Advertisement

Service Life and Durability of Assemblies

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

This chapter intends to establish the first approach to the service life prediction methods applied to façades claddings, with three main objectives: i) perform an extensive survey regarding the concepts related with the service life and durability of building components, the methodologies and standardization related to this matter; ii) define the information collected during the field-work, to assess the physical and visual characterization and quantify the degradation condition of the claddings analysed; iii) the characterization of the samples collected during the fieldwork.

Keywords

Service Life Maintenance Action Building Element Degradation Condition Painted Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aarseth LI, Hovde PJ (1999) A stochastic approach to the factor method for estimating service life. In: 8th DBMC international conference on durability of building materials and components; Vancouver, Canada, pp 1247–1256Google Scholar
  2. Abraham TH (2002) (Physio)logical circuits: the intellectual origins of the McCulloch-Pitts neural networks. J Hist Behav Sci 38(1):3–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AIJ (1993) The English edition of the principal guide for service life planning of buildings. Architectural Institute of Japan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  4. Aikivuori AM (1999) Critical loss of performance—what fails before durability. In: 8th International conference on durability of buildings materials and components, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1369–1376Google Scholar
  5. ASTM E632 (1990) Standard practice for developing accelerated tests to aid prediction of the service life of building components and materials. In: Annual book of ASTM standards, section 4: construction, vol 04.07. Building seals and sealants; fire standards; building constructions. Easton, USA. American Society for Testing and Materials, p 1078Google Scholar
  6. Augenbroe GLM, Park C-S (2002) Towards a maintenance performance toolkit for GSA, interim report submitted to GSA, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Balaras A, Droutsa K, Argiriou AA, Asimakopoulos DN (2000) EPIQR surveys of apartment buildings in Europe. Energy Build 31(2):111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balaras A, Droutsa K, Dascalaki E, Kontoyiannidis S (2005) Deterioration of European apartment buildings. Energy Build 37(5):515–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barberousse H, Ruot B, Yéprémian C, Boulon G (2007) An assessment of façade coatings against colonisation by aerial algae and cyanobacteria. Build Environ 42(7):2555–2561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bone S, Heard H, Horsfall D (1989) Defects in buildings. Department of Environment, PSA Directorate of Building Development, HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonshor R, Bonshor L (2001) Cracking in buildings. BRE, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Bordalo R (2008) Service life prediction of adherent ceramic tiling systems. Master thesis in Civil Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  13. Bordalo R, de Brito Jorge, Gaspar P, Silva A (2011) Service life prediction modelling of adhesive ceramic tiling systems. Build Res Inf 39(1):66–78Google Scholar
  14. Bourdeau L (1999) Sustainable development and the future of construction: a comparison of visions from various countries. Build Res Inf 27(6):355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bovea MD, Díaz-Albo E, Gallardo A, Colomer FJ, Serrano J (2010) Environmental performance of ceramic tiles: improvement proposals. Mater Des 31(1):35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brand S (1997) How buildings learn: what happens after they’re built?, 1st edn. Phoenix Illustrated, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Brandt E, Rasmussen M (2002) Assessment of building conditions. Energy Build 34(2):121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. BSI (1992) Guide to durability of buildings and building elements, products and components, BS 7543. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Campante E, Paschoal J (2002) Durability of facades with ceramic coverings—Why they fail’. In: 9th International conference on durability on building materials and components, 2002, Brisbane, Australia, pp 17–21Google Scholar
  20. Camuffo D (1995) Physical weathering of stones. Sci Environ 167(1–3):1–14Google Scholar
  21. Chai C (2011) Service life prediction of painted surfaces on exterior walls. Master thesis in Civil Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  22. Chai C, de Brito J, Gaspar P, Silva A (2014) Predicting the service life of exterior wall painting: techno-economic analysis of alternative maintenance strategies. J Constr Eng Manage 140(3):04013057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chew MYL (1999) Factors affecting ceramic tile adhesion for external cladding. Constr Build Mater 13(5):293–296MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chew MYL, Ping TP (2003) Staining of facades. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, p. 160Google Scholar
  25. Chew M (2005) Defect analysis in wet areas of buildings. Constr Build Mater 19(3):165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clifton JR (1993) Predicting the service life of concrete. ACI Mater J 90(6):611–617Google Scholar
