Advertisement

A Theory of Latino Partisanship: From Social to Political Identity

  • Angel Saavedra Cisneros
Chapter

Abstract

Through an exploration of the social and ethnic identity literatures in social psychology and comparative politics, the author arrives at a theory of Latino partisanship based on panethnic identity. Latinos, as do most people, possess a multiplicity of social identities, which differ in their political relevance. The author proposes that three relevant identities for Latinos are not mutually exclusive, but in fact, coexist among Latinos: identification with their home country, identification as a Latino (panethnic identity), and identification as American. Dual and multiple identities as well as identity complexity theories are used to explain that having both subgroup (country of origin) and superordinate (panethnic) identities allows Latinos to improve their self-worth as well as the value of the group in the multicultural US political system.

Keywords

Political Party Social Identity Ethnic Identity Group Identity Democratic Party 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Abrajano, Marisa A., and Michael Alvarez. 2010. New Faces, New Voices. The Hispanic Electorate in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Abrajano, Marisa A., and Zoltan Hajnal. 2015. White Backlash: Immigration, Race, and American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barreto, Matt A. 2007. ¡Sí se puede! Latino Candidates and the Mobilization of Latino Voters. American Political Science Review 101(3): 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barreto, Matt A. 2010. Ethnic Cues, the Role of Shared Ethnicity in Latino Poitical Participation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barreto, Matt A., and Francisco I. Pedraza. 2009. The Renewal and Persistence of Group Identification in American Politics. Electoral Studies 28: 595–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barreto, Matt A., Luis R. Fraga, Sylvia Manzano, Valerie Martínez-Ebers, and Gary M. Segura. 2008. “Should They Dance with the One Who Brung ‘Em?” Latinos and the 2008 Presidential Election. PS: Political Science & Politics 41(04): 753–760.Google Scholar
  7. Beltrán, Cristina. 2010. The Trouble with Unity: Latino Politics and the Creation of Identity. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bowler, Shaun, P. Nicholson, P. Stephen, and Gary M. Segura. 2006. Earthquakes and Aftershocks: Race, Direct Democracy, and Partisan Change. American Journal of Political Science 50: 146–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brewer, Marilynn B. 1999. Multiple Identities and Identity Transition: Implications for Hong Kong. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 23(2): 187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewer, Marilynn B 2007. The Importance of Being “We”: Human Nature and Intergroup Relations. American Psychologist 62(8): 728–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cain, B.E., D.R. Kiewiet, and C.J. Uhlaner. 1991. The Acquisition of Partisanship by Latinos and Asian Americans. American Journal of Political Science 35: 390–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell, Angus, Phillip E. Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. 1960. The American Voter. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Carmines, Edward, and James A. Stimson. 1989. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Carsey, T.M., and G.C. Layman. 2006. Changing Sides or Changing Minds? Party Identification and Policy Preferences in the American Electorate. American Journal of Political Science 50: 464–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chandra, Kanchan. 2006. What is Ethnic Identity and Does it Matter? Annual Review of Political Science 9(1): 397–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. ———. 2012. Constructivist Theories of Ethnic Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chong, Dennis, and Dukhong Kim. 2006. The Experiences and Effects of Economic Status among Racial and Ethnic Minorities. The American Political Science Review 100(3): 335–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Conover, Pamela J. 1984. The Influence of Group Identifications on Political Perception and Evaluation. The Journal of Politics 46(3): 760–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Conover, Pamela J., and Stanley Feldman. 1984. How People Organize the Political World: A Schematic Model. American Journal of Political Science 28(1): 95–126.Google Scholar
