Origins of Southeast Asian Shipping and Maritime Communication Across the Indian Ocean

  • Waruno Mahdi
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Series in Indian Ocean World Studies book series (IOWS)

Abstract

Unlike agriculture with its stone and metal instruments, permanent settlements, and early sacral and hierarchic monuments—land defense led to early social stratification—maritime communication is difficult to trace. Seafaring proceeded on water, involved watercraft and housing of wood or other perishable material, and the transported commodities too were often foodstuffs, herbs, aromatics, and organic decorative materials. Even when durable items, like beads and sherds, testify to maritime communication, they do not identify the watercraft or shippers. One is often compelled to rely on indirect evidence.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Waruno Mahdi
    • 1
  1. 1.Fritz Haber InstituteBerlinGermany

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