Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
Abdominal hypertension and compartment syndrome are frequent events following large-volume fluid resuscitation, complex ventral herniorrhaphy, pancreatitis, and other common disorders in the ICU. Early signs and symptoms heralding IAH and ACS lack sensitivity, and a high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose these problems early. Failure to recognize ACS, in particular, is associated with increased mortality related to multisystem organ failure. Whereas abdominal decompression remains the gold standard of treatment, other nonoperative treatment options, such as paracentesis and pharmacologic paralysis, can be used in selected instances. When a decompressive laparotomy is performed, timely closure of the abdominal wall is essential to minimize risk of development of an entero-atmospheric fistula and loss of domain ventral hernia.
KeywordsAbdominal compartment syndrome Abdominal hypertension Decompressive laparotomy Open abdomen
- 3.Department of Surgical Education. Intraabdominal pressure monitoring. In: Orlando; 2008. Available at: http://www.surgicalcriticalcare.net/Guidelines/intraabdominal_pressure_monitoring.pdf. Accessed 11/20/2015.Google Scholar
- 5.Kirkpatrick AW, Roberts DJ, De Waele J, et al. Intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome: updated consensus definitions and clinical practice guidelines from the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:1190–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.