Contested Land in Loliondo: The Eastern Border of the Serengeti National Park Between Conservation, Hunting Tourism, and Pastoralism
This case study analyzes a land conflict in Loliondo, an area adjacent to the eastern border of the Serengeti National Park in northern Tanzania. The pastoralists of the area and a Dubai-based hunting company are competing over a strip of land of ~135,000 ha alongside the Serengeti. At the same time, the Tanzanian government claims the land in order to conserve the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem. The government intends to allocate the strip of land solely for nature conservation and hunting by excluding pastoralism. This chapter argues that the competition between the pastoralists and the hunting company is one over land-based ecosystem services. The intention of the government to allocate the contested strip of land to nature conservation and hunting only has fostered the competition, which has evolved into a conflict. It is shown that pastoralists are able to derive specific provisioning ecosystem services from the contested land also during the dry season. This makes the area most valuable for the food security of the pastoralists of the area, which will be destabilized by the current policies of the government.
KeywordsTanzania Competition Ecosystem services Food security Governance
The author is grateful in particular to Paul Ole Saing’ue and Geofrey Mwanjela for their invaluable contribution to the fieldwork on which the chapter is based. Helmut Haberl and Daniel Müller contributed constructive comments on earlier versions of this chapter. This research has been partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the (project funding) reference number 01 LN 1316 A.
- Alexander, C. (1993). The Brigadier’s shooting party. The New York Times, 11/13/1993. Available online at http://www.nytimes.com/1993/11/13/opinion/the-brigadier-s-shooting-party.html, checked on 7/15/2013.
- Athumani, R. (2013a). Loliondo partition abides by law. Tanzania Daily News, 4/2/2013. Available online at http://www.dailynews.co.tz/index.php/local-news/16050-loliondo-partition-abides-by-law, checked on 7/15/2013.
- Athumani, R. (2013b). Tanzania: State sticks to its guns on Maasai Land. Tanzania Daily News, 4/10/2013. Available online at http://allafrica.com/stories/201304100315.html, checked on 7/15/2013.
- Baldus, R., Kibonde, B., & Siege, L. (2003). Seeking conservation partnerships in the Selous game reserve. Tanzania. Conservation Partnership in Africa, 13(1), 50–61.Google Scholar
- Bartels, L. E. (2013). Socio-ecological impacts of land grabbing for nature conservation on a pastoral community: A HANPP-based case study in Ololosokwan Village, Northern Tanzania. Social Ecology Working Paper 149. Vienna.Google Scholar
- Benjaminsen, T. A., Bryceson, I., Maganga, F., & Refseth, T. (2011). Conservation and land grabbing in Tanzania. Paper presented at the International Conference on land Grabbing, 6–8 April 2011, University of Sussex. Available online at http://www.iss.nl/fileadmin/ASSETS/iss/Documents/Conference_papers/LDPI/20_Tor_A._Benjaminsen_-_Ian_Bryceson_-_Faustin_Maganga_-_Tonje_Refseth.pdf, checked on 11/1/2013.
- Brockington, D. (2002). Fortress conservation: The preservation of the Mkomazi game reserve, Tanzania. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Brockington, D. (2008). Preserving the New Tanzania: Conservation and land use change. The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 41(3), 557–579.Google Scholar
- Cook, A. E. (2007). Subdividing the Savanna: The ecology of change in Northern Tanzania. Dissertation. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Available online at http://cee.unc.edu/people/graduate-students/theses/Cooke_PhD.pdf, checked on 11/1/2013.
- Coughenour, M. B. (2008). Causes and consequences of herbivore movement in landscape ecosystems. In K. A. Galvin, S. Reid, R. H. Behnke Jr, & T. N. Hobbs (Eds.), Fragmentation in semi-arid and arid landscapes. Consequences for human and natural landscapes (pp. 45–91). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- De Jode, H. (2010). Modern and mobile. The future of livestock production in Africa’s drylands. International Institute for Environment & Development; Sahel International UK.Google Scholar
- FAO (ed.). 2005. Livestock sector brief. United Republic of Tanzania, checked on 7/10/2012.Google Scholar
- Goldman, M. J. (2006). Sharing pastures, building dialogues: Maasai and wildlife conservation in nothern Tanzania. Dissertation. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
- Homewood, K. (2008). Ecology of African pastoralist societies. Oxford, Athens, Pretoria: James Currey, Ohio University Press, Unisa Press.Google Scholar
- Igoe, J. (2006). Ecosystem dynamics and institutional inertia: A discussion of landscape conservation in Northern Tanzania. In M. Jayalaxshmi & B. Andreas (eds.), Savannas and dry forest. Linking people with nature (pp. 77–103). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- James, B. (2013). Activists say plans to split Loliondo a brazen attempt to snatch local land. The Citizen, 4/5/2013. Available online at http://africa.widmi.com/index.php/tanzania/the-citizen/tanzanian-news/1523-activists-say-plans-to-split-loliondo-a-brazen-attempt-to-snatch-local-land, checked on 7/15/2013.