  20. Converse, Phillip E. 1964. The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics. In Ideology and Discontent, ed. David E. Apter, 212–242. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Behind the Mule Race and Class in African American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. de la Garza, R.O., and J. Cortina. 2007. Are Latinos Republicans But Just Don’t Know It?: The Latino Vote in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential Elections. American Politics Research 35(2): 202–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ellemers, Naomi, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje. 2002. Self and Social Identity. Annual Review of Psychology 53(1): 161–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Espiritu, Yen L. 1992. Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Espiritu, Yen L. 1994. The Intersection of Race, Ethnicity, and Class; The Multiple Identities of Second Generation Filipinos. Identities 1: 249–273.Google Scholar
  26. Espuelas, Fernanco. 2015, January 17. Republicans Say Goodbye to Latino Voters. Huff Post Politics, The Blog. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/fernando-espuelas/republicans-say-goodbye-t_b_6494496.html.
  27. Ethier, K.A., and K. Deaux. 1994. Negotiation Social Identity When Contexts Change: Maintaining Identification and Responding to Threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67: 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fraga, Luis R., J.A. García, R.E. Hero, M. Jones-Correa, V.M. Ebers, and G. Segura. 2010. Latino Lives in América: Making it Home. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Gaertner, Samuel L., and John F. Dovidio. 2000. Reducing Intergroup Bias: The Common Ingroup Identity Model. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press of Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  30. García, John A 2003. Latino Politics in America: Community, Culture and Interests. Lahman, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  31. Garcia, John A. 2010. Understanding Multiple Social Identities among Latinos: Social-Cultural Connections to Latino Pan-ethnic Identity. Paper presented at the Western Political Science Association meeting, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  32. García Bedolla, Lisa. 2003. The Identity Paradox: Latino Language, Politics and Selective Dissociation. Latino Studies 1(2): 264–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. ———. 2005. Fluid Borders: Hispanic Power, Identity and Politics in Los Angeles. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Gay, Claudine. 2004. Putting Race in Context: Identifying the Environmental Determinants of Black Racial Attitudes. American Political Science Review 98(4).Google Scholar
  35. ———. 2006. Seeing Difference: The Effect of Economic Disparity on Black Attitudes Toward Latinos. American Journal of Political Science 50: 982–997.Google Scholar
  36. Gibson, Troy, and Christopher Hare. 2012. Do Latino Christians and Seculars Fit the Culture War Profile? Latino Religiosity and Political Behavior. Politics and Religion 5: 53–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gilbert, Daniel. 2007. Stumbling on Happiness. New York City, NY: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  38. Gimpel, James G. and Kauffman, K. 2001 Impossible Dream or Distant Reality? Republican Efforts to Attract Latino Voters. Backgrounder, Center for Immigration Studies. Available online at: http://cis.org/RepublicanEffortAttractLatinoVoters
  39. González, Roberto, and Rupert Brown. 2003. Generalization of Positive Attitude as a Function of Subgroup and Superordinate Group Identifications in Intergroup Contact. European Journal of Social Psychology 33: 195–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goren, Paul, Christopher M. Federico, and Miki Caul Kittilson. 2009. Source Cues, Partisan Identities, and Political Value Expression. American Journal of Political Science 53(4): 805–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Green, Donald P., Bradley Palmquist, and Eric Schickler. 2002. Partisan Hearts and Minds: Political Parties and the Social Identities of Voters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Hajnal, Zoltan L., and Taeku Lee. 2010. Race, Immigration, and (Non) Partisanship in America (online manuscript). http://weber.ucsd.edu/~zhajnal/page4/page4.html. Accessed 4 Aug 2010.
