Towards a More User-Centred Agile Development
The integration of user-centred design and Agile development is becoming increasingly common in companies and appears promising. However, it may also present some critical points, or communication breakdowns, which manifest in working practices. A solution is likely to be found in a supportive organisational context: in this sense, communication breakdowns can become focal points to drive action and decision for establishing an organisational environment acknowledging the value of user involvement and actively endorsing it also with the customer.
Expected graduation year: 2017.
Supervisor: prof. Antonella De Angeli, Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, University of Trento, Italy.
This research proposal aims at addressing the growing interest in the integration of Agile methodologies with user-centred design (UCD), with the goal of achieving a more holistic software engineering approach . In fact, available literature gathers a rich collection of experience reports highlighting several points in common between the two, but also several calls for a more systematic convergence of them.
On the one hand, in fact, Agile methodologies do not explicitly address usability or user experience (UX) aspects in their understanding of the development process, although valuing customer satisfaction . Yet, a carefully designed UX can provide an advantage over competing products , giving “positive effects on both system success and user satisfaction” . On the other hand, UCD does not explicitly address how implementation should be performed, despite needing to ensure that no “design drift”  occurs. Agile methodologies, popularised by their intrinsic embracing of change and constant involvement of the customer in the process , appear as a suitable match to this.
2 Related Work
in UCD, user involvement can range from informative, to consultative, to participative ; in Agile, the emphasis is put on the customer instead, who acts as a representative of users, but whose meaningfulness in this sense is often questioned (e.g. );
there are different opinions about whether UCD and Agile should proceed in parallel (e.g. ) or should be merged into the same process (e.g. ), and to the amount of design to be performed before implementation .
The research process has combined theoretical grounding and action research, performed in two main field studies. The first field study concerned a social innovation R&D project where UCD and Agile were both adopted and where the author served as interaction designer. This context provided several insights about critical aspects, or communication breakdowns , that may hamper the integration of the two approaches ; a subsequent literature review confirmed that such breakdowns had already emerged previously, but had not been systematised yet. The second field study, performed in a software and interaction design company, allowed to further reinforce and extend the framework defined by identified breakdowns, turning these into focal points for driving decision in companies, facilitating communication between designers and developers, and supporting the management in the construction of a favourable context for a fruitful integration of UCD and Agile .
During both studies, data were collected from a number of sources, in particular through interview studies, ethnographically-inspired personal observations , and investigation of artefacts used to support working practices. These qualitative data were then thematically analysed  and resulting findings were supplemented with a more top-down stream of research, i.e. a literature review.
User involvement. Its perception may vary both between designers and developers, and between the company and the customer: in any case, involved parties should explicitly share the same understanding of its extent.
Documentation. In co-located teams, besides tracing history and design rationales, documentation can help balance the power relationship with the customer, shielding the company from unsustainable changes in requirements.
Synchronisation. If the team is not co-located, or has to incorporate a large amount of feedback, balancing the paces of design and development can be tricky, as it is not always possible or sufficient to rely on face-to-face communication.
Task ownership. While it is advisable that the whole team shares a common language, the responsibility over design tasks should be clear and endorsed by the management, in order to fully support the added value that UCD can provide to the product.
5 Future Agenda
A third field study is under way in an IT company with no UX expert, but needing to design and develop a software interface in a few months. Weekly workshops are being run drawing inspiration from design thinking ; the development team is exposed to tools deriving from both UCD and Agile (e.g. personas, use-case diagrams, backlogs) in order to sharpen their understanding of the intended user and subsequently of the functionalities to offer, while keeping in mind the issues represented by identified communication breakdowns. The goal is to assist the working process of the team to assess whether and how their understanding of the user evolves and whether the introduction of mentioned tools may have an observable impact on the quality of the resulting interface.
6 Publication Plan
Envisioned venues for future publications span between the human-computer interaction and the software engineering communities; given the industry-oriented nature of present work, particular interest is paid to conferences bringing together researchers and practitioners. Targeted venues include HCSE 2016 (International Working Conference on Human-Centred Software Engineering), XP 2017, CSCW 2017 (Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing) and its European homologous ECSCW 2017. Thesis defense is foreseen for summer 2017.
- 2.Beck, K., et al.: Manifesto for Agile Software Development. http://www.Agilemanifesto.org
- 4.Bordin, S., de Angeli, A.: Communication breakdowns in the integration of user-centred design and Agile development. In: Cockton, G., Larusdottir, M.K., Gregory, P., Cajander, A. (eds.) Integrating User Centred Design in Agile Development. Springer, London (2016, to appear)Google Scholar
- 5.Bordin, S., de Angeli, A.: Focal points for a more user-centred Agile development. In: Proceedings of XP (2016, to appear)Google Scholar
- 6.Brown, T.: Design thinking. Harvard bus. rev. 86(6), 84 (2008)Google Scholar
- 7.Cajander, Å., Larusdottir, M., Gulliksen, J.: Existing but not explicit - the user perspective in scrum projects in practice. In: Kotzé, P., Marsden, G., Lindgaard, G., Wesson, J., Winckler, M. (eds.) INTERACT 2013, Part III. LNCS, vol. 8119, pp. 762–779. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Jurca, G., Hellmann, T.D., Maurer, F.: Integrating Agile, user-centered design: a systematic mapping and review of evaluation and validation studies of Agile-UX. In: Agile Conference (AGILE), pp. 24–32 (2014)Google Scholar
- 11.Memmel, T., Gundelsweiler, F., Reiterer, H.: Agile human-centered softwareengineering. In: Proceedings of the 21st British HCI Group Annual Conference on Peopleand Computers: HCI... but not as we know it-Volume 1, British Computer Society, pp. 167–175 (2007)Google Scholar
- 12.Neustaedter, C., Sengers, P.: Autobiographical design in HCI research: designing and learning through use-it-yourself. In: Proceedings of the Designing Interactive Systems Conference, pp. 514–523. ACM, June 2012Google Scholar
- 13.Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., Preece, J.: Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction. John Wiley & Sons, New York (2011)Google Scholar
- 14.Salah, D., Paige, R.F., Cairns, P.: A systematic literature review for agile development processes and user centred design integration. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, p. 5. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
- 15.Sharp, H., Robinson, H.: Integrating user-centred design and software engineering: a role for extreme programming? (2004)Google Scholar
- 17.Sohaib, O., Khan, K.:Integrating usability engineering and agile software development: a literature review. In: International Conference on Computer Design and Applications (ICCDA), vol. 2, pp. V2-32–V2-38. IEEE (2010)Google Scholar
- 18.Sy, D.: Adapting usability investigations for Agile user-centered design. J. Usability Stud. 2(3), 112–132 (2007)Google Scholar
Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits any noncommercial use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, a link is provided to the Creative Commons license and any changes made are indicated.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the work’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if such material is not included in the work’s Creative Commons license and the respective action is not permitted by statutory regulation, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to duplicate, adapt or reproduce the material.