  27. Cowan P (1963) Studies in the growth, change and ageing of buildings. Trans Bartlett Soc 1:55–84Google Scholar
  28. CSA S478-95 (2001) (Canadian Standards Association) Guideline on durability in buildings. CSA, Canada, pp 9–17Google Scholar
  29. Daniotti B, Spagnolo SL (2008) Service life prediction tools for buildings’ design and management. In: 11th DBMC, International conference on durability of building materials and components, Istanbul, Turkey, 2008, T72Google Scholar
  30. Daniotti B, Spagnolo SL, Paolini R (2008) Factor method application using factors’ grid. In: 11th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Istanbul, Turkey, 2008, T41Google Scholar
  31. Davies G, Szigeti F (1999) Are facilities measuring up? Matching building capacities and functional needs. In: CIB W078 workshop on information technology in construction 1999, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1856–1866Google Scholar
  32. Design guide to refurbishment (1999) Building Maintenance and Management Centre, Tokyo, Japan (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  33. DeSimone LD, Popoff F (1998) Eco-efficiency. In: The business link to sustainable development, 2nd edn. MIT Press, USA, p 280Google Scholar
  34. Donca G, Mihăilă I, Ganea M, Hirłe D, Nica M (2007) Maintenance role in life cycle management. Ann Oradea Univ Fascicle Manage Technol Eng 6(16):2158–2163Google Scholar
  35. Edvardsen C, Mohr L (2000) Designing and rehabilitating concrete structures: probabilistic approach (DuraCrete). In: 5th CANMET/ACI, international conference on durability of concrete, 2000, pp 1192–1208Google Scholar
  36. Emídio F, de Brito J, Gaspar P, Silva A (2014) Application of the factor method to the estimation of the service life of natural stone cladding. Constr Build Mater 66:484–493Google Scholar
  37. Esteves LAR (2007) Portuguese natural stone. The future is paved today. Master thesis in Management and Industrial Strategy, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  38. European Organisation for Technical Approvals (EOTA) (1999) Assumption of working life of construction products in guideline for European Technical Approvals and Harmonized Standards. December 1999. Guidance Document 002Google Scholar
  39. Faber MH, Gehlen C (2002) Probabilistischer Ansatz zur Beurteilung der Dauerhaftigkeit von bestehenden Stahlbetonbauten. Beton und Stahlbetonbau 97(8):421–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Flanagan R, Norman G, Meadows J, Robinson G (1989) Life cycle costing: theory and practice. BSP Professional Books, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  41. Flores-Colen I, de Brito J (2010) A systematic approach for maintenance budgeting of buildings façades based on predictive and preventive strategies. Constr Build Mater 24(9):1718–1729Google Scholar
  42. Flores-Colen I, de Brito J, Freitas VP (2008) Condition assessment of facade rendering though in situ testing. In: 11th DBMC international conference on durability on building materials and components 2008, Istanbul, Turkey, Paper T71Google Scholar
  43. Flourentzou F, Brandt E, Wetzel C (1999) MEDIC—A method for predicting residual service life and refurbishment investments budgets. In: 8th International conference on durability of buildings materials and components, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1280–1288Google Scholar
  44. Frangopol DM, Kallen M-J, Noortwijk JM (2004) Probabilistic models for life-cycle performance of deteriorating structures: review and future directions. Prog Struct Mat Eng 6(4):197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Freitas VP, Sousa M, Abrantes V (1999) Survey of the durability of facades of 4000 dwellings in northern Portugal. In: 8th International conference on the durability of building materials and components, Ottawa, Canada, pp 1040–1050Google Scholar
  46. Freitas VP, Corvacho H, Quintela M, Delgado JMPQ (2013) Durability assessment of adhesive systems for bonding ceramic tiles on façades: the research and the practice. In: Durability of building materials and components, building pathology and rehabilitation, vol 3. Springer, Berlin, pp 173–205Google Scholar
  47. Frohnsdorff GJ, Martin JW (1996) Towards prediction of building service life: the standards imperative. In: 7th International conference on durability of building materials and components. Stockholm, Sweden, pp 1417–1428Google Scholar
  48. Galbusera MM, de Brito J, Silva A (2014) Application of the factor method to the prediction of the service life of ceramic external wall claddings. J Build Perform Constr Facil, pp 19–29. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.05.045 Google Scholar
  49. Gaspar P (2009) Service life of constructions: development of a method to estimate the durability of construction elements. Application to renderings of current buildings. Doctor thesis in sciences of engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  50. Gaspar P, de Brito J (2005) Mapping defect sensitivity in external mortar renders. Constr Build Mater 19(8):571–578Google Scholar
  51. Gaspar PL, de Brito J (2008) Quantifying environmental effects on cement-rendered facades: A comparison between different degradation indicators. Build Environ 43(11):1818–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gaspar PL, de Brito J (2011) Limit states and service life of cement renders on façades. Mater Civil Eng 23(10):1393–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guide to Condition Assessment for Refurbishment (1993). Building Maintenance & Management Centre, Tokyo, Japan, 1993 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  54. Haagenrud SE (2004) Factors causing degradation. Guide and bibliography to service life and durability research for buildings and components. In: Joint CIB W80/RILEM TC 140—Prediction of service life of building materials and components, pp 2.1–2.105Google Scholar
  55. Haapio A, Viitaniemi P (2008) How workmanship should be taken into account in service life planning. In: 11th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Istanbul, Turkey, T45Google Scholar
  56. Hansen EJP, Ekman T, Hansen KK (1999) Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides. In: 8th International conference on the durability of building materials and components, Ottawa, Canada, pp 280–289Google Scholar
  57. Hed G (1999) Service life planning of building components. In: 8th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1543–1551Google Scholar
  58. Ho DCW, Lo SM, Yiu CY, Yau LM (2004) A survey of materials used in external wall finishes in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Surveyor 15(2):7–11Google Scholar
  59. Hovde PJ (2000) Factor methods for service life prediction: a state-of-the-art. Draft Report, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  60. Hovde PJ (2002) The factor method for service life prediction from theoretical evaluation to practical implementation. In: 9th International conference on durability of buildings materials and components, Brisbane, Australia, Paper 232Google Scholar
  61. Hovde P (2004) Factor methods for service life prediction. In: CIB W080/RILEM 175 SLM: Service life methodologies prediction of service life for buildings and components, task group: performance based methods of service life prediction 2004, Trondheim, Norway, pp 1–51Google Scholar
  62. HQAL (2000) Housing quality assurance law. Centre for better living, Tokyo, Japan (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  63. Iselin DG, Lemer AC (eds) (1993) The fourth dimension in building: strategies for minimizing obsolescence. National Research Council, Building Research Board, National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  64. ISO 15686-1 (2011) Buildings and constructed assets—service life planning—Part 1: general principles and framework. International Organization for Standardization, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  65. John VM, Sjöström C, Agopyan V (2002) Durability in the built environment and sustainability in developing countries. In: 9th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Brisbane, Australia, Paper 11Google Scholar
  66. Kooymans R, Abbott J (2006) Developing an effective service life asset management and valuation model. J Corp Real Estate 8(4):198–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kus H (2002) Service life of external renders. In: XXX IAHS world congress on housing, vol III. Coimbra, pp 1875–1882Google Scholar
  68. Kus H, Carlsson T (2003) Microstructural investigations of naturally and artificially weathered autoclaved aerated concrete. Cem Concr Res 33(9):1423–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lacasse MA, Sjöström C (2004) Recent advances in methods for service life prediction of buildings materials and components—an overview. In: CIB World Building Congress, Canada, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  70. Lair J (2003) Failure modes and effect analysis and service life prediction. Intermediary report (D4-C2-jl-01 draft 2), IEA task 27 (project C2: failure mode analysis); CSTB, France, pp 166–212Google Scholar
  71. Lee N, Bennett J, Jones M, Marston N, Kear G (2008) A durability assessment tool for the new zealand building code. In: 11th International conference on durability of building material and components, Istanbul, Turkey, T45Google Scholar
  72. Leira B, Lindgård J, Nesje A, Sund E, Sægrov S (1999) Degradation analysis by statistical methods. In: 8th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1436–1446Google Scholar
  73. Liang MT, Wu JH, Liang CH (2001) Multiple layer fuzzy evaluation for existing reinforced concrete bridges. J Infrastruct Syst 7(4):144–159MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lo Y (2002) Delamination of external wall finishes of housing. In: XXX IAHS world congress on housing—housing construction—an interdisciplinary task. Coimbra, Portugal, pp 1571–1576Google Scholar
  75. Long AE, Henderson GD, Montgomery FR (2001) Why assess the properties of near-surface concrete? Constr Build Mater 15(2–3):65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lounis Z, Lacasse MA, Vanier DJ, Kyle BR (1998) Towards standardization of service life prediction of roofing membranes. In: Wallace TJ, Rossiter Jr WJ (eds) Roofing research and standards development, vol 4. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM STP 1349)Google Scholar
