Skip to main content

Axe: A Novel Approach for Generic, Flexible, and Comprehensive Monitoring and Adaptation of Cross-Cloud Applications

Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS,volume 567)


The vendor lock-in has been a major problem since cloud computing has evolved as on the one hand side hinders a quick transition between cloud providers and at the other hand side hinders an application deployment over various clouds at the same time (cross-cloud deployment). While the rise of cross-cloud deployment tools has to some extend limited the impact of vendor lock-in and given more freedom to operators, the fact that applications now are spread out over more than one cloud platform tremendously complicates matters: Either the operator has to interact with the interfaces of various cloud providers or he has to apply custom management tools. This is particularly true when it comes to the task of auto-scaling an application and adapting it to load changes. This paper introduces a novel approach to monitoring and adaptation management that is able to flexibly gather various monitoring data from virtual machines distributed across cloud providers, to dynamically aggregate the data in the cheapest possible manner, and finally, to evaluate the processed data in order to adapt the application according to user-defined rules.


  • Virtual Machine
  • Network Traffic
  • Cloud Provider
  • Component Instance
  • Home Domain

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.


  1. 1.

  2. 2.

  3. 3.

  4. 4.

  5. 5.

  6. 6.

  7. 7.

  8. 8.

  9. 9.

  10. 10.

  11. 11.

  12. 12.


  1. Aceto, G., Botta, A., De Donato, W., Pescapè, A.: Cloud monitoring: a survey. Comput. Netw. 57(9), 2093–2115 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Baur, Daniel, Wesner, Stefan, Domaschka, Jörg: Towards a model-based execution-ware for deploying multi-cloud applications. In: Ortiz, Guadalupe, Tran, Cuong (eds.) ESOCC 2014. CCIS, vol. 508, pp. 124–138. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Clarke, I., Sandberg, O., Wiley, B., Hong, T.W.: Freenet: a distributed anonymous information storage and retrieval system. In: Federrath, H. (ed.) Designing Privacy Enhancing Technologies. LNCS, vol. 2009, pp. 46–66. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Copil, G., Moldovan, D., Truong, H.L., Dustdar, S.: SYBL: an extensible language for controlling elasticity in cloud applications. In: 2013 13th International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid), pp. 112–119, May 2013

    Google Scholar 

  5. Copil, G., Moldovan, D., Truong, H.-L., Dustdar, S.: Multi-level elasticity control of cloud services. In: Basu, S., Pautasso, C., Zhang, L., Fu, X. (eds.) ICSOC 2013. LNCS, vol. 8274, pp. 429–436. Springer, Heidelberg (2013).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. DMTF: Cloud Infrastructure Management Interface (CIMI) Model and RESTful HTTP-based Protocol (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Domaschka, J., Baur, D., Seybold, D., Griesinger, F.: Cloudiator: a cross-cloud, multi-tenant deployment and runtime engine. In: 9th Symposium and Summer School on Service-Oriented Computing (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Domaschka, J., Kritikos, K., Rossini, A.: Towards a generic language for scalability rules. In: Proceedings of CSB 2014: 2nd International Workshop on Cloud Service Brokerage (2014, to appear)

    Google Scholar 

  9. George, L.: HBase: The Definitive Guide, 1st edn. O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Goldschmidt, T., Jansen, A., Koziolek, H., Doppelhamer, J., Breivold, H.P.: Scalability and robustness of time-series databases for cloud-native monitoring of industrial processes. In: 2014 IEEE 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Anchorage, AK, USA, June 27–July 2, 2014, pp. 602–609 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Jacob, B., Lanyon-Hogg, R., Nadgir, D., Yassin, A.: A practical guide to the IBM autonomic computing toolkit. IBM redbooks, IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Kritikos, K., Domaschka, J., Rossini, A.: SRL: a scalability rule language for multi-cloud environments. In: 2014 IEEE 6th International Conference on CloudCom, pp. 1–9, December 2014

    Google Scholar 

  13. Lakshman, A., Malik, P.: Cassandra: a decentralized structured storage system. SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 44(2), 35–40 (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Lorido-Botran, T., Miguel-Alonso, J., Lozano, J.: A review of auto-scaling techniques for elastic applications in cloud environments. J. Grid Comput. 12(4), 559–592 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Maurer, M., Breskovic, I., Emeakaroha, V., Brandic, I.: Revealing the mape loop for the autonomic management of cloud infrastructures. In: ISCC 2011, pp. 147–152, June 2011

    Google Scholar 

  16. Open Grid Forum: Open Cloud Computing Interface - Core (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Paschke, A., Kozlenkov, A., Boley, H.: A homogeneous reaction rule language for complex event processing. In: 33rd VLDB 2007 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Sigelman, B.H., Barroso, L.A., Burrows, M., Stephenson, P., Plakal, M., Beaver, D., Jaspan, S., Shanbhag, C.: Dapper, a large-scale distributed systems tracing infrastructure. Technical report, Google, Inc. (2010)

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement number 317715 (PaaSage) and from the European Community’s Framework Programme for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020 (ICT-07-2014) under grant agreement number 644690 (CloudSocket).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daniel Seybold .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this paper

Cite this paper

Domaschka, J., Seybold, D., Griesinger, F., Baur, D. (2016). Axe: A Novel Approach for Generic, Flexible, and Comprehensive Monitoring and Adaptation of Cross-Cloud Applications. In: Celesti, A., Leitner, P. (eds) Advances in Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing. ESOCC 2015. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 567. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-33312-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-33313-7

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)