• Brian Austin
  • Dawn A. Austin


The vibrios have been major problems to aquaculture in marine, coastal and estuarine water. Some species, e.g. V. anguillarum, have virtually a worldwide distribution; others have been focused on either colder, e.g. Ali. salmonicida, or warmer, e.g. Ph. damselae, environments. Because of their role in large scale mortalities, much effort has been expended on developing suitable diagnostic and control measures. Thus, a wide range of modern molecular diagnostic methods have been developed. Also, some pathogens have been the target of vaccine development, with commercial products available for some diseases, such as those caused by Ali. salmonicida, Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida and V. anguillarum.


Vibriosis Coldwater disease Photobacteriosis Pasteurellosis Winter ulcer disease 


  1. Abe PM (1972) Certain chemical and immunological properties of the endotoxin from Vibrio anguillarum. M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta F, Lockhart K, Gahlawat SK, Real F, Ellis AE (2004) Mx expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr in response to Listonella anguillarum bacterin, lipopolysaccharide and chromosomal DNA. Fish Shellfish Immunol 17:255–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acosta F, Real F, Ellis AE, Tabraue C, Padilla D, Ruiz de Galarreta CM (2005) Influence of vaccination on the nitric oxide response of gilthead seabream following infection with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Fish Shellfish Immunol 18:31–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Acosta F, Ellis AE, Vivas J, Padilla D, Acosta B, Déniz S, Bravo J, Real F (2006) Complement consumption by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in seabream, red porgy and seabass normal and immune serum. Effect of the capsule on the bactericidal effect. Fish Shellfish Immunol 20:709–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Acosta F, Vivas J, Padilla D, Vega J, Bravo J, Grasso V, Real F (2009) Invasion and survival of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in non-phagocytic cells of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L. J Fish Dis 32:535–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Actis LA, Potter SA, Crosa JW (1985) Iron-regulated outer membrane protein OM2 of Vibrio anguillarum is encoded by virulence plasmid pJM1. J Bacteriol 161:736–742PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Actis LA, Tolmasky ME, Crosa LM, Crosa JH (1995) Characterization of the expression of FATB, an iron transport protein encoded by the pJM1 virulence plasmid. Mol Miocrobiology 17:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Afonso A, Gomes S, da Silva J, Marques F, Henrique M (2005) Side effects in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) due to intraperitoneal vaccination against vibriosis and pasteurellosis. Fish Shellfish Immunol 19:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ajmal M, Hobbs BC (1967) Species of Corynebacterium and Pasteurella isolated from diseased salmon, trout and rudd. Nature (London) 215:142–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Akazaka H (1968) Bacterial disease of marine fishes. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 34:271–272Google Scholar
  11. Alsina M, Blanch AR (1994a) A set of keys for biochemical identification of environmental Vibrio species. J Appl Bacteriol 76:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alsina M, Blanch AR (1994b) Improvement and update of a set of keys for biochemical identification of Vibrio species. J Appl Bacteriol 77:719–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Alsina M, Martínez-Picardo J, Jofre J, Blanch AR (1994) A medium for the presumptive identification of Vibrio anguillarum. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:1681–1683PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Amagliani G, Omiccioli E, Andreoni F, Boiana R, Bianconi I, Zaccone R, Mancuso M, Magnani M (2009) Development of a multiplex PCR assay for Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida identification in fish samples. J Fish Dis 32:645–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Amaro C, Biosca EG, Esteve C, Fouz B, Toranzo AE (1992) Comparative study of phenotypic and virulence properties in Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 obtained from a European eel farm experiencing mortalities. Dis Aquat Org 13:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Amaro C, Biosca EG, Fouz B, Alcaide E, Esteve C (1995) Evidence that water transmits Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 infections to eels. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1133–1137PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Amaro C, Fouz B, Biosca EG, Marco-Noales E, Collado R (1997) The lipopolysaccharide O side chain of Vibrio vulnificus serogroup E is the virulence determinant for eels. Infect Immun 65:2475–2479PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Amend DF, Johnson KA (1981) Current status and future needs of Vibrio anguillarum bacterins. Dev Biol Stand 49:403–417Google Scholar
  19. Anderson JW, Conroy DA (1970) Vibrio diseases in fishes. In: Snieszko SF (ed) A Symposium on Diseases of Fishes and Shellfishes, Special Publication No. 5. American Fisheries Society, Washington, D.C., pp 266–272Google Scholar
  20. Andreoni F, Boiani R, Serafini G, Amagliani G, Dominici S, Riccioni G, Zaccone R, Mancuso M, Scapigliati G, Magnani M (2013) Isolation of a novel gene from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and analysis of the recombinant antigen as promising vaccine candidate. Vaccine 31:820–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Angelidis P, Karagiannis D, Crump EM (2006) Efficacy of a Listonella anguillarum (syn. Vibrio anguillarum) vaccine for juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Dis Aquat Org 71:19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Angulo L, Lopez JE, Lema C, Vicente JA (1992) Vibrio pelagius associated with mortalities in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Thalassas 10:129–133Google Scholar
  23. Angulo L, Lopez JE, Vicente JA, Saborido AM (1994) Haemorrhagic areas in the mouth of farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). J Fish Dis 17:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Antipa R (1976) Field testing of injected Vibrio anguillarum bacterins in pen-reared Pacific salmon. J Fish Res Board Can 33:1291–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Antipa R, Amend DP (1977) Immunization of Pacific salmon: comparison of intraperitoneal injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida bacterins. J Fish Res Board Can 34:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Antipa R, Gould R, Amend DP (1980) Vibrio anguillarum vaccination of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) by direct immersion and hyperosmotic immersion. J Fish Dis 3:161–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Aoki T (1988) Drug-resistant plasmids from fish pathogens. Microbiol Sci 5:219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Aoki T, Kitao T (1978) Vibriosis in ayu. Fish Pathol 13:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Aoki T, Kitao T (1985) Detection of transferable R plasmids in strains of the fish-pathogenic bacterium Pasteurella piscicida. J Fish Dis 8:345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Aoki T, Egusa S, Arai T (1974) Detection of R factor in naturally occurring Vibrio anguillarum strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 6:534–538PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Aoki T, Kitao T, Itabashi T, Wada Y, Sakai M (1981) Proteins and lipopolysaccharides in the membrane of Vibrio anguillarum. Dev Biol Stand 49:225–232Google Scholar
  32. Aoki T, Ikeda D, Katagiri T, Hirono I (1997) Rapid detection of the fish-pathogenic bacterium Pasteurella piscicida by polymerase chain reaction targetting nucleotide sequences of the species-specific plasmid pZP1. Fish Pathol 32:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Aoshima S, Ishitake Y, Okamoto N (2005) Discrepancy between in vitro non-specific defense activities of peripheral blood phagocytes and resistance against vibriosis in rainbow trout under temperature stress. Fish Pathol 40:47–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Arias CR, Verdonck L, Swings J, Garay E, Aznar R (1997a) Intraspecific differentiation of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes by amplified fragment length polymorphism and ribotyping. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:2600–2606PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Arias CR, Verdonck L, Swings J, Aznar R, Garay E (1997b) A polyphasic approach to study the intraspecific diversity amongst Vibrio vulnificus isolates. Syst Appl Microbiol 20:622–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Arijo S, Borrego JJ, Zorilla I, Balebona MC, Moriñigo MA (1998) Role of the capsule of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in protection against phagocyctosis and killing by gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata, L) macrophages. Fish Shellfish Immunol 8:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Arijo S, Balebona C, Martinez-Manzanares E, Moriñigo MA (2004) Immune respone of gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata) to antigens from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Fish Shellfish Immunol 16:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Arijo S, Rico R, Chabrillon M, Diaz-Rosales P, Martínez-Manzanares E, Balebona MC, Toranzo AE, Moriñigo MA (2005) Effectiveness of a divalent vaccine for sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), against Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. J Fish Dis 28:33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Arijo S, Brunt J, Chabrillón M, Díaz-Rosales P, Austin B (2008) Subcellular components of Vibrio harveyi and probiotics induce immune responses in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against V. harveyi. J Fish Dis 31:579–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Arnesen SM, Schrøder MB, Dalmo RA, Bøgwald J (2002) Antigen uptake and immunoglobulin production in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) after intraperitoneal injection of Vibrio anguillarum. Fish Shellfish Immunol 13:159–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Austin B (1988) Marine Microbiology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  42. Austin B, Stobie M, Robertson PAW, Glass HG, Stark JR, Mudarris M (1993) Vibrio alginolyticus: the cause of gill disease leading to progressive low-level mortalities among juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L., in a Scottish aquarium. J Fish Dis 16:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Austin B, Alsina M, Austin DA, Blanch AR, Grimont F, Grimont PAD, Jofre J, Koblavi S, Larsen JL, Pedersen K, Tiainen T, Verdonck L, Swings J (1995a) Identification and typing of Vibrio anguillarum a comparison of different methods. Syst Appl Microbiol 18:285–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Austin B, Stuckey LF, Robertson PAW, Effendi I, Griffith DRW (1995b) A probiotic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus effective in reducing diseases caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii. J Fish Dis 18:93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Austin B, Austin DA, Falconer VM, Pedersen K, Larsen JL, Swings J, Verdonck L (1996) Dissociation of Vibrio anguillarum and V. ordalii cultures into two or three distinct colony types. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 16:101–103Google Scholar
  46. Austin B, Austin DA, Blanch AR, Cerdà M, Grimont F, Grimont PAD, Jofre J, Koblavi S, Larsen JL, Pedersen K, Tiainen T, Verdonck L, Swings J (1997) A comparison of methods for the typing of fish-pathogenic Vibrio spp. Syst Appl Microbiol 20:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Austin B, Pride AC, Rhodie GA (2003) Association of a bacteriophage with virulence in Vibrio harveyi. J Fish Dis 26:55–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Austin B, Austin D, Sutherland R, Thompson F, Swings J (2005) Pathogenicity of vibrios to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and Artemia nauplii. Environ Microbiol 7:1488–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Avci H, Lu SB, Cagirgan H (2012) Pathological and immunohistochemical investigations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) experimentally infected with Vibrio anguillarum. Revue de Médicine Vétérinaire 163:31–39Google Scholar
  50. Avendaño-Herrera R, Maldonado JP, Tapia-Cammas D, Feijoo CG, Calleja F, Toranzo AE (2014) PCR protocol for detection of Vibrio ordalii by amplification of the vohB (hemolysin) gene. Dis Aquat Org 107:223–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bagge J, Bagge O (1956) Vibrio anguillarum som arsag til ulcussygdom hos torsk (Gadus callaris Linné). Nord Vet Med 8:481–492Google Scholar
  52. Bai F, Han Y, Chen J, Zhang X-H (2008) Disruption of quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi by the AiiA protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Aquaculture 274:36–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Baker KJ, Knittel MD, Fryer JL (1983) Susceptibility of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytsha (Walbaum), and rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, to infection with Vibrio anguillarum following sublethal copper exposure. J Fish Dis 6:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Bakopoulos V, Volpatti D, Papapanagiotou E, Richards R, Galleoti M, Adams A (1997a) Development of an ELISA to detect Pasteurella piscicida in culture and in ‘spiked’ fish tissue. Aquaculture 156:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Bakopoulos V, Adams A, Richards RH (1997b) The effect of iron limitation growth conditions on the cell and extracellular components of the fish pathogen Pasteurella piscicida. J Fish Dis 20:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Bakopoulos V, Poulos K, Adams A, Galeotti M, Dimitriadis GJ (2002) The effect of novel growth media on the virulence and toxicity of cellular and extracellular components of the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 22:272–279Google Scholar
  57. Bakopoulos V, Volpatti D, Gusmani L, Galeotti M, Adams A, Dimitriadis GJ (2003a) Vaccination of sea bass, dicentrachus labrax (L.), against Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida using novel vaccine mixtures. J Fish Dis 26:77–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Bakopoulos V, Pearson M, Volpatti D, Gousmani L, Adams A, Galeotti M, Dimitriadis GJ (2003b) Investigation of media formulations promoting differential antigen expression by Photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida and recognition by sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), immune sera. J Fish Dis 26:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Bakopoulos V, Hanif A, Poulos K, Galeotti M, Adams A, Dimitriadis GJ (2004) The effect of in vivo growth on the cellular and extracellular components of the marine bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. J Fish Dis 27:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Balado M, Osorio CR, Lemos ML (2008) Biosynthetic and regulatory elements involved in the production of the siderophore vanchrobactin in Vibrio anguillarum. Microbiology 154:1400–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Balebona MC, Zorrilla I, Moriñgo MA, Borrego JJ (1998) Survey of bacterial pathogens affecting farmed gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in southwestern Spain from 1990 to 1996. Aquaculture 166:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Balfry SK, Shariff M, Iwama GK (1997) Strain differences in non-specific immunity of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus following challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Dis Aquat Org 30:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Barancin CE, Smoot JC, Findlay RH, Actis LA (1998) Plasmid-mediated histamine biosynthesis in the bacterial fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Plasmid 39:235–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Baudin-Laurençin F, Tangtrongpiros J (1980) Some results of vaccination against vibriosis in Brittany. In: Ahne W (ed) Fish Diseases. Springer-Verlag, Third COPRAQ-Session. Berlin, pp 60–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Baumann P, Bang SS, Baumann L (1978) Phenotypic characterization of Beneckea anguillara biotypes I and II. Curr Microbiol 1:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Baumann P, Furniss AL, Lee JV (1984) Genus I, Vibrio Pacini 1854, 411AL. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 1. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 518–538Google Scholar
  67. Benediktsdóttir E, Helgason S, Sigurjónsdóttir H (1998) Vibrio spp. isolated from salmonids with shallow skin lesions and reared at low temperature. J Fish Dis 21:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Benediktsdóttir E, Verdonck L, Spröer C, Helgason S, Swings J (2000) Characterization of Vibrio viscosus and Vibrio wodanis isolated from different geographical locations: a proposal for re-classification of Vibrio viscosus as Moritella viscose comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:479–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Bergh Ø (1995) Bacteria associated with early life stages of halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L., inhibit growth of a pathogenic Vibrio sp. J Fish Dis 18:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Bergman AM (1909) Die rote Beulenkrankheit des Aals. Bericht aus der Königlichen Bayerischen Versuchsstation 2:10–54Google Scholar
  71. Bertone S, Gili C, Moizo A, Calegari L (1996) Vibrio carchariae associated with a chronic skin ulcer on a shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo). J Fish Dis 19:429–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Bidinost C, Crosa JH, Actis LA (1994) Localization of the replication region of the pMJ101 plasmid from Vibrio ordalii. Plasmid 31:242–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Bidinost C, Wilderman PJ, Drsey CW, Actis LA (1999) Analysis of the replication elements of the pMJ101 plasmid from the fish pathogen Vibrio ordalii. Plasmid 42:20–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Biosca EG, Amaro C, Esteve C, Alcaide E, Garay E (1991) First record of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 from diseased European eel, Anguilla anguilla L. J Fish Dis 14:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Biosca EG, Llorens H, Garay E, Amaro C (1993) Presence of a capsule in Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 and its relationship to virulence for eels. Infect Immun 61:1611–1618PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Biosca EG, Amaro C, Larsen JL, Pedersen K (1997a) Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vibrio vulnificus: proposal for the substitution of the subspecific taxon biotype for serovar. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1460–1466PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Biosca EG, Marco-Noales E, Amaro C, Alcaide E (1997b) An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2: development and field studies. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:537–542PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Bjelland AM, Johansen R, Brudal E, Hansen H, Winther-Larsen HC, Sørum H (2012) Vibrio salmonicida pathogenesis analysed by experimental challenge of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Microb Pathog 52:77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Bjelland AM, Fauske AK, Nguyen A, Orlien IE, Ostgaard IM, Sørum H (2013) Expression of Vibrio salmonicida virulence genes and immune response parameters in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Front Microbiol 4:401. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00401 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Boesen HT, Pedersen K, Koch C, Larsen JL (1997) Immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to antigenic preparations from Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1. Fish Shellfish Immunol 7:543–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Bolinches J, Romalde JL, Toranzo AE (1988) Evaluation of selective media for isolation and enumeration of vibrios from estuarine waters. J Microbiol Methods 8:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Bolinches J, Lemos ML, Fouz B, Cambra M, Larsen JL, Toranzo AE (1990) Serological relationships among Vibrio anguillarum strains. J Aquat Anim Health 2:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Bonaveri GF (1761) quoted by Drouin de Bouville (1907)Google Scholar
  84. Bowden TJ, Menoyo-Luque D, Bricknell IR, Wegeland H (2002) Efficacy of different administration routes for vaccination against Vibrio anguillarum in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol 12:283–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Brattgjerd S, Evensen Ø, Speilberg L, Lauve A (1995) Internalization of Vibrio salmonicida in isolated macrophages from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) evaluated by a paired immunofluorescence technique. Fish Shellfish Immunol 5:121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Bricknell IR, Bowden TJ, Verner-Jeffreys DW, Bruno DW, Shields RJ, Ellis AE (2000) Susceptibility of juvenile and sub-adult Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) to infection by Vibrio anguillarum and efficacy of protection induced by vaccination. Fish Shellfish Immunol 10:319–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Broom AK, Sneath PHA (1981) Numerical taxonomy of Haemophilus. J Gen Microbiol 126:123–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Bruno DW, Hastings TS, Ellis AE, Wootten R (1985) Outbreak of a cold-water vibriosis in Atlantic salmon in Scotland. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 5:62–63Google Scholar
  89. Bruun AF, Heiberg B (1935) Weitere Untersuchungen über die Rotseuche des Aales in den dänischen Gewässern. Zeitshcrift für Fischerei und deren Hilfwissenschaften 33:379–382Google Scholar
  90. Buchholtz C, Nielsen KF, Milton DL, Larsen JL, Gram L (2006) Profiling of acylated homoserine lactones of Vibrio anguillarum in vitro and in vivo: influence of growth conditions and serotype. Syst Appl Microbiol 29:433–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Bullen JJ, Roger HJ, Griffiths E (1978) Role of iron in bacterial infections. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 80:1–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Bullock GL, Conroy DA (1971) Vibrio diseases. In: Snieszko SF, Axelrod HR (eds) Diseases of Fishes, 2A. Bacterial Diseases of Fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Jersey City/New York, pp 42–50Google Scholar
  93. Burke J, Rodgers L (1981) Identification of pathogenic bacteria associated with the occurrence of ‘red spot’ in sea mullet, Mugil cephalus L., in south-eastern Queensland. J Fish Dis 3:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Busch RA, Burmeister, NE, Scott, AL (1978) Field and laboratory evaluation of a commercial enteric redmouth disease vaccine for rainbow trout. Proceedings of the Joint 3rd Biennial Fish Health Section and 9th Annual Midwest Fish Disease Workshop, p. 67Google Scholar
  95. Cai SH, Lu YS, Wu Z-H, Jian JC, Wang B, Huang YC (2010) Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of Vibrio alginolyticus, the causative agent of mariculture in mariculture fish. Lett Appl Microbiol 50:480–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Canestrini G (1893) La malattia dominate delle anguille. Atti Institute Veneto Service 7:809–814Google Scholar
  97. Cano-Gomez A, Høj L, Owens L, Andreakis N (2011) Multilocus sequence analysis provides basis for fast and reliable identification of Vibrio harveyi-related species and reveals previous misidentification of important marine pathogens. Syst Appl Microbiol 34:561–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Cao HP, Zheng WD, He S, Ye X, Xiao GC, Yang XL (2013) Identification of a Vibrio cholerae isolate as the causal agent of ascites disease in cultured Mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky). Isr J Aquacult – Bamidgeh 65, Article Number: UNSP 914Google Scholar
  99. Cen JY, Liu XQ, Li JN, Zhang M, Wang W (2013) Identification and immunogenicity of immunodominant mimotopes of outer membrane protein U (OmpU) of Vibrio mimicus from phage display peptide library. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Chang C-I, Lee C-F, Wu C-C, Cheng TC, Tsai J-M, Lin K-J (2011) A selective and differential medium for Vibrio alginolyticus. J Fish Dis 34:227–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Chart H, Trust TJ (1984) Characterization of the surface antigens of the marine fish pathogens, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii. Can J Microbiol 30:703–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Chen Q, Actis LA, Tolmasky ME, Crosa JH (1994) Chromosome-mediated 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid is a precursor in the biosynthesis of the plasmis-mediated siderophore anguibactin in Vibrio anguillarum. J Bacteriol 176:4226–4234PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Chen Q, Wertheimer AM, Tolmasky ME, Crosa JH (1996) The AngR protein and the siderophore anguibactin positively regulate the expression of iron-transport genes in Vibrio anguillarum. Mol Microbiol 22:127–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Chen Q, Yan Q, Wang K, Zhuang Z, Wang X (2008) Portal of entry for pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus into large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea, and characteristics of bacterial adhesion to mucus. Dis Aquat Org 80:181–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Chen C, Wang Q-B, Liu Z-H, Zhao J-J, Jiang X, Sun H-Y, Ren C-H, Hu C-Q (2012) Characterization of role of the toxR gene in the physiology and pathogenicity of Vibrio alginolyticus. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 101:281–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Cheng S, Zhang W-W, Zhang M, Sun L (2010) Evaluation of the vaccine potential of a cytotoxic protease and a protective immunogen from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain. Vaccine 28:1041 –1047Google Scholar
  107. Citarella RV, Colwell RR (1970) Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Vibrio::polynucleotide sequence relationships among selected Vibrio species. J Bacteriol 104:434–442PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Collado R, Fouz B, Sanjuán E, Amaro C (2000) Effectiveness of different vaccine formulations against vibriosis caused by Vibrio vulnificus serovar E (biotype 2) in European eels Anguilla anguilla. Dis Aquat Org 43:91–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Colorni A, Paperna I, Gordin H (1981) Bacterial infections in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata cultured in Elat. Aquaculture 23:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Colquhoun DJ, Alvheim K, Dommarsnes K, Syvertsen C, Sørum H (2002) Relevance of incubation temperature for Vibrio salmonicida vaccine production. J Appl Microbiol 92:1087–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Colwell RR, Grimes DJ (1984) Vibrio diseases of marine fish populations. Helgoländer Meeresun 37:265–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Conchas RF, Lemos ML, Barja JL, Toranzo AE (1991) Distribution of plasmid- and chromosome-mediated iron uptake systems in Vibrio anguillarum strains of different origins. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2956–2962PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Crisafi F, Denaro R, Genovese M, Cappello S, Mancuso M, Genovese L (2011) Comparison of 16SrDNA and toxR genes as targets for detection of Vibrio anguillarum in Dicentrarchus labrax kidney and liver. Res Microbiol 162:223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Crosa JH (1980) A plasmid associated with virulence in the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum specifies an iron-sequestering system. Nature (London) 283:566–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Crosa JH, Hodges LL (1981) Outer membrane proteins induced under conditions of iron limitation in the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Infect Immun 31:223–227PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Crosa JH, Schiewe MH, Falkow S (1977) Evidence for plasmid contribution to the virulence of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Infect Immun 18:509–513PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Crosa JH, Walter MA, Potter SA (1983) The genetics of plasmid-mediated virulence in the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. In: Crosa JH (ed) Bacteria and Viral Diseases of Fish. University of Washington, Molecular studies. Seattle, pp 21–30Google Scholar
  118. Crosbie PBB, Nowak BF (2004) Immune responses of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), after administration of an experimental Vibrio harveyi bacterin by intraperitoneal injection, anal intubation and immersion. J Fish Dis 27:623–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Croxatto A, Pride J, Hardman A, Williams P, Cámara M, Milton DL (2004) A distinctive dual-channel quorum-sensing system operates in Vibrio anguillarum. Mol Microbiol 52:1677–1689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Croy TR, Amend DF (1977) Immunization of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) against vibriosis using the hyperosmotic infiltration technique. Aquaculture 12:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Dalsgaard I, Høi L, Siebeling RJ, Dalsgaard A (1999) Indole-positive Vibrio vulnificus isolated from disease outbreaks on a Danish eel farm. Dis Aquat Org 35:187–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Davey ML, Hancock REW, Mutharia LM (1998) Influence of culture conditions on expression of the 40-kilodalton porin protein of Vibrio anguillarum serotype O2. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:138–146PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. David H (1927) Über eine durch cholera ähnliche Vibrionen hervorgerufene Fischseuche. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie und Parasitenkunde, Abteilung 1. Originale 102:46–60Google Scholar
  124. De La Cruz M, Muroga K (1989) The effects of Vibrio anguillarum extracellular products on Japanese eels. Aquaculture 80:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Deane EE, Woo NYS (2005) Evidence of disruption of Na+ -K+ -ATPase and hsp70 during vibriosis of sea bream, Sparus (= Rhabdosargus) sarba Forsskål. J Fish Dis 28:239–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Deane EE, Li J, Woo NYS (2004) Modulated heat shock protein expression during pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus stress of sea bream. Dis Aquat Org 62:205–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Deane EE, Jia A, Qu Z, Chen J-X, Zhang X-H, Woo NYS (2012) Induction of apoptosis in sea bream fibroblasts by Vibrio harveyi haemolysin and evidence for an anti-apoptotic role of heat shock protein 70. J Fish Dis 35:287–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Dec C, Angelidus P, Baudin-Laurençin F (1990) Effects of oral vaccination against vibriosis in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), and sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). J Fish Dis 13:369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Declercq AM, Chiers K, Soetaert M, Lasa A, Romalde JL, Polet H, Haesebrouck F, Decostere A (2015) Vibrio tapetis isolated from vesicular skin lesions in Dover sole Solea solea. Dis Aquat Org 115:81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Defoirdt T, Verstraete W, Bossier P (2008) Luminescence, virulence and quorum sensing signal production by pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi isolates. J Appl Microbiol 104:1480–1487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Denkin SM, Nelson DR (2004) Regulation of Vibrio anguillarum empA metalloprotease expression and its role in virulence. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4193–4204PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Dhayanithi NB, Kumar TTA, Arockiaraj J, Balasundaram C, Harikrishnan R (2015a) Dietary supplementation of Avicennia marina extract on immune protection and disease resistance in Amphiprion sebae against Vibrio alginolyticus. Fish Shellfish Immunol 45:52–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Dhayanithi NB, Ajithkumar TT, Arockiaraj J, Balasundaram C, Ramasamay H (2015b) Immune protection by Rhizophora apiculate in clownfish against Vibrio alginolyticus. Aquaculture 446:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Di Lorenzo M, Stork M, Tolmasky ME, Actis LA, Farrell D, Welch TJ, Cxrosa LM, Wertheimer AM, Chen Q, Salinas P, Waldbeser L, Crosa JH (2003) Complete sequence of virulence plasmid pJM1 from the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum strain 775. J Bacteriol 185:5822–5830PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Díaz-Rosales P, Chabrillón M, Arijo S, Martinez-Manzanares E, Moriñigo MA, Balebona MC (2006) Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida. J Fish Dis 29:355–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Diggles BK, Carson J, Hine PM, Hickman RW, Tait MJ (2000) Vibrio species associated with mortalities in hatchery-reared turbot (Colistium nudipinnis) and brill (C. guntheri) in New Zealand. Aquaculture 183:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. do Vale A, Ellis AE, Silva MT (2001) Electron microscopic evidence that expression of capsular polysaccharide by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is dependent on iron availability and growth phase. Dis Aquat Org 44:237–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. do Vale A, Magariños B, Romalde JL, Lemos ML, Ellis AE, Toranzo AE (2002) Binding of haemin by the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Dis Aquat Org 48:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. do Vale A, Silva MT, dos Santos NMS, Nascimento DS, Reis-Rodriques P, Costa-Ramos C, Ellis AE, Azevedo JE (2005) AIP56, a novel plasmid-encoded virulence factor of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida with apoptogenic activity against sea bass macrophages and neutrophils. Mol Microbiol 58:1025–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Drouin de Bouville R (1907) Les maladies des poissons d’eau donce d’Europe. Annales des Sciences Agronomique 1:120–250Google Scholar
  141. Eggset G, Mortensen A, Johansen L-H, Sommer A-I (1997) Susceptibility to furunculosis, cold water vibriosis, and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a function of smolt status by seawater transfer. Aquaculture 158:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Egidius E, Andersen K (1978) Host-specific pathogenicity of strains of Vibrio anguillarum isolated from rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson and saithe Pollachius virens (L.). J Fish Dis 1:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Egidius E, Andersen K (1979) Bath immunization – a practical and non-stressing method of vaccinating farmed sea rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson against vibriosis. J Fish Dis 2:405–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Egidius E, Andersen K, Causen E, Raa J (1981) Cold water vibriosis or ‘Hitra disease’ in Norwegian salmonid farming. J Fish Dis 4:353–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Egidius E, Wiik R, Andersen K, Hoff KA, Hjeltnes B (1986) Vibrio salmonicida sp. nov., a new fish pathogen. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36:518–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Egusa S (1983) Disease problems in Japanese yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, culture: a review. In: Stewart JE (ed) Diseases of Commercially Important Marine Fish and Shellfish. Conseil International pour l’Exploration de la Mer, Copenhagen, pp 10–18Google Scholar
  147. Elkamel AA, Hawke JP, Henk WG, Thune RL (2003) Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is capable of replicating in hybrid striped bass macrophages. J Aquat Anim Health 15:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Enger Ø, Husevåg B, Goksøyr J (1989) Presence of the fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida in fish farm sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:2815–2818PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Enger Ø, Husevåg B, Goksøyr J (1991) Seasonal variation in presence of Vibrio salmonicida and total bacterial counts in Norwegian fish farm water. Can J Microbiol 37:618–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Esteve C (1995) Numerical taxonomy of Aeromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae associated with reared fish and surrounding fresh and brackish water. Syst Appl Microbiol 18:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Esteve-Gassent MD, Amaro C (2004) Immunogenic antigens of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus serovar E. Fish Shellfish Immunol 17:277–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Esteve-Gassent MD, Nielsen ME, Amaro C (2003) The kinetics of antibody production in mucus and serum of European eel (Anguilla angujilla L.) after vaccination against Vibrio vulnificus: development of a new method for antibody quantification in skin mucus. Fish Shellfish Immunol 15:51–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Esteve-Gassent MD, Fouz B, Amaro C (2004) Efficacy of a bivalent vaccine against eel diseases caused by Vibrio vulnificus after its administration by four different routes. Fish Shellfish Immunol 16:93–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Evelyn TPT (1971) First records of vibriosis in Pacific salmon cultured in Canada, and taxonomic studies of the responsible bacterium, Vibrio anguillarum. J Fish Res Board Can 28:517–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Evelyn TPT (1984) Immunization against pathogenic vibrios. In: De Kinkelin P (ed) Symposium on Fish Vaccination. Office, International des Epizooties, Paris, pp 121–150Google Scholar
  156. Evelyn TPT, Ketcheson JE (1980) Laboratory and field observations on antivibriosis vaccines. In: Ahne W (ed) Fish Diseases. Springer-Verlag, Third-COPRAQ Session. Berlin, pp 45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ezura Y, Tajima K, Yoshimizu M, Kimura T (1980) Studies on the taxonomy and serology of causative organisms of fish vibriosis. Fish Pathol 14:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Fabbro C, Celussi M, Russell H, Del Negro P (2011) Phenotypic and genetic diversity of coexisting Listonella anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio chagassi recovered from skin haemorrhages of diseased sand smelt, Atherina boyeri, in the Gulf of Trieste (NE Adriatic Sea). Lett Appl Microbiol 54:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Faikoh EN, Hong Y-H, Hu S-Y (2014) Liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde enhances zebrafish (Danio rerio) immunity and survival when challenged with Vibrio vulnificus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Fish Shellfish Immunol 38:15–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Fang HM, Ling KC, Ge R, Sin YM (2000) Enhancement of protective immunity in blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas), against Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio anguillarum by A. hydrophila major adhesin. J Fish Dis 23:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Farmer JJ III, Janda M, Brenner FW, Cameron DN, Birkhead KM (2005) Genus I. Vibrio Pacini 1854, 411AL. In: Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 2, 2nd edn, The Proteobacteria, Part B The Gammaproteobacteria. Springer, New York, pp 494–546Google Scholar
  162. Farrell D, Mikesell P, Actis LA, Crosa JH (1990) A regulatory gene, angR, of the iron uptake system of Vibrio anguillarum: similarity with phage P22 cro and regulation by iron. Gene 86:45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Fouz BI, Larsen JL, Toranzo AE (1991) Vibrio damsela as a pathogenic agent causing mortalities in cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 11:80–81Google Scholar
  164. Fouz B, Larsen JL, Nielsen B, Barja JL, Toranzo AE (1992) Characterization of Vibrio damsela strains isolated from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus in Spain. Dis Aquat Org 12:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Fouz B, Barja JL, Amaro C, Rivas C, Toranzo AE (1993) Toxicity of the extracellular products of Vibrio damsela isolated from diseased fish. Curr Microbiol 27:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Fouz B, Toranzo AE, Biosca EG, Mazoy R, Amaro C (1994) Role of iron in the pathogenicity of Vibrio damsela for fish and mammals. FEMS Microbiol Lett 121:181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Fouz B, Biosca EG, Amaro C (1997) High affinity iron-uptake systems in Vibrio damsela: role in the acquisition of iron from transferrin. J Appl Microbiol 82:157–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Fouz B, Toranzo AE, Milán M, Amaro C (2000) Evidence that water transmits the disease caused by the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae. J Appl Microbiol 88:531–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Fouz B, Esteve-Gassent MD, Barrera R, Larsen JL, Nielsen ME, Amaro C (2001) Field testing of a vaccine against eel diseases caused by Vibrio vulnificus. Dis Aquat Org 45:183–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Fouz B, Larsen JL, Amaro C (2006) Vibrio vulnificus serovar A: an emerging pathogen in European anguilliculture. J Fish Dis 29:285–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Fouz B, Roig FJ, Amaro C (2007) Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the new fish-virulent Vibrio vulnificus serovar that lacks potential to infect humans. Microbiology 153:1926–1934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Fouz B, Llorens A, Valiente E, Amaro C (2010) A comparative epizootiologic study of the two fish-pathogenic serovars of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2. J Fish Dis 33:383–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Fryer JL, Nelson JS, Garrison RL (1972) Vibriosis in fish. In: Moore RW (ed) Progress in Fishery and Food Science. Seattle, University of Washington, Publications in Fisheries, pp 129–133Google Scholar
  174. Fryer JL, Rohovec JS, Garrison RL (1978) Immunization of salmonids for control of vibriosis. Mar Fish Rev 40:20–23Google Scholar
  175. Fujioka RS, Greco SB, Cates MB, Schroeder JP (1988) Vibrio damsela from wounds in bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Dis Aquat Org 4:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Fujiwara-Nagata E, Eguchi M (2004) Significance of Na+ in the fish pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum, under energy depleted condition. FEMS Microbiol Lett 234:163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Fukuda Y, Kusuda R (1981a) Passive immunization of cultured yellowtail against pseudotuberculosis. Fish Pathol 16:85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Fukuda Y, Kusuda R (1981b) Efficacy of vaccination for pseudotuberculosis in cultured yellowtail by various routes of administration. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 47:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Fukuda Y, Kusuda R (1982) Detection and characterization of precipitating antibody in the serum of immature yellowtail immunized with Pasteurella piscicida cells. Fish Pathol 17:125–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Gauger E, Gómez-Chiarri M (2002) 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing confirms the synonymy of Vibrio harveyi and V. carchariae. Dis Aquat Org 52:39–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Gauger E, Smolowitz R, Uhlinger K, Casey J, Gómez-Chiarri M (2006) Vibrio harveyi and other bacterial pathogens in cultured summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Aquaculture 260:10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Gauthier G, Lafay B, Ruimy R, Breittmayer V, Nicolas JL, Gauthier M, Christen R (1995) Small-subunit rRNA sequences and whole DNA relatedness concur for the re-assignment of Pasteurella piscicida (Snieszko et al.) Janssen and Surgalla to the genus Photobacterium as Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:139–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Geng X, Dong X-H, Tan B-P, Yang Q-H, Chi S-Y, Liu H-Y, Liu X-Q (2012) Effects of dietary probiotic on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Aquac Nutr 18:46–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Ghittino P, Andruetto S (1977) Fish vibriosis in fresh and salt waters of Italy. Bulletin de l’Office International des Epizooties 87:483–485Google Scholar
  185. Giles JS, Hariharan H, Heaney SB (1995) The plasmid profiles of fish pathogenic isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum, and Vibrio ordalii from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Canada. Can J Microbiol 41:209–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Gilmour A (1977) Characteristics of marine vibrios isolated from fish farm tanks. Aquaculture 11:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Giorgetti G, Tomasin AB, Ceschia G (1981) First Italian anti-vibriosis vaccination experiments of freshwater farmed rainbow trout. Dev Biol Stand 49:455–459Google Scholar
  188. Gjedrem T, Aulstad D (1974) Selection experiments with salmonids. 1. Differences in resistance to vibrio disease of salmon parr (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 3:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Gomez-Gil B, Soto-Rodriguez S, Garcia-Gasca A, Roque A, Vazquez-Juarez R, Thompson FJ, Swings J (2004) Molecular identification of Vibrio harveyi-related isolates associated with diseased aquatic organisms. Microbiology 150:1769–1777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. González SF, Osorio CR, Santos Y (2003) Development of a PCR-based method for the detection of Listonella anguillarum in fish tissues and blood samples. Dis Aquat Org 55:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. González SF, Krug MJ, Nielsen ME, Santos Y, Call DR (2004) Simultaneous detection of marine fish pathogens by using multiplex PCR and a DNA microarray. J Clin Microbiol 42:1414–1419PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Gould RW, O’Leary PJ, Garrison RL, Rohovec JS, Fryer JL (1978) Spray vaccination: a method for the immunization of fish. Fish Pathol 13:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Grimes DJ, Stemmler J, Hada H, May EB, Maneval D, Hetrick FM, Jones RT, Stoskopf M, Colwell RR (1984a) Vibrio species associated with mortality of sharks held in captivity. Microb Ecol 10:271–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Grimes DJ, Colwell RR, Stemmler J, Hada H, Maneval D, Hetrick FM, May EB, Jones RT, Stoskopf M (1984b) Vibrio species as agents of elasmobranch disease. Helgoländer Meeresun 37:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Grimes DJ, Gruber SH, May EB (1985) Experimental infection of lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris (Poey), with Vibrio species. J Fish Dis 8:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Grischkowsky, RS (1973) Studies of the nature of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) mortalities. 1. Implications of bacterial pathogenicity and II. Pathogenicity testing of vibrios on chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum) and Pacific oysters. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  197. Grisez L, Chair M, Sorgeloos P, Ollevier F (1996) Mode of infection and spread of Vibrio anguillarum in turbot Scophthalmus maximus larvae after oral challenge through live feed. Dis Aquat Org 26:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Groberg, WJ (1982) Infection and the immune response induced by Vibrio anguillarum in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  199. Gulla S, Sørum H, Vågnes Ø, Colquhoun DJ (2015) Phylogenetic analysis and serotyping of Vibrio splendidus-related bacteria isolated from salmon farm cleaner fish. Dis Aquat Org 117:121–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Guo J-J, Kuo C-M, Chuang Y-C, Hong J-W, Chou R-L, Chen T-I (2012) The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae and on growth in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Aquaculture 364:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Guo J-J, Kuo C-M, Hong J-W, Chou R-L, Lee Y-H, Chen T-I (2015a) The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on antibacterial activities against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Streptococcus iniae and on growth of cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture 435:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Guo SJ, Lu PP, Feng JJ, Zhao JP, Lin P, Duan LH (2015b) A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrate). Fish Shellfish Immunol 43:477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Haenen OLM, van Zanten E, Jansen R, Roozenburg I, Engelsma MY, Dijkstra A, Boers SA, Voorbergen-Laarman M, Moller AVM (2014) Vibrio vulnificus outbreaks in Dutch eel farms since 1996: strain diversity and impact. Dis Aquat Org 108:201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Hamaguchi, M. and Kusuda, R. (1989) Field testing of Pasteurella piscicida formalin killed bacterin against pseudotuberculosis in cultured yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata. Bulletin of Marine Science and Fisheries, Kochi University 11, 11–16Google Scholar
  205. Hamod MA, Nithin MS, Shuur YN, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I (2012) Outer membrane protein K as a subunit vaccine against V. anguillarum. Aquaculture 354:107–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Hanif A, Bakopoulos V, Leonardos I, Dimitriadis GJ (2005) The effect of sea bream (Sparus aurata) broodstock and larval vaccination on the susceptibility by Photoabcterium damsela subsp. piscicida and on the humoral immune parameters. Fish Shellfish Immunol 19:345–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Hansen H, Bjelland AM, Ronessen M, Robertsen E, Willasen NP (2014) LitR is a repressor of syp genes and has a temperature-sensitive regulatory effect on biofilm formation and colony morphology in Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida. Appl Environ Microbiol 80:5530–5541PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Harbell SO, Hodgins HO, Schiewe MH (1979) Studies on the pathology of vibriosis in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). J Fish Dis 2:527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Harikrishnan R, Balasundaram C, Heo M-S (2012a) Effect of Inonotus obliquus enriched diet on hematology, immune response, and disease protection in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio harveyi. Aquaculture. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.03.010 Google Scholar
  210. Harikrishnan R, Kim J-S, Balasundaram C, Heo M-S (2012b) Vaccination effect of liposomes entrapped whole cell bacterial vaccine on immune response and disease protection in Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio harveyi. Aquaculture 342–343:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Harikrishnan R, Kim D-H, Hong S-H, Mariappan P, Balasundaram C, Heo M-S (2012c) Non specific immune response and disease resistance induced by Siegesbeckia glabrescens against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Epinephelus bruneus. Fish Shellfish Immunol 33:359–364Google Scholar
  212. Harikrishnan R, Kim JS, Balasundaram C, Heo M-S (2012d) Immunomodulatory effects of chitin and chitosan enriched diets in Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. Aquaculture 326:46–52Google Scholar
  213. Harikrishnan R, Kim JS, Balasundaram C, Heo M-S (2012e) Protection of Vibrio harveyi infection through dietary administration of Pueraria thunbergiana in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus. Aquaculture 324:27–32Google Scholar
  214. Harrell LW (1978) Vibriosis and current vaccination procedures in Puget Sound, Washington. Mar Fish Rev 40:24–25Google Scholar
  215. Harrell LW, Etlinger HM, Hodgins HO (1976) Humoral factors important in resistance of salmonid fish to bacterial disease. II. Anti Vibrio anguillarum activity in mucus and observations on complement. Aquaculture 7:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Hashimoto S, Muraoka A, Kusuda R (1989) Effects of carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, inorganic salts and peptones on the growth of Pasteurella piscicida. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55:1791–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Håstein T, Bullock AM (1976) An acute septicaemic disease of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by a Pasteurella- like organism. J Fish Biol 8:23–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Håstein T, Smith JE (1977) A study of Vibrio anguillarum from farms and wild fish using principal components analysis. J Fish Biol 11:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Håstein T, Hallingstad F, Refsti T, Roald SO (1980) Recent experience of field vaccination trials against vibriosis in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). In: Ahne W (ed) Fish Diseases. Springer-Verlag, Third COPRAQ-Session. Berlin, pp 53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Hawke JP, Thune RL, Cooper RK, Judice E, Kelly-Smith M (2003) Molecular and phenotypic characterization of strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida isolated from hybrid striped bass cultured in Louisiana USA. J Aquat Anim Health 15:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Hetrick FM, Hall LW, Wolski S, Graves WC, Robertson BS, Burton DT (1984) Influence of chlorine on the susceptibility of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to Vibrio anguillarum. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 9:1375–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Hickey ME, Richards GP, Lee J-L (2015) Development of a two-step, non-probed multiplex real-time PCR for surveilling Vibrio anguillarum in seawater. J Fish Dis 38:551–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Hirono I, Kato M, Aoki T (1997) Identification of major antigenic proteins of Pasteurella piscicida. Microb Pathog 23:371–380Google Scholar
  224. Hispano C, Nebra Y, Blanch AR (1997) Isolation of Vibrio harveyi from an ocular lesion in the short sunfish (Mola mola). Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 17:104–107Google Scholar
  225. Hjeltnes B, Andersen K, Ellingsen H-M, Egidius E (1987) Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of a Vibrio sp. isolated from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., suffering from Hitra disease. J Fish Dis 10:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Hoel K, Holstad G, Lillehaug A (1998) Adjuvant activities of a Vibrio salmonicida bacterin on T-dependent and T-independent antigens in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Shellfish Immunol 8:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Hoff KA (1989) Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio salmonicida at different salinities. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:1775–1786PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. Hoffmann M, Monday SR, Fischer M, Brown EW (2012) Genetic and phylogenetic evidence for misidentification of Vibrio species within the Harveyi clade. Lett Appl Microbiol 54:160–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Høi L, Larsen JL, Dalsgaard I, Dalsgaard A (1998) Occurrence of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes in Danish marine environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:7–13PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. Holm KO, Jørgensen T (1987) A successful vaccination of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., against ‘Hitra disease’ or coldwater vibriosis. J Fish Dis 10:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Holm KO, Strøm E, Stemsvåg K, Raa J, Jørgensen T (1985) Characteristics of a Vibrio sp. associated with the “Hitra Disease” of Atlantic salmon in Norwegian fish farms. Fish Pathol 20:125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Horne MT, Baxendale A (1983) The adhesion of Vibrio anguillarum to host tissues and its role in pathogenesis. J Fish Dis 6:461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Horne MT, Tatner M, McDerment S, Agius C (1982) Vaccination of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, at low temperatures and the long-term persistence of protection. J Fish Dis 5:343–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Hoshina T (1956) An epidemic disease affecting rainbow trout in Japan. J Tokyo Uni Fisher 42:15–16Google Scholar
