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Molecular Biology of Penile Cancer

Abstract

Penile cancer is a rare but potentially mutilating disease in developed countries. The rarity of the disease has presented a significant obstacle to conducting high quality powered research in this area. Nevertheless, steady progress has been made in describing both the depth and breadth of molecular aberrations and drivers of this disease. The majority of studies have used a candidate gene approach focusing on the main oncogenic pathways that exist across all cancers. However, high throughput whole genome approaches are now being utilised to examine the genetic and epigenetic drivers of this disease. It is hoped that these approaches will reveal the next generation of prognostic biomarkers and uncover new therapeutic targets.

Keywords

  • Oncogenesis
  • Penile cancer
  • Genetic
  • Epigenetic
  • Copy number variation
  • Biomarkers
  • Tumour suppressors
  • Oncogenes

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Fig. 5.1
Fig. 5.2
Fig. 5.3

Abbreviations

EMMPRIN:

Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer

HPV:

Human papillomavirus

hTERT:

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase

MMPs:

Matrix metalloproteinases

RB1:

Retinoblastoma protein

SCCA:

Squamous cell carcinoma antigen

TLR9:

Toll Like Receptor 9

VEGF:

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Correspondence to Simon N. Rodney MRCS, MA, MSc .

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Rodney, S.N., Feber, A., Muneer, A., Kelly, J.D. (2016). Molecular Biology of Penile Cancer. In: Muneer, A., Horenblas, S. (eds) Textbook of Penile Cancer. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33220-8_5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33220-8_5

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