Skip to main content

Effects of Antioxidant Supplements (BioPQQ™) on Cerebral Blood Flow and Oxygen Metabolism in the Prefrontal Cortex

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB,volume 923)

Abstract

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a quinone compound originally identified in methanol-utilizing bacteria and is a cofactor for redox enzymes. At the Meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue (ISOTT) 2014, we reported that PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) improved cognitive function in humans, as assessed by the Stroop test. However, the physiological mechanism of PQQ remains unclear. In the present study, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC), before and after administration of PQQ, using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (tNIRS). A total of 20 healthy subjects between 50 and 70 years of age were administered BioPQQ™ (20 mg) or placebo orally once daily for 12 weeks. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and absolute tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) in the bilateral PFC were evaluated under resting conditions using tNIRS. We found that baseline concentrations of hemoglobin and total hemoglobin in the right PFC significantly increased after administration of PQQ (p < 0.05). In addition, decreases in SO2 level in the PFC were more pronounced in the PQQ group than in the placebo group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PQQ causes increased activity in the right PFC associated with increases in rCBF and oxygen metabolism, resulting in enhanced cognitive function.

Keywords

  • NIRS
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Pyrroloquinoline quinone
  • Stroop test
  • Working memory

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-38810-6_29
  • Chapter length: 8 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-38810-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 29.1

References

  1. Salisbury SA, Forrest HS, Cruse WBT et al (1979) A novel coenzyme from bacterial primary alcohol dehydrogenase. Nature 280:843–844

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Duine JA, Frank J, Van Zeeland JK (1979) Glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: a quinoprotein. FEBS Lett 108:443–446

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Kumazawa T, Sato K, Seno H et al (1995) Levels of pyrroloquinoline quinone in various foods. Biochem J 307:331–333

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Kumazawa T, Seno H, Urakami T et al (1992) Trace levels of pyrroloquinoline quinone in human and rat samples detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Biochem Biophys Acta 1156:62–66

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Mitchell AE, Johnes AD, Mercer RS et al (1999) Characterization of pyrroloquinoline quinone amino acid derivatives by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and detection in human milk. Anal Biochem 269:317–325

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Harris CB, Chowanadisai W, Mishchuk DO et al (2013) Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects. J Nutr Biochem 24:2076–2084

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Rucker R, Chowanadisai W, Nakano M (2009) Potential physiological importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone. Altern Med Rev 14:268–277

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Mukai K, Ouchi A, Nakano M (2011) Kinetic study of the quenching reaction of singlet oxygen by pyrroloquinolinequinol (PQQH2, a reduced form of pyrroloquinolinequinone) in micellar solution. J Agric Food Chem 59:1705–1712

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Nunome K, Miyazaki S, Nakano M et al (2008) Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents oxidative stress-induced neuronal death probably through changes in oxidative status of DJ-1. Biol Pharma Bull 31:1321–1326

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Yamaguchi K, Sasano A, Urakami T et al (1993) Stimulation of nerve growth factor production by pyrroloquinoline quinone and its derivatives in vitro and in vivo. Biosci Biotech Biochem 57:1231–1233

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Ohwada K, Takeda H, Yamazaki M et al (2008) Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents cognitive deficit caused by oxidative stress in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 42:29–34

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Itoh Y, Hine K, Miura H et al (in press) Effect of the antioxidant supplement pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (BioPQQTM) on cognitive functions. Adv Exp Med Biol 876:319–326

    Google Scholar 

  13. Tanida M, Sakatani K, Tsujii T (2012) Relation between working memory performance and evoked cerebral blood oxygenation changes in the prefrontal cortex evaluated by quantitative time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Neurol Res 34:114–119

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Ishikawa W, Sato M, Fukuda Y et al (2014) Correlation between asymmetry of spontaneous oscillation of hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex and anxiety levels: a near-infrared spectroscopy study. J Biomed Optics 19:027005

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Hoshi Y, Kobayashi N, Tamura M (2001) Interpretation of near-infrared spectroscopy signals: a study with a newly developed perfused rat brain model. J Appl Physiol 90:1657–1662

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Nakano M, Yamamoto T, Okumura H et al (2012) Effects of oral supplementation with pyrroloquinoline quinone on stress, fatigue, and sleep. Funct Foods Health Dis 2:307–324

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Sakatani K, Tanida M, Hirano N, Takemura N (2014) Ginkgo biloba extract improves working memory performance in middle-aged women: role of asymmetry of prefrontal cortex activity during a working memory task. Adv Exp Med Biol 12:295–301

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported in part by the Strategic Research Foundation Grant-aided Project for Private Universities (S1411017) and a Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research (25560356) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Sciences, and Technology of Japan. Furthermore, this research was supported through grants from Iing Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan), Alpha Electron Co., Ltd. (Fukushima, Japan), NJI Co., Ltd. (Fukushima, Japan), and Southern Tohoku General Hospital (Fukushima, Japan).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kaoru Sakatani .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this paper

Cite this paper

Nakano, M., Murayama, Y., Hu, L., Ikemoto, K., Uetake, T., Sakatani, K. (2016). Effects of Antioxidant Supplements (BioPQQ™) on Cerebral Blood Flow and Oxygen Metabolism in the Prefrontal Cortex. In: Luo, Q., Li, L., Harrison, D., Shi, H., Bruley, D. (eds) Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXVIII. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 923. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-38810-6_29

Download citation