  77. Mansur AAP, Nascimento OL, Vasconcelos WL, Mansur HS (2008) Chemical functionalization of ceramic tile surfaces by silane coupling agents: polymer modified mortar adhesion mechanism implications. Mater Res 11(3):293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Marteinsson B (2003) Assessment of service lives in the design of buildings—development of the factor method. Licentiate thesis, KTH’s Research School—HiG, Centre of Built Environment, University of Gävle, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  79. Marteinsson B, Jónsson B (1999) Overall survey of buildings—performance and maintenance. In: 8th International conference on the durability of building materials and components, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1634–1654Google Scholar
  80. Mateus R, Bragança L, Koukkari H (2008) Sustainability assessment and rating of Portuguese buildings. In: World sustainable conference (SB08), Melbourne, Australia, pp 959–966Google Scholar
  81. Mc Duling J, Horak E, Cloete C (2008) Service life prediction beyond the ‘factor method’. In: 11th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Istanbul, Turkey, T42Google Scholar
  82. Meola C, Maio RD, Roberti N, Carlomagno GM (2005) Application of infrared thermography and geophysical methods for defect detection in architectural structures. Eng Fail Anal 12(6):875–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Moreno SH (2012) The method by factors to estimate service life in buildings projects according to norm ISO 15686. Manage Res Pract 4(4):5–11Google Scholar
  84. Moser K (1999) Towards the practical evaluation of service life—illustrative application of the probabilistic approach. In: 8th International conference on durability of buildings materials and components, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1319–1329Google Scholar
  85. Moser K (2003) Engineering design methods for service life planning—state of the art. In: International workshop on management of durability in the building process (WMDBP 2003). Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Paper 40Google Scholar
  86. Moser K (2004) Engineering design methods for service life prediction. In: CIB W080/RILEM 175 SLM: Service life methodologies prediction of service life for buildings and components, task group: performance based methods of service life prediction, Trondheim, Norway, pp 52–95Google Scholar
  87. Moser K, Edvardsen C (2002) Engineering design method for service life prediction. In: 9th International conference on the durability of building materials and components 2002, Brisbane, Australia, Paper 222Google Scholar
  88. National Statistics Institute (INE) (2001) National statistics—census. http://www.ine.pt/prodserv/quadro/mostraquadro (in Portuguese)
  89. Nireki T (1996) Service life design. Constr Build Mater 10(5):403–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Norvaišienė R, Miniotaitė R, Stankevičius V (2003) Climatic and air pollution effects on building facades. Mater Sci 9(1):102–105Google Scholar
  91. NP EN ISO 4628-1 (2005) Paints and varnishes—evaluation of degradation of coatings—designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance—Part 1: General introduction and designation system, Portuguese Quality Institute, Lisbon, Portugal, p 8Google Scholar
  92. NP EN ISO 4628-2 (2005) Paints and varnishes—evaluation of degradation of paint coatings—designation of intensity, quantity and size of common types of defect—Part 2: Designation of degree of blistering, Portuguese Quality Institute, Lisbon, Portugal, p 16Google Scholar
  93. NP EN ISO 4628-4 (2005) Paints and varnishes—evaluation of degradation of coatings—designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance—Part 4: Assessment of degree of cracking, Portuguese Quality Institute, Lisbon, Portugal, p 20Google Scholar
  94. NP EN ISO 4628-5 (2005) Paints and varnishes—evaluation of degradation of coatings—designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance—Part 5: Assessment of degree of flaking, Portuguese Quality Institute, Lisbon, Portugal, p 11Google Scholar
  95. NP EN ISO 4628-7 (2005) Paints and varnishes—evaluation of degradation of coatings—designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance—Part 7: Assessment of degree of chalking by velvet method, Portuguese Quality Institute, Lisbon, Portugal, p 8Google Scholar
  96. NS 3422 (1994) Specification texts for operation, maintenance and renewal of buildings and civil engineering works. Norges Standardiseringsforbund, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  97. Paulo PV, Branco F, de Brito J (2014) Buildings life: a building management system. Struct Infrastruct Eng Maintenance Manage Life Cycle Des Perform 10(3):388–397Google Scholar
  98. Pearce D (2003) The social and economic value of construction. In: The construction industry’s contribution to sustainable development. NCRISP, Davis Langdon Consultancy, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. Re Cecconi F (2002) Performance leads the way to service life prediction. In: 9th International conference on durability of buildings materials and components, Brisbane, Australia, Paper 213Google Scholar
  100. Rikey M, Cotgrave A (2005) The context of maintenance. In: Construction technology. The technology of refurbishment and maintenance, vol. 3. Macmillan Palgrave, New York, pp 50–56Google Scholar
  101. Rimestad L (1998) The use of field failure data in accelerated testing. In: Safety and reliability, Hansen GK, Sandtorv HA (eds) Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 1209–1216Google Scholar
  102. Ross SM (1996) Stochastic processes, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  103. Rudbeck C (2002) Service life of building envelope components: making it operational in economical assessment. Constr Build Mater 16(2):83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sarja A (2005) Generic limit state design of structures. In: 10th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Lyon, France, TT3-161Google Scholar
  105. Shohet I, Laufer A (1996) Exterior cladding methods: a technoeconomic analysis. J Constr Eng Manage 122(3):242–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shohet IM, Paciuk M (2004) Service life prediction of exterior cladding components under standard conditions. Constr Manage Econ 22(10):1081–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shohet I, Rosenfeld Y, Puterman M, Gilboa E (1999) Deterioration patterns for maintenance management—a methodological approach. In: 8th International conference on durability of buildings materials and components, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1666–1678Google Scholar
  108. Siemes T, Edvardsen C (1999) Duracrete: service life design for concrete structures. In: 8th International conference on durability of buildings materials and components, Vancouver, Canada, pp 1343–1356Google Scholar
  109. Silva A (2009) Service life prediction of natural stone walls cladding, Master thesis (in Portuguese). Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  110. Silva A, de Brito Jorge, Gaspar P (2011) Service life prediction model applied to natural stone wall claddings (directly adhered to the substrate). Constr Build Mater 25(9):3674–3684Google Scholar
  111. Silva A, Dias JLR, Gaspar PL, de Brito J (2013) Statistical models applied to service life prediction of rendered façades. Autom Constr 30:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Silva A, Gaspar PL, de Brito J (2014) Durability of current renderings: a probabilistic analysis. Autom Constr 44:92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Silvestre J, de Brito J (2007) Statistical analysis of defects of tiles’ joints. Análisis estadístico de los defectos de juntas cerámicas. Materiales de Construcción, Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, Madrid, Spain 57(285):85–92Google Scholar
  114. Silvestre J, de Brito Jorge (2009) Ceramic tiling inspection system. Constr Build Mater 23(2):653–668Google Scholar
  115. Sjöström C (1985) Overview of methodologies for prediction of service life. In: Problems in service life prediction of building and construction materials NATO ASI series, vol 95, pp 3–20Google Scholar
  116. Sjöström C, Davies H (2005) Built to last: service life planning. ISO Focus 2(11):13–15Google Scholar
  117. Slaughter ES (2001) Design strategies to increase building flexibility. Build Res Inf 29(3):208–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Soronis G (1996) Standards for design life of buildings: utilization in the design process. Constr Build Mater 10(7):487–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Straub A (2003) Using a condition-dependent approach to maintenance to control costs and performances. Facil Manage 1(4):380–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Takata S, Kimura F, Van Houten F, Westkamper E, Shpitalni M, Ceglarek D, Lee J (2004) Maintenance: changing role in life cycle management. CIRP Ann 53(2):643–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Talon A, Boissier D, Chevalier J-L, Hans J (2005) Temporal quantification method of degradation scenarios based on FMEA. In: 10th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Lyon, France, TT4-139Google Scholar
  122. Timellini G, Palmonari C (1989) Ceramic floor and wall tile performance and controversies. EdiCer, SassuoloGoogle Scholar
  123. Van Winden C, Dekker R (1998) Rationalization of building maintenance by Markov decision models: a pilot case study. J Oper Res Soc 49(9):928–935CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  124. Vanier DJ (1999) Why industry needs asset management tools. In: Innovations in urban infrastructure seminar of the APWA international public works congress, Denver, USA, pp 11–25Google Scholar
  125. Watt DS (1999) Building pathology—principles and practice, 1st edn. Blackwell Science Ltd., Blackwell Publishing Company, LondonGoogle Scholar
  126. Wekesa BW, Steyn GS, Otieno FAO (2010) The response of common building construction technologies to the urban poor and their environment. Build Environ 45(10):2327–2335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wetzel A, Zurbriggen R, Herwegh M (2010) Spatially resolved evolution of adhesion properties of large porcelain tiles. Cement Concr Compos 32(5):327–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wyatt D (2005) The contribution of FMEA and FTA to the performance review and auditing of service life design of constructed assets. In: 10th International conference on durability of building materials and components, Lyon, France, TT4-206Google Scholar
  129. Ximenes S, de Brito J, Gaspar PL, Silva A (2015) Modelling the degradation and service life of ETICS in external walls. Mater Struct 48:2235–2249Google Scholar
  130. Zhang X, Gao H (2011) Determining an optimal maintenance period for infrastructure systems. Comput Aided Civil Infrastruct Eng 27(7):543–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Faculty of ArchitectureUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations