of periodontal diseases. A review. J Clin Periodontol 22:22–35

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shannon H, Spencer P, Gross K, Tira D (1993) Characterization of enamel exposed to 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents. Quintessence Int 24:39–44

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shinohara MS, Peris AR, Pimenta LA, Ambrosano GM (2005) Shear bond strength evaluation of composite resin on enamel and dentin after nonvital bleaching. J Esthet Restor Dent 17:22–29

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shwachman H, Fekete E, Kulczycki LL, Foley GE (1958–1959) The effect of long-term antibiotic therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Antibiot Annu 6:692–699

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith HV, McInnes JW (1942) Further studies on methods of removing brown stain from mottled teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 29:571–576

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Spyrides GM, Perdigao J, Pagani C, Araújo MA, Spyrides SM (2000) Effect of whitening agents on dentin bonding. J Esthet Dent 12:264–270

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stroner WF, Van Cura JE (1984) Pulpal dystrophic calcification. J Endod 10:202–204

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sulieman MA (2008) An overview of tooth-bleaching techniques: chemistry, safety and efficacy. Periodontol 2000 48:148–169

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sulieman M, Addy M, Macdonald E, Rees JS (2004) A safety study in vitro for the effects of an in-office bleaching system on the integrity of enamel and dentine. J Dent 32:581–590

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Swift EJ Jr, May KN Jr, Wilder AD Jr, Heymann HO, Bayne SC (1999) Two-year clinical evaluation of tooth whitening using an at-home bleaching system. J Esthet Dent 11:36–42

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tam L (2001) Effect of potassium nitrate and fluoride on carbamide peroxide bleaching. Quintessence Int 32:766–770

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tam LE, Lim M, Khanna S (2005) Effect of direct peroxide bleach application to bovine dentin on flexural strength and modulus in vitro. J Dent 33:451–458

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tay LY, Kose C, Loguercio AD, Reis A (2009) Assessing the effect of a desensitizing agent used before in-office tooth bleaching. J Am Dent Assoc 140:1245–1251

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thitinanthapan W, Satamanont P, Vongsavan N (1999) In vitro penetration of the pulp chamber by three brands of carbamide peroxide. J Esthet Dent 11:259–264

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tilley BC, Alarcón GS, Heyse SP, Trentham DE, Neuner R, Kaplan DA, Clegg DO, Leisen JC, Buckley L, Cooper SM, Duncan H, Pillemer SR, Tuttleman M, Fowler SE (1995) Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis. A 48-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. MIRA Trial Group. Ann Intern Med 122:81–89

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tredwin CJ, Scully C, Bagan-Sebastian JV (2005) Drug-induced disorders of teeth. J Dent Res 84:596–602

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Türkün M, Kaya AD (2004) Effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached bovine enamel. J Oral Rehabil 31:1184–1191

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wallman IS, Hilton HB (1962) Teeth pigmented by tetracycline. Lancet 279(7234):827–829

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y, Gao J, Jiang T, Liang S, Zhou Y, Matis BA (2015) Evaluation of the efficacy of potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride as desensitizing agents during tooth bleaching treatment – a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent 43:913–923

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Weitzman SA, Weitberg AB, Stossel TP, Schwartz J, Shklar G (1986) Effects of hydrogen peroxide on oral carcinogenesis in hamsters. J Periodontol 57:685–688

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zegarelli EV, Denning CR, Kutscher AH, Tuoti F, di Sant’agnese PA (1960) Tooth discoloration in cystic fibrosis (letters to the editor). Pediatrics 26:1050–1051

    Google Scholar 

  • Zekonis R, Matis BA, Cochran MA, Al Shetri SE, Eckert GJ, Carlson TJ (2003) Clinical evaluation of in-office and at-home bleaching treatments. Oper Dent 28:114–121

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

Dr. Jorge Perdigão would like to extend his special thanks to:

 1. University of Minnesota School of Dentistry students for their help and inspiration.

 2. Graduate students and faculty members of the University Rey Juan Carlos School of Dentistry Post-Graduate Program in Esthetic Dentistry for their assistance with some clinical cases.

 3. Dr. George Gomes and Dr. Filipa Oliveira for their dedication and hard work.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jorge Perdigão DMD, MS, PhD .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Perdigão, J., Loguércio, A.D., Reis, A., Araújo, E. (2016). At-Home Tooth Whitening. In: Perdigão, J. (eds) Tooth Whitening. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-38849-6_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-38849-6_6

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-38847-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-38849-6

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)