- Kimati, B. (2013). Loliondo land dispute in perspective: Change, resentment from stakeholders. Tanzania Daily News, 4/20/2013. Available online at http://allafrica.com/stories/201304220687.html, checked on 7/15/2013.
- Kisanga, D. (2013). Loliondo Maasai elders want to meet President Kikwete. IPP-Media, 5/17/2013. Available online at http://www.ippmedia.com/frontend/?l=54801, checked on 7/15/2013.
- Lieth, H. (1974). Modeling the primary productivity of the world. In H. Lieth & R. H. Whittaker (eds.), Primary productivity of the biosphere (pp. 237–263). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer (Ecological Studies, 14).Google Scholar
- Makoye, K. (2013). Tanzania allows Maasai Herders to stay in disputed wildlife corridor. AlertNet, 10/2/2013. Available online at http://allafrica.com/stories/201310021621.html?viewall=1, checked on 11/8/2013.
- Mbashiru, K. (2014). Nyalandu: Maasai will stay. The Citizen, 11/21/2014. Available online at http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Nyalandu–Maasai-will-stay/-/1840392/2530184/-/k315yc/-/index.html, checked on 11/23/2014.
- Ndoinyo, Y. E. (2002). Natural resources managment in Ololosokwan Village, Ngorongoro district, Tanzania. Bachelor Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.Google Scholar
- Nelson, F., Ole Makko, S. (2003). Communities, conservation, and conflicts in the Tanzanian Serengeti. Preserving rights to gain benefits. In B. Child & M. W. Lyman (eds.), Natural resources as community assets. Lessons from two continents. Turning natural ressources into assets. Sand County Foundation (Wisconsin), The Aspern Institute (Washington), pp. 121–145. Available online at http://www.sandcounty.net/assets/chapters/assets_chapter_5.pdf, checked on 2/26/2013.
- Nelson, F., Sulle, E., & Lekaita, E. (2012). Land grabbing and political transformation in Tanzania. Paper presented to the Global Land Grabbing II Confrerence. Cornell University, Ithaca NY, October 17–19, 2012. Available online at http://www.cornell-landproject.org/download/landgrab2012papers/nelson.pdf, checked on 2/28/2012.
- Neumann, R. P. (1998). Imposing wilderness. Struggles over Livelihood and nature preservation in Africa. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Ngoitiko, M., Sinandei, M., Meitaya, P., & Nelson, F. (2010). Pastoral activists: Negotiating power imbalances in the Tanzanian Serengeti. In Nelson, F. (ed.), Community rights, conservation and contested land. The politics of Natural Resource governance in Africa (pp. 269–289). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Nkwame, M. (2013a). Tanzania: CCM moves to solve Loliondo land dispute. Tanzania Daily News, 4/5/2013. Available online at http://www.dailynews.co.tz/index.php/local-news/16147-ccm-moves-to-solve-loliondo-land-dispute, checked on 7/15/2013.
- Nkwame, M. (2013b). Tanzania: PM ends Loliondo long-running land conflict. Tanzania Daily News, 9/25/2013. Available online at http://allafrica.com/stories/201309250290.html, checked on 11/8/2013.
- Ojalammi, S. (2006). Contested lands: Land disputes in semi-arid parts of Northern Tanzania. Case studies of the Loliondo and sale divisions in the Ngorongoro District. Dissertation. University Helsinki, Helsinki. Department of Geography. Available online at http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/mat/maant/vk/ojalammi/conteste.pdf, checked on 2/27/2013.