  235. Hu Y-H, Sun L (2011) A bivalent Vibrio harveyi DNA vaccine induces strong protection in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Vaccine 29:4328–4333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Hu Y-H, Cheng S, Zhang M, Sun L (2011) Construction and evaluation of a live vaccine against Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio harveyi: laboratory vs. mock field trial. Vaccine 29:4081–4085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Huang ZJ, Tang JJ, Li M, Fu YC, Dong CF, Zhong JF, He JG (2012) Immunological evaluation of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) combined-vaccine efficacy in Epinephelus coioides. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 150:61–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Huang J-B, Wu Y-C, Chi S-C (2014) Dietary supplementation of Pediococus pentosaceus enhances innate immunity, physiological health and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Fish Shellfish Immunol 39:196–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Husevåg B, Lunestad BT, Johannessen PJ, Enger Ø, Samuelsen OB (1991) Simultaneous occurrence of Vibrio salmonicida and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sediments at abandoned aquaculture sites. J Fish Dis 14:631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Inamura H, Muroga K, Nakai T (1984) Toxicity of extracellular products of Vibrio anguillarum. Fish Pathol 19:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Ishimaru K, Muroga K (1997) Taxonomical re-evaluation of two pathogenic Vibrio species isolated from milkfish and swimming crab. Fish Pathol 32:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Ishimaru K, Akagawa-Matsushita M, Muroga K (1996) Vibrio ichthyoenteri sp. nov., a pathogen of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Itami T, Kusuda R (1980) Studies on spray vaccination against vibriosis in cultured ayu. II. Duration of vaccination efficacy and effect of different vaccine preparation. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 46:699–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Iwamoto Y, Suzuki Y, Kurita A, Watanabe Y, Shimizu T, Ohgami H, Yanagihara Y (1995) Vibrio trachuri sp. nov., a new species isolated from diseased Japanese horse mackerel. Microbiol Immunol 39:831–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Janssen WA, Surgalla MJ (1968) Morphology, physiology and serology of a Pasteurella species pathogenic for white perch (Roccus americanus). J Bacteriol 96:1606–1610PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. Jensen S, Samuelsen OB, Andersen K, Torkildsen L, Lambert C, Choquet G, Paillard C, Bergh Ø (2003) Characterization of strains of Vibrio splendidus and V. tapetis isolated from corkwing wrasse Symphodus melops suffering vibriosis. Dis Aquat Org 53:25–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Jia X, Patrzykat A, Devlin RH, Ackerman PA, Iwama GK, Hancock REW (2000) Antimicrobial peptides protect coho salmon from Vibrio anguillarum infections. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1928–1932PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Jia P-P, Hu Y-H, Chi H, Sun B-G, Yu W-G, Sun L (2013) Comparative study of four flagellins of Vibrio anguillarum: vaccine potential and adjuvanticity. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34:514–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Johansen L-H, Sommer A-I (2001) Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts affects the outcome of secondary infections with infectious salmon anaemia virus and Vibrio salmonicida. Dis Aquat Org 47:109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Johnson GS (1977) Immunological studies on Vibrio anguillarum. Aquaculture 10:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Johnson KA, Amend DF (1983) Efficacy of Vibrio anguillarum and Yersinia ruckeri bacterins applied by oral and anal intubation of salmonids. J Fish Dis 6:473–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Johnson KA, Flynn JK, Amend DF (1982a) Onset of immunity in salmonid fry vaccinated by direct immersion in Vibrio anguillarum and Yersinia ruckeri bacterins. J Fish Dis 5:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Johnson KA, Flynn JK, Amend DF (1982b) Duration of immunity in salmonid fry vaccinated by direct immersion with Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum bacterins. J Fish Dis 5:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Joosten PHM, Kruijer WJ, Rombout JHWM (1996) Anal immunisation of carp and rainbow trout with different fractions of Vibrio anguillarum bacterin. Fish Shellfish Immunol 6:541–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Joosten PHM, Tiemersma E, Threels A, Caumartin-Dhieux C, Rombout JHWM (1997) Oral vaccination of fish against Vibrio anguillarum using alginate microparticles. Fish Shellfish Immunol 7:471–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Jørgensen T, Midling K, Espelid S, Nilsen R, Stensvåg K (1989) Vibrio salmonicida, a pathogen in salmonids, also causes mortality in net-pen captured cod (Gadus morhua). Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 9:42–44Google Scholar
  257. Juíz-Río S, Osorio CR, de Lorenzo V, Lemos ML (2005) Substractive hybridization reveals a high genetic diversity in the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida: evidence of a SXT-like element. Microbiology 151:2659–2669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Jung TS, Thompson K, Adams A (2000) Identification of sialic acid in Photobacterium damsela subspecies piscicida – possible role in cell adhesion and survival in the fish host. Fish Shellfish Immunol 10:285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Kahla-Nakbi AB, Chaieb K, Bakhrout A (2009) Investigation of several virulence properties among Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolates from diseased cultured fish in Tunesia. Dis Aquat Org 86:21–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Kajita Y, Sakai M, Atsuta S, Kobayashi M (1990) The immunomodulatory effects of levamisole on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Pathol 25:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Kanchanopas-Barnette P, Labella A, Alonso CM, Manchado M, Castro D, Borrego JJ (2009) The first isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from Asian seabass Lates calcarifer. Fish Pathol 44:47–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Kaneko T, Colwell RR (1974) Distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related organisms in the Atlantic Ocean off South Carolina and Georgia. Appl Microbiol 28:1009–1017PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. Kanemori Y, Nakai T, Muroga K (1987) The role of extracellular protease produced by Vibrio anguillarum. Fish Pathol 22:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Kanno T, Nakai T, Muroga K (1990) Scanning electron microscopy on the skin surface of ayu Plecoglossus altivelis infected with Vibrio anguillarum. Dis Aquat Org 8:73–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Kaper JB, Lockman H, Remmers EF, Kristensen K, Colwell RR (1983) Numerical taxonomy of vibrios isolated from estuarine environments. Int J Syst Bacteriol 33:229–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Karlsen C, Espelid S, Willassen N-P, Paulsen SM (2011) Identification and cloning of immunogenic Aliivibrio salmonicida Pal-like protein present in profiled outer membrane and secreted subproteome. Dis Aquat Org 93:215–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Kashulin A, Sørum H (2014) A novel in vivo model for rapid evaluation of Aliivibrio salmonicida infectivity in Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 420:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Kawahara E, Kawai K, Kusuda R (1989) Invation of Pasteurella piscicida in tissues of experimentally infected yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55:499–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Kawai K, Kusuda R (1995) A review: Listonella anguillarum infection in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, and its prevention by vaccination. Isr J Aquacult Bamidgeh 47:173–177Google Scholar
  270. Kawai K, Yamamoto S, Kusuda R (1989) Plankton-mediated oral delivery of Vibrio anguillarum vaccine to juvenile ayu. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Kawakami H, Shinohara N, Fukuda Y, Yamashita H, Kihara H, Sakai M (1997) The efficacy of lipopolysaccharide mixed chloroform-killed cell (LPS-CKC) bacterin of Pasteurella piscicida on yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata. Aquaculture 154:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Kent ML (1982) Characteristics and identification of Pasteurella and Vibrio species pathogenic to fishes using API-20E (Analytab Products) multitube test strips. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:1725–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Kiehn ED, Pacha RE (1969) Characterization and relatedness of marine vibrios pathogenic to fish: deoxyribonucleic acid homology and base composition. J Bacteriol 100:1248–1255PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  274. Kiiyukia C, Nakajima A, Nakai T, Muroga K, Kawakami H, Hashimoto H (1992) Vibrio cholerae non-01 isolated from ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:3078–3082PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  275. Kilian M (1976) A taxonomic study of the genus Haemophilus, with the proposal of a new species. J Gen Microbiol 93:9–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Kim E-H, Yoshida T, Aoki T (1993) Detection of R plasmid encoded with resistance to florfenicol in Pasteurella piscicida. Fish Pathol 28:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Kim KH, Hwang YJ, Bai SC (1999) Resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) fed diets containing difference doses of aloe. Aquaculture 180:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Kim D-H, Han H-J, Kim S-M, Lee D-C, Park S-I (2004) Bacterial enteritis and the development of the larval digestive tract in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel). J Fish Dis 27:497–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Kim D-G, Bae J-Y, Hong G-E, Min M-K, Kim J-K, Kong I-S (2008) Application of the rpoS gene for the detection of Vibrio anguillarum in flounder and prawn by polymerase chain reaction. J Fish Dis 31:639–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Kitao T, Aoki T, Fukodome M, Kawano K, Wada Y, Mizuno Y (1983) Serotyping of Vibrio anguillarum isolated from diseased freshwater fish in Japan. J Fish Dis 6:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Knudsen G, Sørum H, Press CML, Olafsen JA (1999) In situ adherence of Vibrio spp. to cryosections of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., tissue. J Fish Dis 22:409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Kocylowski B (1963) Etat actuel des maladies des poissons. Organisation de l’inspection des poissons et de leurs de consommation en Pologne. Bulletin de l’Office International des Epizooties 59:89–109Google Scholar
  283. Kodama H, Moustafa M, Ishiguro S, Mikami T, Izawa H (1984) Extracellular virulence factors of fish Vibrio: relationships between toxic material, hemolysin, and proteolytic enzyme. Am J Vet Res 45:2203–2207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Kraxberger-Beatty T, McGarey DJ, Grier HJ, Lim DV (1990) Vibrio harveyi, an opportunistic pathogen of common snook, Centropomus undecimalis (Block), held in captivity. J Fish Dis 13:557–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Kubota SS, Takakuwa M (1963) Studies on the disease of marine culture fishes. 1. General description and preliminary discussion of fish diseases at Mie Prefecture. J Facul Fish Prefect Uni Mie 6:107–124Google Scholar
  286. Kusuda R, Fukuda Y (1980) Agglutinating antibody titers and serum protein changes of yellowtail after immunization with Pasteurella piscicida cells. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 46:801–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Kusuda R, Inoue K (1976) Studies on the application of ampicillin for pseudotuberculosis of cultured yellowtail – 1. In vitro studies on sensitivity, development of drug-resistance and reversion of acquired drug-resistance characteristics of Pasteurella piscicida. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 42:969–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Kusuda R, Yamaoka M (1972) Etiological studies on bacterial pseudotuberculosis in cultured yellowtail with Pasteurella piscicida as the causative agent – 1. On the morphological and biochemical properties. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 38:1325–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Kusuda R, Kawai K, Masui T (1978a) Etiological studies on bacterial pseudotuberculosis in cultured yellowtail with Pasteurella piscicida as the causative agent – II. On the serological properties. Fish Pathol 13:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Kusuda R, Komatsu I, Kawai K (1978b) Streptococcus sp isolated from an epizootic of cultured eels. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 44:295Google Scholar
  291. Kusuda R, Sako H, Kawai K (1979) Classification of vibrios isolated from diseased fishes – 1. On the morphological, biological and biochemical properties. Fish Pathol 13:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Kusuda R, Yokoyama J, Kawai K (1986) Bacteriological study on cause of mass mortalities in cultured black sea bream fry. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 52:1745–1751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Kusuda R, Itaoka M, Kawai K (1988) Drug sensitivity of Pasteurella piscicida strains isolated from cultured yellowtail from 1984 to 1985. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 54:1521–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Kvitt H, Ucko M, Colorni A, Batargias C, Zlotkin A, Knibb W (2002) Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida: detection by direct amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences and genotypic variation as determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Dis Aquat Org 48:187–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Labella A, Vida M, Alonso MC, Infante C, Cardenas S, Lopez-Romalde S, Manchado M, Borrego JJ (2006) First isolation of Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae from cultured redbanded seabream, Pagrus auriga Valenciennes in Spain. J Fish Dis 29:175–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Labella A, Sanchez-Montes N, Berbel C, Aparicio M, Castro D, Manchado M, Borrego JJ (2010) Toxicity of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae strains isolated from new cultured marine fish. Dis Aquat Org 92:31–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Lamas J, Anadon R, Devesa S, Toranzo AE (1990) Visceral neoplasia and epidermal papillomas in cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Dis Aquat Org 8:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Lamas J, Santos Y, Bruno D, Toranzo AE, Anadon R (1994a) A comparison of pathological changes caused by Vibrio anguillarum and its extracellular products in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Pathol 29:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Lamas J, Santos Y, Bruno DW, Toranzo AE, Anadón R (1994b) Non-specific cellular responses of rainbow trout to Vibrio anguillarum and its extracellular products (ECPs). J Fish Biol 45:839–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Larsen JL (1982) Vibrio anguillarum: prevalence in three carbohydrate loaded marine recipients and a control. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie und Hygiene, 1. Abteilung Originale C3:519–530Google Scholar
  301. Larsen JL, Olsen JE (1991) Occurrence of plasmids in Danish isolates of Vibrio anguillarum serovars O1 and O2 and association of plasmids with phenotypic characteristics. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2158–2163PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  302. Larsen MH, Blackburn N, Larsen JL, Olsen JE (2004) Influences of temperature, salinity and starvation on the motility and chemotactic response of Vibrio anguillarum. Microbiology 150:1283–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Lee K-K (1995) Pathogenesis studies on Vibrio alginolyticus in the grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, Bloch et Schneider. Microb Pathog 19:39–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Lee JV, Shread P, Furniss AL, Bryant TN (1981) Taxonomy and description of Vibrio fluvialis sp. nov. (Synonym Group F Vibrios, Group EF6). J Appl Bacteriol 50:73–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Lee JV, Bashford DJ, Donovan TJ, Furniss AL, West PA (1982) The incidence of Vibrio cholerae in water, animals and birds in Kent, England. J Appl Bacteriol 52:281–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Lee K-K, Chiang HT, Yii KC, Su WM, Liu PC (1997) Effects of extracellular products of Vibrio vulnificus on Acanthopagrus schlegeli serum components in vitro and in vivo. Microbios 92:209–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Lee D-C, Han H-J, Choi S-Y, Kronvall G, Kim D-H (2012) Antibiograms and the estimation of epidemiological cut off values for Vibrio ichthyoenteri isolated from larval olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 342–343:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Lee C-T, Pajuelo D, Llorens A, Chen Y-H, Leiro JM, Padros F, Hor L-I, Amaro C (2013) MARTX of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is a virulence and survival factor. Environ Microbiol 15:419–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Lei Q, Yin-Geng W, Zheng Z, Shao-Li Y (2006) The first report on fin rot disease of cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus in China. J Aquat Anim Health 18:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Lemos ML, Salinas P, Toranzo AE, Barja JL, Crosa JH (1988) Chromosome-mediated iron uptake system in pathogenic strains of Vibrio anguillarum. J Bacteriol 170:1920–1925PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  311. Lemos ML, Mazoy R, Conchas RF, Toranzo AE (1991) Presence of iron uptake mechanisms in environmental non-pathogenic strains of Vibrio anguillarum. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 11:150–152Google Scholar
  312. Levican A, Avendaño-Herrera R (2015) bacteria associated with mass mortality of post-larvae of red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) cultured in a Chilean farm. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 35:162–169Google Scholar
  313. Levine MA, Wolke RE, Cabelli VJ (1972) Vibrio anguillarum as a cause of disease in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Can J Microbiol 18:1585–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Lewis DH, Grumbles LC, McConnell S, Flowers AI (1970) Pasteurella-like bacteria from a epizootic in menhaden and mullet in Galveston Bay. J Wildl Dis 6:160–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Li J, Zhou L, Woo NYS (2003) Invasion routes and pathogenicity mechanisms of Vibrio alginolyticus to silver sea bream Sparus sarba. J Aquat Anim Health 15:302–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Li G, Zhao D, Huang L, Sun J, Gao D, Wang H, Tan Y, Liang L (2006) Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from diseased Trachinotus ovatus in cage mariculture. Aquaculture 261:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Li L, Rock JL, Nelson DR (2008) Identification and characterization of a repeat-in-toxin gene cluster in Vibrio anguillarum. Infect Immun 76:2620–2632PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Li M-F, Wang C-L, Sun L (2011) A pathogenic Vibrio harveyi lineage causes recurrent disease outbreaks in cultured Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and induces apoptosis in host cells. Aquaculture 319:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Li C, Wang X, Zhang Q, Wang Z, Qi J, Yi Q, Liu Z, Wang Y, Yu H (2012) Identification of two major histocompatibility (MH) class II A genes and their association to Vibrio anguillarum infection in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). J Ocean Uni China 11:32–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Liang H, Xia L, Wu Z, Jian J, Lu Y (2010) Expression, characterization and immunogenicity of flagellin FlaC from Vibrio alginolyticus strain HY9901. Fish Shellfish Immunol 29:343–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Liang HY, Wu Z-H, Jian J-C, Huang YC (2011) Protection of red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus) against Vibrio alginolyticus with a DNA vaccine containing flagellin flaA gene. Lett Appl Microbiol 52:156–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Lindell K, Fahlgren A, Hjerde E, Willassen N-P, Fallman M, Milton DL (2012) Lipopolysaccharide O-antigen prevents phagocytosis of Vibrio anguillarum by rainbow trut (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin epithelial cells. Plus One 7:e37678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Liu P-C, Chuang W-H, Lee K-K (2003) Infectious gastroenteritis caused by Vibrio harveyi (V. carchariae) in cultured red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). J Appl Ichthyol 19:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Lopez JE, Angulo L (1995) Survival of Vibrio splendidus biotype I in seawater. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 15:70–72Google Scholar
  325. López CS, Alice AF, Chakraborty R, Crosa JH (2007) Identification of amino acid residues required for ferric-anguibactin transport in the outer-membrane receptor FatA of Vibrio anguillarum. Microbiology 153:570–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. López-Dóriga MV, Barnes AC, dos Santos NMS, Ellis AE (2000) Invasion of fish epithelial cells by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida: evidence for receptor specificity, and effect on capsule and serum. Microbiology 146:21–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Love M, Teebken-Fisher D, Hose JE, Farmer JJ III, Hickman FW, Fanning GR (1981) Vibrio damsela, a marine bacterium, causes skin ulcers on the damselfish Chromis punctipinnis. Science New York 214:1139–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Lunder T, Evensen Ø, Holstad G, Håstein T (1995) ‘Winter ulcer’ in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Pathological and bacteriological investigations and transmission experiments. Dis Aquat Org 23:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Lunder T, Sørum H, Holstad G, Steigerwalt AG, Mowinckel P, Brenner DJ (2000) Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vibrio viscosus sp. nov. and Vibrio wodanis sp. nov. isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with ‘winter ulcer’. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:427–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Lupiani B, Dopazo CP, Ledo A, Fouz B, Barja JL, Hetrick FM, Toranzo AE (1989) New syndrome of mixed bacterial and viral etiology in cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus. J Aquat Anim Health 1:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. MacDonell MT, Colwell RR (1985) Phylogeny of the Vibrionaceae and recommendations for two new genera, Listonella and Shewanella. Syst Appl Microbiol 6:171–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. MacDonell MT, Swartz DG, Ortiz-Conde BA, Last GA, Colwell RR (1986) Ribosomal RNA phylogenies for the vibrio-enteric group of eubacteria. Microbiol Sci 3:172–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Macián MC, Garay E, Grimont PAD, Pujalte MJ (2004) Vibrio ponticus sp. nov., a neighbour of V. fluvialis – V. fluvialis clade, isolated from gilthead sea bream, mussels and seawater. Syst Appl Microbiol 27:535–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Mackie C, Birkbeck TH (1992) Siderophores produced by Vibrio anguillarum in vitro and in infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis 15:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Macpherson HL, Bergh Ø, Birkbeck TH (2012) An aerolysin-like enterotoxin from Vibrio splendidus may be involved in intestinal tract damage and mortalities in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), and cod, Gadus morhua, larvae. J Fish Dis 35:153–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Magariños B, Romalde JL, Bandín I, Fouz B, Toranzo AE (1992) Phenotypic, antigenic, and molecular characterization of Pasteurella piscicida strains isolated from fish. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:3316–3322PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  337. Magariños B, Romalde JL, Barja JL, Toranzo AE (1994a) Evidence of a dormant but infective state of the fish pathogen Pasteurella piscicida in seawater and sediment. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:180–186PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  338. Magariños B, Romalde JL, Lemos ML, Barja JL, Toranzo AE (1994b) Iron uptake by Pasteurella piscicida and its role in pathogenicity for fish. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:2990–2998PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  339. Magariños B, Romalde JL, Santos Y, Casal JF, Barja JL, Toranzo AE (1994c) Vaccination trials on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) against Pasteurella piscicida. Aquaculture 120:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Magariños B, Pazos F, Santos Y, Romalde JL, Toranzo AE (1995) Response of Pasteurella piscicida and Flexibacter maritimus to skin mucus of marine fish. Dis Aquat Org 21:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Magariños B, Romalde JL, Noya M, Barja JL, Toranzo AE (1996a) Adherence and invasive capacities of the fish pathogen Pasteurella piscicida. FEMS Microbiol Lett 138:29–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Magariños B, Bonet R, Romalde JL, Martínez ML, Congregado F, Toranzo AE (1996b) Influence of the capsular layer on the virulence of Pasteurella piscicida for fish. Microb Pathog 21:289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Magariños B, Romalde JL, Cid A, Toranzo AE (1997a) Viability of starved Pasteurella piscicida in seawater monitored by flow cytometry and the effects of antibiotics on its resuscitation. Lett Appl Microbiol 24:122–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Magariños B, Osorio CR, Toranzo AE, Romalde JL (1997b) Applicability of ribotyping for intraspecific classification and epidemiological studies of Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Syst Appl Microbiol 20:634–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Magariños B, Couso N, Noya M, Merino P, Toranzo AE, Lamas J (2001) Effect of temperature on the development of pasteurellosis in carrier gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 195:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Mahnken CVW (1975) Status report on commercial salmon culture in Puget Sound. Commercial Fish Farmer, Aquaculture News 2:8–11Google Scholar
  347. Mao Z, He C, Qiu Y, Chen J (2011) Expression of Vibrio harveyi ompK in the yeast Pichia pastoris: The first step in developing an oral vaccine against vibriosis? Aquaculture 318:268–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Marco-Noales E, Milán M, Fouz B, SanJuán E, Amaro C (2001) Transmission to eels, portals of entry, and putative reservoirs of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E (Biotype 2). Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4717–4725PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Marco-Noales E, Biosca EG, Rojo C, Amaro C (2004) Influence of aquatic microbiota on the survival in water of the human and eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus serovar E. Environ Microbiol 6:364–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Martínez-Picardo J, Blanch AR, Jofre J (1994) Rapid detection and identification of Vibrio anguillarum by using a specific oligonucleotide probe complementary to 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:732–737Google Scholar
