Advertisement

Francisellaceae Representatives

  • Brian Austin
  • Dawn A. Austin
Chapter

Abstract

Francisella noatunensis and Fr. noatunensis subsp. orientalis are intracellular pathogens which cause granulomatous disease. Isolation has been achieved initially in cell culture with subsequent growth on cysteine heart agar. Disease control has been achieved by vaccination and by use of antimicrobial compounds, notably florfenicol.

Keywords

Francisella Granulomas Intracellular Vaccines Diagnosis 

References

  1. Chern RS, Chao CB (1994) Outbreaks of disease caused by rickettsia-like organism in cultured tilapias in Taiwan. Fish Pathol 29:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gjessing MC, Inami M, Weli SC, Ellingsen T, Falk K, Koppang EO, Kvellestad A (2011) Presence and interaction of inflammatory cells in the spleen of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., infected with Francisella noatunensis. J Fish Dis 34:687–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hollis DG, Weaver RE, Steigerwalt AG, Wenger JD, Moss CW, Brenner DJ (1989) Francisella philomiragia comb. nov. (formerly Yersinia philomiragia) and Francisella tularensis biovar novicida (formerly Francisella novicida) associated with human disease. J Clin Microbiol 27:1601–1608PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Isachsen CH, Vågnes Ø, Jakobsen RA, Samuelsen OB (2012) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis strains isolated from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway. Dis Aquat Org 98:57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jeffrey KR, Stone D, Feist SW, Verner-Jeffrey DW (2010) An outbreak of disease caused by Francisella sp. in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at a recirculation fish farm in the UK. Dis Aquat Org 91:161–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jensen WI, Owen CR, Jellison WJ (1969) Yersinia philomiragia sp. n., a new member of the Pasteurella group of bacteria, naturally pathogenic for the muskrat (Ondatra zibethica). J Bacteriol 100:1237–1241PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Kamashi T, Fukuda Y, Nishiyama M, Kawakami H, Matsuyama T, Yoshinaga T, Oseko N (2005) Identification and pathogenicity of intracellular Francisella bacterium in three-line grunt Parapristipoma trilineatum. Fish Pathol 40:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Leal CAG, Tavares GC, Figueiredo HCP (2014) Outbreaks and genetic diversity of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis isolated from farm-raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Brazil. Genet Mol Res 13:5704–5712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lewisch E, Dressler A, Menanteau-Ledouble S, Saleh M, El-Matbouli M (2014) Francisellosis in ornamental African cichlids in Austria. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 34:63–70Google Scholar
  10. Mikalsen J, Colquhoun DJ (2010) Francisella asiatica sp. nov. isolated from farmed tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and elevation of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis to species rank as Francisella noatunensis comb. nov., sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59. doi:ijs.0.002139-0Google Scholar
  11. Mikalsen J, Olsen AB, Tengs T, Colquhoun DJ (2007) Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis subsp. nov., isolated from farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1960–1965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mikalsen J, Olsen AB, Rudra H, Moldal T, Lund H, Djønne B, Bergh Ø, Colquhoun DJ (2009) Virulence and pathogenicity of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., and laboratory mice. J Fish Dis 32:377–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Olsen AB, Mikalsen J, Rode M, Alfjorden A, Hoel E, Straum-Lie K, Haldorsen R, Colquhoun DJ (2006) A novel systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease in farmed Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., associated with a bacterium belonging to the genus Francisella. J Fish Dis 29:307–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ostland VE, Stannard JA, Creek JJ, Hedrick RP, Ferguson HW, Carlberg JM, Westerman ME (2006) Aquatic Francisella-like bacterium associated with mortalities of intensively cultured hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. Saxatilis. Dis Aquat Org 72:135–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ottem KF, Nylund A, Isaksen TE, Karlsbakk E, Bergh Ø (2008) Occurrence of Francisella piscicida in farmed and wild Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., in Norway. J Fish Dis 31:525–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ottem KF, Nylund A, Karlbakk E, Friis-Moller A, Kamaishi T (2009) Elevation of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al (2007) to Francisella noatunensis comb nov. [syn. Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. (2008) syn. nov.] and characterization of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis sp. nov., two important fish pathogens. J Appl Microbiol 106:1231–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ritter DB, Gerloff RK (1966) Deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization among some species of the genus Pasteurella. J Bacteriol 92:1838–1939PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Soto E, Hawke JP, Fernandez D, Morales JA (2009) Francisella sp., an emerging pathogen of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in Costa Rica. J Fish Dis 32:713–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Soto E, Bowles K, Fernandez D, Hawke JP (2010a) Development of a real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis. Dis Aquat Org 89:199–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Soto E, Fernandez D, Thune R, Hawke JP (2010b) Interaction of Francisella asiatica with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) innate immunity. Infect Immun 78:2070–2078PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Soto E, Endris RG, Hawke JP (2010c) In vitro and in vivo efficacy of florfenicol for treatment of Francisella asiatica infection of tilapia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:4664–4670PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Soto E, Wiles J, Elzer P, Macaluso K, Hawke JP (2011) Attenuated Francisella asiatica iglc mutant induces protective immunity to francisellosis in tilapia. Vaccine 29:593–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Soto E, McGovern-Hopkins K, Klinger-Bowen R, Fox BK, Brock J, Antonio N, van der Waal Z, Rushton S, Mill A, Tamaru CS (2013) Prevalence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in cultured tilapia on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. J Aquat Anim Health 25:104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Soto E, Primus AE, Pouder DB, George RH, Gerlach TJ, Cassle SE, Johnson T, Boyd S, Handsel T, Yanong RPE (2014) Identification of Francisella noatunensis in novel host species French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum) and Caesar grunt (Haemulon carbonarium). J Zoo Wildl Med 45:727–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vestvik N, Ronneseth A, Kalgraff CAK, Winther-Larsen HC, Wergeland HI, Haugland GT (2013) Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis replicates within Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) leucocytes and inhibits respiratory burst activity. Fish Shellfish Immunol 35:725–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wangen IH, Karlsbakk E, Einen ACB, Ottem KF, Nylund A, Mortensen S (2012) Fate of Francisella noatunensis, a pathogen of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, in blue mussels Mytilus edulis. Dis Aquat Org 98:63–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zerihun MA, Feist SW, Bucke D, Olsen AB, Tandstad NM, Colquhoun DJ (2011) Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis is the aetiological agent of visceral granulomatosis in wild Atlanic cod Gadus morhua. Dis Aquat Org 95:65–71Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Austin
    • 1
  • Dawn A. Austin
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of AquacultureUniversity of StirlingStirlingUK
  2. 2.School of Life SciencesHeriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations