Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is acquired from a preceding traumatic event causing injury to the brain. Injuries can be transient or permanent, and focal or diffuse and are generally classified as mild, moderate, or severe. It is a multidisciplinary disease that frequently involves the care and expertise of trauma surgeons, neurosurgeons, neurologists, critical care intensivists, physiatrists, and a host of ancillary specialists. The often acute and changing nature of the disease requires that providers are adept at diagnosis and treatment. Frequently, care delivery and coordination rest on the shoulders of the intensivist. As such, critical care providers should have a firm grasp on the basic principles of brain injury, resuscitation, and treatment.
KeywordsTraumatic brain injury Intracranial pressure Intracranial hemorrhage Cerebral perfusion pressure Glasgow Coma score Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
- 3.Mattox K. Trauma. 7th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Professional; 2012.Google Scholar
- 4.American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. Advanced trauma life support student course manual. 9th ed. Chicago: American College of Surgeons; 2012.Google Scholar
- 6.Gracias V. Acute care surgery: a guide for general surgeons. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2009.Google Scholar
- 9.Laskowitz D, Grand G. Translational research in traumatic brian injury. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group; 2016.Google Scholar
- 17.Braakman R, Gelpke GJ, Habbema JDF, et al. Systematic selection of prognostic features in patients with severe head injury. Neurosurgery. 1980;6:4.Google Scholar
- 24.Brain Trauma Foundation. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. 3rd ed. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24 Suppl 1: 51–106.Google Scholar
- 26.Marx JA. Rosen’s emergency medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2014.Google Scholar
- 33.American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. ACS TQUIP best practices in the management of traumatic brain injury. Chicago: American College of Surgeons; 2015.Google Scholar
- 37.Winn HR. Youmans neurological surgery. 6th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011.Google Scholar
- 39.Dorfman JD, Burns JD, Green DM, et al. Decompressive laparotomy for refractory intracranial hypertension after traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care. 2002;12:516–8.Google Scholar
- 41.The Management of Concussion/mTBI Working Group. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline For Management of Concussion/Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense; 2009.Google Scholar
- 46.Marino PL. The ICU book. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2014.Google Scholar
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.