  351. Martins P, Navarro RVV, Coelho FJRC, Gomes NCM (2015) Development of a molecular methodology for fast detection of Photobacterium damselae subspecies in water samples. Aquaculture 435:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Masumura K, Yasunobu H, Okada N, Muroga K (1989) Isolation of a Vibrio sp., the causative bacterium of intestinal necrosis of Japanese flounder larvae. Fish Pathol 24:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Matsuo K, Miyazono I (1993) The influence of long-term administration of peptidoglycan on disease resistance and growth of juvenile rainbow trout. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 59:1377–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Matsuoka S, Kamada S (1995) Discharge of Pasteurella piscicida cells from experimentally infected yellowtail. Fish Pathol 30:221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Mattheis T (1964) Das Vorkommen von Vibrio anguillarum in Ostseefischen. Zentralblatt für Fischerei NF XII:259–263Google Scholar
  356. Maugeri TL, Crisafi E, Genovese L, Scoglio MER (1983) Identification of Vibrio anguillarum with the API-20E system. Microbiologica 1:73–79Google Scholar
  357. Mikkelsen H, Lund V, Martinsen L-C, Gravningen K, Schrøder MB (2007) Variability among Vibrio anguillarum O2 isolates from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.): Characterisation and vaccination studies. Aquaculture 266:16–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Milton DL, O’Toole R, Hörstedt P, Wolf-Watz H (1996) Flagellin A is essential for the virulence of Vibrio anguillarum. J Bacteriol 178:1310–1319PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  359. Miyazaki T, Jo Y, Kubota SS, Egusa S (1977) Histopathological studies on vibriosis of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Part 1. Natural infection. Fish Pathol 12:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Mizuki H, Whasio S, Morita T, Itoi S, Sugita H (2006) Distribution of the fish pathogen Listonella anguillarum in the Japanese flounder Paralichthyts olivaceus hatchery. Aquaculture 261:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Mladineo I, Miletic I, Bocina I (2006) Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida outbreak in cage-reared Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus. J Aquat Anim Health 18: 51–54Google Scholar
  362. Mohi MM, Kuratani M, Miyazaki T, Yoshida T (2010) Histopathological studies of Vibrio harveyi – infected tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes (Temminck et Schlegel), cultured in Japan. J Fish Dis 33:833–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Mothersill C, Austin D, Fernandez-Palomo C, Seymour C, Auchinachie N, Austin B (2015) Rescue of fish exposed to a lethal dose of pathogen, by signals from sublethally exposed survivors. FEMS Microbiol Lett 362:5. doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnu058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Munn CB (1978) Haemolysin production by Vibrio anguillarunm. FEMS Microbiol Lett 3:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Munn CB (1980) Production and properties of a haemolytic toxin by Vibrio anguillarum. In: Ahne W (ed) Fish Diseases. Springer-Verlag, Third COPRAQ-Session. Berlin, pp 69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Muraoka A, Ogawa K, Hashimoto S, Kusuda R (1991) Protection of yellowtail against pseudotuberculosis by vaccination with a potassium thiocyanate extract of Pasteurella piscicida and co-operating protective effect of acid-treated, naked bacteria. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 57:249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Muroga K (1975) Studies on Vibrio anguillarum and V. anguillicida infections. J Facul Fish Ani Husb Hiroshima Uni 14:101–205Google Scholar
  368. Muroga K, De La Cruz M (1987) Fate and location of Vibrio anguillarum in tissues of artificially infected ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis). Fish Pathol 22:99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Muroga K, Yasunobu H (1987) Uptake of bacteria by rotifer. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 53:2091Google Scholar
  370. Muroga K, Jo Y, Nishibuchi M (1976a) Pathogenic Vibrio isolated from cultured eels. I. Characteristics and taxonomic status. Fish Pathol 12:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Muroga K, Nishibuchi M, Jo Y (1976b) Pathogenic Vibrio isolated from cultured eels. II. Physiological characteristics and pathogenicity. Fish Pathol 12:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Muroga K, Nakai T, Sawada T (1977) Studies on red spot disease of pond cultured eels. – IV. Physiological characteristics of the causative bacterium Pseudomonas anguilliseptica. Fish Pathol 12:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Muroga K, Takahashi S, Yamanoi H (1979) Non-cholera Vibrio isolated from diseased ayu. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 45:829–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Muroga K, Lio-Po G, Pitogo C, Imada R (1984a) Vibrio sp. isolated from milkfish (Chanos chanos) with opaque eyes. Fish Pathol 19:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Muroga K, Yamanoi H, Hironaka Y, Yamamoto S, Tatani M, Jo Y, Takahashi S, Hanada H (1984b) Detection of Vibrio anguillarum from wild fingerlings of ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 50:591–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Muroga K, Iida M, Matsumoto H, Nakai T (1986) Detection of Vibrio anguillarum from waters. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 52:641–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Muroga K, Yasunobu H, Okada N, Masumura K (1990) Bacterial enteritis of cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larvae. Dis Aquat Org 9:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Muthiara LW, Raymond BT, Dekievit TR, Stevenson RHW (1993) Antibody specificities of polyclonal rabbit and rainbow trout antisera against Vibrio ordalii and serotype O2 strains of Vibrio anguillarum. Can J Microbiol 39:492–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Myhr E, Larsen JL, Lillehaug A, Gudding R, Heum M, Håstein T (1991) Characterization of Vibrio anguillarum and closely related species isolated from farmed fish in Norway. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2756–2757Google Scholar
  380. Nagai T, iida Y, Iwamoto E, Nakai T (2008) A new vibriosis of cultured ayu Plecoglossus altivelis. Fish Pathol 43:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Nagano I, Oshima S-I, Kawai K (2011a) In vivo analysis on the adherence and infection route of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in yellowtail. Fish Pathol 46:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Nagano I, Ochima S-I, Kawai K (2011b) Importance of gills for development of pseudotuberculosis at early stage of infection in amberjack. Fish Pathol 46:31–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Naka H, Dias GM, Thomson CC, Dubay C, Thompson FL, Crosa JH (2011) Complete genome sequence of the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum harbouring the pJM1 virulence plasmid and genomic comparison with other virulent strains of V. anguillarum and V. ordalii. Infect Immun 79:2889–2900PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Nakai T, Kanno T, Cruz ER, Muroga K (1987) The effects of iron compounds on the virulence of Vibrio anguillarum in Japanese eels and ayu. Fish Pathol 22:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Nakai T, Muroga K, Masumura K (1989) Immersion vaccination of juvenile rockfish Sebastes schlegeli by Vibrio ordalii and Vibrio anguillarum antigens. Suisanzoshoku 37:129–132Google Scholar
  386. Nakajima M, Chikahata H (1979) Efficacy of oral and hyperosmotic vaccinations for vibriosis in ayu. Fish Pathol 14:9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Nakamura Y, Nakai T, Muroga K (1990) Induction of antibody producing cells in some fishes by immunization with Vibrio anguillarum O-antigen. Fish Pathol 25:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Nelson JS, Kawahara E, Kawai K, Kusuda R (1989) Macrophage infiltration in pseudotuberculosis of yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata. Bull Marine Sci Fish Kochi Uni 11:17–22Google Scholar
  389. Nelson DR, Sadlowski Y, Eguchi M, Kjelleberg S (1997) The starvation-stress response of Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum. Microbiology 143:2305–2312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Nelson EJ, Tunsjø HS, Fidopiastis PM, Sørum H, Ruby EG (2007) A novel lux operon in the cryptically bioluminescent fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida is associated with virulence. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:1825–1833PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Nielsen B, Dalsgaard I (1991) Plasmids in Vibrio salmonicida isolates from the Faroe Islands. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 11:206–207Google Scholar
  392. Ninomiya M, Muraoka A, Kusuda R (1989) Effect of immersion vaccination of cultured yellowtail with a ribosomal vaccine prepared from Pasteurella piscicida. Nippon Suissan Gakkaishi 55:1773–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Nishibuchi M, Muroga K (1977) Pathogenic Vibrio isolated from cultured eels. III. NaCl tolerance and flagellation. Fish Pathol 12:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Nishibuchi M, Muroga K (1980) Pathogenic Vibrio isolated from cultured eels. V. Serological studies. Fish Pathol 14:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Nishibuchi M, Muroga K, Seidler RJ, Fryer JL (1979) Pathogenic Vibrio isolated from cultured eels. IV Deoxyribonucleic acid studies. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 45:1469–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Nishibuchi M, Muroga K, Jo Y (1980) Pathogenic Vibrio isolated from cultured eels. VI. Diagnostic tests for the disease due to the present bacterium. Fish Pathol 14:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Nitzan S, Shwartsburd B, Heller ED (2004) The effect of growth medium salinity of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida on the immune response of hybrid bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops). Fish Shellfish Immunol 16:107–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Norquist A, Norman B, Wolf-Watz H (1990) Identification and characterization of a zinc metalloprotease associated with invasion by the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Infect Immun 58:3731–3736Google Scholar
  399. Norquist A, Bergman A, Skogman G, Wolf-Watz H (1994) A field trial with the live attenuated fish vaccine strain Vibrio anguillarum VAN1000. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 14:156–158Google Scholar
  400. Norqvist A, Hagström Å, Wolf-Watz H (1989) Protection of rainbow trout against vibriosis and furunculosis by the use of attenuated strains of Vibrio salmonicida. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:1400–1405PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  401. Noya M, Magariños B, Lamas J (1995) Interactions between peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) of gilthead bream (Sparus aurata) and Pasteurella piscicida. A morphological study. Aquaculture 131:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Nybelin O (1935) Untersuchungen ¨ber den bei Fischen Krankheitsegen den Spatpliz Vibrio anguillarum. Meddelanden frau Statens Undersöknings – och Fasok – sanstalt für Sotvattenfisket Stockholm 8:1–62Google Scholar
  403. O’Toole R, Milton DL, Wolf-Watz H (1996) Chemotactic motility is required for invasion of the host by the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Mol Microbiol 19:625–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. O’Toole R, Milton DL, Hörstedt P, Wolf-Watz H (1997) RpoN of the fish pathogen Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum is essential for flagellum production and virulence by the water-borne but not intraperitoneal route of inoculation. Microbiology 143:3849–3859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. O’Toole R, Lundberg S, Fredriksson S-Å, Jansson A, Nilsson B, Wolf-Watz H (1999) The chemotactic response of Vibrio anguillarum to fish intestinal mucus is mediated by a combination of multiple mucus components. J Bacteriol 181:4308–4317PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  406. O’Toole R, von Hofsten J, Rosqvist R, Olsson P-R, Wolf-Watz H (2004) Visualisation of zebrafish infection by GFP-labelled Vibrio anguillarum. Microb Pathog 37:41–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Oakey HJ, Owens L (2000) A new bacteriophage, VHML, isolated from a toxin-producing strain of Vibrio harveyi in tropical Australia. J Appl Microbiol 89:702–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Ohnishi K, Muroga K (1976) Vibrio sp. as a cause of disease in rainbow trout cultured in Japan. 1. Biochemical characteristics. Fish Pathol 11:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Ohnishi K, Watanabe K, Jo Y (1982) Pasteurella infection in young black seabream. Fish Pathol 16:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Olafsen JA, Christie M, Raa J (1981) Biochemical ecology and psychrotrophic strains of Vibrio anguillarum isolated from outbreaks of vibriosis at low temperature. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie and Hygiene, Erste Abteilung Originale C2:339–348Google Scholar
  411. Olesen JE, Larsen JL (1993) Ribotypes and plasmid content of Vibrio anguillarum strains in relation to serovar. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3863–3870Google Scholar