  43. ———. 2011. Why Americans Don’t Join the Party: Race, Immigration, and the Failure (of Political Parties) to Engage the Electorate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Hornsey, Matthew J., and Michael A. Hogg. 2000. Subgroup Relations: A Comparison of Mutual Intergroup Differentiation and Common Ingroup Identity Models of Prejudice Reduction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26(2): 242–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huddy, Leonie. 2001. From Social to Political Identity: A Critical Examination of Social Identity Theory. Political Psychology 22: 127–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huddy, Leonie, and S. Virtanen. 1995. Subgroup Differentiation and Subgroup Bias Among Latinos as a Function of Familiarity and Positive Distinctiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68(1): 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jackson, Melinda S. 2011. Priming the Sleeping Giant: The Dynamics of Latino Political Identity and Vote Choice. Political Psychology 32(4): 691–716.Google Scholar
  48. Jones-Correa, Michael. 2007. Fuzzy Distinctions and Blurred Boundaries: Transnational, Immigrant and Ethnic Politics. In Latino Politics: Identity, Mobilization and Representation, eds. Rodolfo Espino, David Leal, and Kenneth Meier, 44–60. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.Google Scholar
  49. Jones-Correa, Michael, and David Leal. 1996. Becoming ‘Hispanic”: Secondary Panethnic Identification Among Latin-American-Origin Populations in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 18(2): 214–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Junn, Jane, and Natalie Masuoka. 2008a. Asian American Identity: Shared Racial Status and Political Context. Perspectives on Politics 6(4): 729–740.Google Scholar
  51. Junn, Jane, and Natalie Masuoka. 2013. The Politics of Belonging: Race, Public Opinion and Immigration. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Klandermans, Bert. 2013. Dual Identity. The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements. Retrieved online. doi: 10.1002/9780470674871.wbespm076.
  53. Layman, Geoffrey C 2001. The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Leal, David L., S.A. Nuño, J. Lee, and R.O. de la Garza. 2008. Latinos, Immigration, and the 2006 Midterm Elections. Political Science and Politics 41: 309–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lee, Taeku. 2004. Pan-Ethnic Identity, Linked Fate, and the Political Significance of “Asian American.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Public Opinion Research, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  56. ———. 2008. Race, Immigration, and the Identity-to-Politics Link. Annual Review of Political Science 11: 457–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lee, Taeku, and Efrén O. Pérez. 2014. The Persistent Connection Between Language-of Interview and Latino Political Opinion. Political Behavior 36(2): 401–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lewis-Beck, Michael S., William G. Jacoby, Hemult Norpoth, and Herbert F. Weisberg. 2008. The American Voter Revisited. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lopez, D., and Y.L. Espiritu. 1990. Panethnicity in the United States: A Theoretical Framework. Ethnic and Racial Studies 13(2): 198–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Márquez, Benjamin. 2008. Latino Identity Politics Research: Problems and Opportunities. In Latino Politics: Identity, Mobilization, and Representation, ed. Rodolfo Espino, David L. Leal, and Kenneth J. Meier. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.Google Scholar
  61. Masuoka, Natalie. 2006. Together they Become One: Examining the Predictors of Panethnic Group Consciousness Among Asian Americans and Latinos. Social Science Quarterly 87: 991–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Masuoka, Natalie. 2008. Defining the Group: Latino Identity and Political Participation. American Politics Research 36(1): 33–61.Google Scholar
  63. McClain, Paula D., J.D. Johnson Carew, E. Walton Jr., and C.S. Watts. 2009. Group Membership, Group Identity, and Group Consciousness: Measures of Racial Identity in American Politics? Annual Review of Political Science 12: 471–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McKenzie, Brian D., and Stella M. Rouse. 2013. Studies of Faith: Religious Foundations of Political Attitudes Among African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. American Journal of Political Science 57(1): 218–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pantoja, Adrian D. 2010. The Effects of Being a Born-Again Christian on Latino Socio-Political Attitudes. Journal of Religion and Society 12. Available at: http://moses.creighton.edu/jrs/2010/2010-16.pdf