- O’Malley, M. E. (2000). Cattle and cultivation: Changing land use and labor patterns in pastoral Maasai livelihoods, Loliondo Division, Ngorongoro District, Tanzania. Dissertation. University of Colerado, Colorado. Department of Anthropology.Google Scholar
- Pastoralists Indigenous NGOs Forum—PINGOs Forum; Tanzania Land Alliance—(TALA); HakiArdhi; Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC); Tanzania Human Rights Defenders; Tanzania Gender Network Program (TGNP) et al. (2013). Press Statement from Civil Society Organisations in Tanzania regarding Plans by the Government to alinate in Lolidondo. Pastoralists Indigenous NGOs Forum—PINGOs Forum; Tanzania Land Alliance—(TALA); HakiArdhi; Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC); Tanzania Human Rights Defenders; Tanzania Gender Network Program (TGNP); Tanzania Natural Resource Forum (TNRF); Community Research and Development Services (CORDS); Ujamaa Community Resource Team(CRT); Pastoralists Women Council (PWC); Ngorongoro NGOs Network (NGONET); Tanzania Pastoralists Community Forum (TPCF); OSEREMI. Arusha.Google Scholar
- Patinkin, J. (2013). Tanzania’s Maasai battle game hunters for grazing land. BBC News. Available online at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-22155538, checked on 7/15/2013.
- Perrier, G. (1994). New directions in range management planning in Africa. In I. Scoones (Ed.), Living with uncertainty: New directions in pastoral development in Africa (pp. 47–57). London: Intermediate Technology Publications.Google Scholar
- Reid, R. S., Galvin, K. A., & Kruska, R. S. (2008). Global significance of extensive grazing lands and pastoral societies: An introduction. In K. A. Galvin, R. S. Reid, R. H. Behnke Jr, & T. N. Hobbs (eds.), Fragmentation in semi-arid and arid landscapes. Consequences for human and natural landscapes (pp. 1–24). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Sarwatt, S., & Mollel, E. (2000). United Republic of Tanzania. Country pasture/forage resources profils. FAO. Available online at http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/tanzania/tanz.htm#1, checked on 11/23/2014.
- Scoones, I. (Ed.). (1994). Living with uncertainty: New directions in pastoral development in Africa. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.Google Scholar
- Skof, A. (2008). The tourism industry. In R. J. Utz (Ed.), Sustaining and sharing economic growth in Tanzania (pp. 159–168). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Smith, D. (2014). Tanzania accused of backtracking over sale of Masai’s ancestral land. The Guardian, 11/16/2014. Available online at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/nov/16/tanzania-government-accused-serengeti-sale-maasai-lands, checked on 11/23/2014.
- Spangenberg, J. H., Görg, C., Truong, D. T., Tekken, V., Bustamante, J. V., & Settele, J. (2014). Provision of ecosystem services is determined by human agency, not ecosystem functions. Four case studies. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 10(1), 40–53. doi: 10.1080/21513732.2014.884166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tanzania Natural Resource Forum; Maliasili Initiatives (2011). Integrating pastoralist livelihoods and wildlife conservation? Optioned for land use and conflict resolution in Loliondo Division, Ngorongoro District. Available online at http://www.tnrf.org/files/Integrating%20Pastoralist%20Livelihoods%20and%20Wildlife%20Conservation_FINAL_FINAL.pdf, checked on 3/3/2013.
- The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being. Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- The United Republic of Tanzania; Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (4/7/2013). Press release. Dar es Salaam.Google Scholar
- United Republic of Tanzania (1974). The wildlife conservation act of 1974. United Republic of Tanzania.Google Scholar
- United Republic of Tanzania (2007). The land use planning act, 2007. United Republic of Tanzania.Google Scholar
- United Republic of Tanzania (2009a). Fourth National Report on Implementation of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Dar es Salaam. Available online at http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/tz/tz-nr-04-en.pdf, checked on 9/22/2013.
- United Republic of Tanzania (2009b). Wildlife conservation act of 2009. United Republic of Tanzania.Google Scholar
- United Republic of Tanzania (2010). Draft: District land use framework plan (2010–2030). With assistance of national land use planning commission, Ngorongoro District Council.Google Scholar
- United Republic of Tanzania (ed.). (2012). National sample census of agriculture 2007/2008. Volume III: Livestock Sector—National Report.Google Scholar