  66. Pérez, Efrén O. 2014. Xenophobic Rhetoric and Its Political Effects on Immigrants and Their Co-Ethnics. American Journal of Political Science, Early View 59(3): 549–564. doi: 10.1111/ajps.12131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Portes, Alejandro, Cristina Escobar, and Renelinda Arana. 2009. Divided or Convergent Loyalties?: The Political Incorporation Process of Latin American Immigrants in the United States. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50: 103–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Posner, Daniel N. 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Reicher, Stephen. 2004. The Context of Social Identity: Domination, Resistance, and Change. Political Psychology 25(6): 921–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Roccas, Sonia, and Marilynn B. Brewer. 2002. Social Identity Complexity. Personality and Social Psychology Review 6(2): 88–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sanchez, Gabriel R. 2006. The Role of Group Consciousness in Latino Public Opinion. Political Research Quarterly 59: 435–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sanchez, Gabriel R., and Edward D. Vargas. 2016. Taking a Closer Look at Group Identity: The Link between Theory and Measurement of Group Consciousness and Linked Fate. Political Research Quarterly, doi: 10.1177/1065912915624571.
  73. Schildkraut, Deborah J. 2005. The Rise and Fall of Political Engagement among Latinos: The Role of Identity and Perceptions of Discrimination. Political Behavior 27: 285–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sen, Maya, and Omar Wasow. (2014). Race as a ‘Bundle of Sticks’: Designs that Estimate Effects of Seemingly Immutable Characteristics. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/msen/files/race_causality.pdf?m=1412546675. Accessed 30 Jan 2016.
  75. Shaw, Daron, Rodolfo O. de la Garza, and Jongho Lee. 2000. Examining Latino Turnout in 1996: A Three States, Validated Survey Approach. American Journal of Political Science 44(2): 338–346.Google Scholar
  76. Simon, Bernd, and Bert Klandermans. 2001. Politicized Collective Identity: A Social Psychological Analysis. American Psychologist 56: 319–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Soto, DeFrancesco, M. Victoria, and Jennifer L. Merolla. 2006. Vota por tu Futuro: Partisan Mobilization of Latino Voters in the 2000 Presidential Election. Political Behavior 28(4): 285–304.Google Scholar
  78. Stokes, Atiya Kai. 2003. Latino Group Consciousness and Political Participation. American Politics Research 31: 361–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stoll, David. 1993. Introduction: Rethinking Protestantism in Latin America. In Rethinking Protestantism in Latin America, eds. Virginia Garrard-Burnett and David Stoll. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Tajfel, Henri, and John C. Turner. 1986. The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior. In Psychology of Intergroup Relations, eds. S. Worchel and W.G. Austin, 7–24. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  81. Tesler, Michael, and David O. Sears. 2010. Obama’s Race: The 2008 Election and the Dream of a Post-Racial America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. Tooby, John, and Leda Cosmides. 1992. The Psychological Foundations of Culture. In The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, ed. J.H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby, 19–136. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Transue, John E. 2007. Identity Salience, Identity Acceptance, and Racial Policy Attitudes: American National Identity as a Uniting Force. American Journal of Political Science 51(1): 78–91.Google Scholar
  84. Turner, John C., Michael A. Hogg, Penelope J. Oakes, Stephen D. Reicher, and Margaret S. Wetherell. 1987. Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-Categorization Theory. New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  85. Valenzuela, Ali A. 2010. Integrating Institutions and the Political Determinants of American Latino Identity. American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  86. van Zomeren, Martijn, Colin Wayne Leach, and Russell Spears. 2010. Does Group Efficacy Increase Group Identification? Resolving Their Paradoxical Relationship. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46: 1055–1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Voss, Kim, and Irene Bloemraad. 2011. Rallying for Immigrant Rights. The Fight for Inclusion in 21st Century America. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wenzel, Michael, Amélie Mummendey, and Steve Waldzus. 2007. Superordinate Identities and Intergroup Conflict: The Ingroup Projection Model. European Review of Social Psychology 18(1): 331–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wilson, Catherine. 2008. The Politics of Latino Faith: Religion, Identity, and Urban Community. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angel Saavedra Cisneros
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Texas Rio Grande ValleyEdinburgUSA

Personalised recommendations