  412. Oliver JD, Warner RA, Cleland DR (1983) Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and other lactose-fermenting vibrios in the marine environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:985–998PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  413. Olsen JE, Larsen JL (1990) Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the Vibrio anguillarum serovar 01 virulence plasmid. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:3130–3132PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  414. Olsson JC, Jöborn A, Westerdahl A, Blomberg L, Kjelleberg S, Conway PL (1996) Is the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), intestine a portal of entry for the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. J Fish Dis 19:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Olsson JC, Jöborn A, Westerdahl A, Blomberg L, Kjelleberg S, Conway PL (1998) Survival, persistence and proliferation of Vibrio anguillarum in juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), intestine and faeces. J Fish Dis 21:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Oppenheimer CH (1962) Marine fish diseases. In: Fish as Food, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, pp 541–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Osorio CR, Collins MD, Toranzo AE, Barja JL, Romalde JL (1999) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of Photobacterium damselae and nested PCR method for rapid detection of the causative agent of fish pasteurellosis. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:2942–2946PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  418. Osorio CR, Toranzo AE, Romalde JL, Barja JL (2000) Multiplex PCR assay for ureC and 16S rRNA genes clearly discriminates between both subspecies of Photobacterium damselae. Dis Aquat Org 40:177–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Osorio CR, Juiz-Río S, Lemos ML (2010) The ABC-transporter hutCD genes of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida are essential for haem utilization as iron source and are expressed during infection in fish. J Fish Dis 33:649–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. Owens L, Austin DA, Austin B (1996) Effect of strain origin on siderophore production in Vibrio harveyi isolates. Dis Aquat Org 28:93–106Google Scholar
  421. Pacha RE, Kiehn ED (1969) Characterization and relatedness of marine vibrios pathogenic to fish: physiology, serology and epidemiology. J Bacteriol 100:1242–1247PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  422. Pang H-Y, Li Y, Wu Z-H, Jian J-C, Lu Y-S, Ca S-H (2010) Immunoproteomic analysis and identification of novel immunogenic proteins from Vibrio harveyi. J Appl Microbiol 109:1800–1809Google Scholar
  423. Pan C-Y, Huang T-C, Wang Y-D, Yeh Y-C, Hui C-F, Chen J-Y (2012) Oral administration of recombinant epinecidin-1 protected grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) from Vibrio vulnificus infection and enhanced immune-related gene expressions. Fish Shellfish Immunol 32:947–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. Pan C-Y, Wang Y-D, Che J-Y (2013) Immunomodulatory effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) infected with Vibrio vulnificus. Aquac Int 21:1155–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Pang L, Zhang X-H, Zhong Y, Chen J, Li Y, Austin B (2006) Identification of Vibrio harveyi using PCR amplification of the toxR gene. Lett Appl Microbiol 43:249–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Parvathi A, Georg J, Kumar S (2009) Prevalence and heterogenicity of hemolysin gene vhh among hatchery isolates of Vibrio harveyi in India. Curr Microbiol 59:42–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Paterson WD, Douey D, Desautels D (1980) Relationships between selected strains of typical and atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Haemophilus piscium. Can J Microbiol 26:588–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. Pazos F, Santos Y, Magariños B, Bandín I, Núñez S, Toranzo AE (1993) Phenotypic characteristics and virulence of Vibrio anguillarum – related organisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:2969–2976PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  429. Pedersen K, Larsen JL (1995) Evidence for the existence of distinct populations of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1 based on plasmid contents and ribotypes. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:2292–2296PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  430. Pedersen K, Tiaianen T, Larsen JL (1996a) Plasmid profiles, restriction length polymorphisms and O-serotypes among Vibrio anguillarum isolates. Epidemiol Infect 117:471–478PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Pedersen K, Koblavi S, Tiainen T, Larsen JL (1996b) Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the pMJ101-like plasmid and ribotyping in the fish pathogen Vibrio ordalii. Epidemiol Infect 117:386–391Google Scholar
  432. Pedersen K, Dalsgaard I, Larsen JL (1997a) Vibrio damsela associated with diseased fish in Denmark. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3711–3715PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  433. Pedersen K, Gram L, Austin DA, Austin B (1997b) Pathogenicity of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1 compared to plasmids, outer membrane protein profile, and siderophore production. J Appl Microbiol 82:365–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Pedersen K, Verdonck L, Austin B, Austin DA, Blanch AR, Grimont PAD, Jofre J, Koblavi S, Larsen JL, Tiainen T, Vigneulle M, Swings J (1998) Taxonomic evidence that Vibrio carchariae Grimes et al. 1985 is a junior synonym of Vibrio harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936) Baumann et al. 1981. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:749–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Pedersen K, Skall HF, Lassen-Nielsen AM, Bjerrum L, Olesen NJ (2009) Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an emerging pathogen in Danish rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), mariculture. J Fish Dis 32:465–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Peréz MJ, Rodríguez LA, Nieto TP (1998) The acetylcholinesterase ichthyotoxin is a common component of the extracellular products of Vibrionaceae strains. J Appl Microbiol 84:47–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. Pietrak MR, Molloy SD, Bouchard DA, Singer JT, Bricknell I (2012) Potential role of Mytilus edulis in modulating the infectious pressure of Vibrio anguillarum O2 beta on an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture farm. Aquaculture 326:36–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Planas M, Pérez-Lorenzo M, Vázquez JA, Pintado J (2005) A model for experimental infections with Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum in first feeding turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae under hatchery conditions. Aquaculture 250:232–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Poppe TT, Håstein T, Salte R (1985) Hitra disease (haemorrhagic syndrome) in Norwegian salmon farming: present status. In: Ellis AE (ed) Fish and shellFish Pathol. Academic Press, New York, pp 223–229Google Scholar
  440. Powell JL, Loutit MW (1994a) Development of a DNA probe using differential hybridization to detect the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Microb Ecol 28:365–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Powell JL, Loutit MW (1994b) The detection of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum in water and fish using a species specific DNA probe combined with membrane filtration. Microb Ecol 28:375–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Prasad S, Morris PC, Hansen R, Meaden PG, Austin B (2005) A novel bacteriocin-like substance from a pathogenic strain of Vibrio harveyi. Microbiology 151:3051–3058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Pratschner GA (1978) The relative resistance of six transferrin phenotypes of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to cytophagosis, furunculosis, and vibriosis. M.Sc. thesis, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  444. Prol-Garćia MJ, Plans M, Pintado J (2010) Different coloniziation and residence time of Listonella anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis determined by real-time PCR and DGGE. Aquaculture 302:26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Pujalte MJ, Sitjá-Bobadilla A, Macián MC, Belloch C, Álvarez-Pellitero P, Pérez-Sánchez J, Uruburu F, Garay E (2003) Virulence and molecular typing of Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from cultured dentex, gilthead sea bream and European sea bass. Syst Appl Microbiol 26:284–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Pybus V, Loutit MW, Tagg JR (1994) Siderophore production by New Zealand strains of Vibrio anguillarum. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 28:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Qian R-H, Xiao Z-H, Zhang CW, Chu W-Y, Wang L-S, Zhou H-H, Wei Y-W, Yu L (2008) A conserved outer membrane protein as an effective vaccine candidate from Vibrio alginolyticus. Aquaculture 278:5–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Qiao G, Lee DC, Woo SH, Li H, Xu D-H, Park SI (2012) Microbiological characteristics of Vibrio scophthalmi isolates from diseased olive flounder Paralichthys olivaeus. Fish Sci 78:853–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Ræder ILU, Paulsen SM, Smalås AO, Willassen NP (2007) Effect of skin mucus on the soluble proteome of Vibrio salmonicida analysed by 2-D gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. Microb Pathog 42:36–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. Rajan PR, Lin YH-Y, Ho M-S, Yang H-L (2003) Simple and rapid detection of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida by a PCR technique and plating method. Lett Appl Microbiol 95:1375–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Rameshkumar P, Kalidas C, Tamilmani G, Sakthivel M, Nazar AKA, Maharshi VA, Rao SKS, Gopakumar G (2014) Microbiological and histopathological investigations of Vibrio alginolyticus infection in cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766) cultured in sea case. Ind J Fish 61:124–127Google Scholar
  452. Ransangan J, Mustafa S (2009) Identification of Vibrio harveyi isolated from diseased Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer by use of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. J Aquat Anim Health 21:150–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Ransom DP (1978) Bacteriologic, immunologic and pathologic studies of Vibrio sp. pathogenic to salmonids. Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  454. Ransom DP, Lannan CN, Rohovec JS, Fryer JL (1984) Comparison of histopathology caused by Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii and three species of Pacific salmon. J Fish Dis 7:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Rasch M, Buch C, Austin B, Slierendrecht W, Ekmann KS, Larsen JL, Johansen C, Riedel K, Eberl L, Givskov M, Gram L (2004) An inhibitor of bacterial quorum sensing reduces mortalities caused by vibriosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Walbaum). Syst Appl Microbiol 27:350–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Rasmussen HB, Larsen JL (1987) Further antigenic analyses of the fish pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. Curr Microbiol 16:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. Reali D, Pretti C, Tavanti L, Cognetti-Varriale AM (1997) Pasteurella piscicida (Janssen & Surgalla, 1964): a simple method of isolation and identification from rearing-ponds. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 17:51–53Google Scholar
  458. Reddacliff GL, Hornitsky M, Carson J, Petersen R, Zelski R (1993) Mortalities of goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), associated with Vibrio cholerae (non-O1). J Fish Dis 16:517–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Rehnstam A-S, Norquist A, Wolf-Watz H, Hagström Å (1989) Identification of Vibrio anguillarum in fish by using partial 16S rRNA sequences and a specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:1907–1910PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  460. Rehulka J, Petras P, Marejkov M, Aldova E (2015) Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 infection in fish in the Czech Republic. Vet Med 60:16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. Reid HI, Treasurer JW, Adam B, Birkbeck TH (2009) Analysis of bacterial populations in the gut of developing cod larvae and identification of Vibrio logei, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus as pathogens of cod larvae. Aquaculture 288:36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Rekecki A, Gunasekara RAYSA, Dierckens K, Laureau S, Boon N, Favoreel H, Cornelissen M, Sorgeloos P, Ducatelle R, Bossier P, van den Broeck W (2012) Bacterial host interaction of GRP-labelled Vibrio anguillarum HI-610 with gnotobiotic sea bass, Dicentrachus labrax (L.), larvae. J Fish Dis 35:265–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Rekecki A, Ringø E, Olsen R, Myklebust R, Dierckens K, Bergh O, Laureau S, Cornelissen M, Ducatelle R, Decostere A (2013) Luminal uptake of Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum by shed enterocytes a novel early defence strategy in larval fish. J Fish Dis 36:419–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Report (1969) Joint Committee on the use of antibiotics in Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine (Swann Report), London, H.M.S.OGoogle Scholar
  465. Rivas AJ, Balado M, Lemos ML, Osorio CR (2011) The Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae hemolysins damselysin and HlyA are encoded within a new virulence plasmid. Infect Immun 79:467–4627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Roberts RJ (1976) Bacterial diseases of farmed fishes. In: Skinner FA, Carr JG (eds) Microbiology in Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Academic Press, London, pp 55–61Google Scholar
  467. Rodkhum C, Hirono I, Stork M, DiLorenzo M, Crosa JH, Aoki T (2006) Putative virulence-related genes in Vibrio anguillarum identified by random genome sequencing. J Fish Dis 29:157–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. Rodrigues PNS, Pereira FA (2004) Effect of dietary iron overload on Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida pathogenicity in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). J Fish Dis 27:673–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Rødsaether MC, Olafsen J, Raa J, Myhre K, Steen JB (1977) Copper as an initiating factor of vibriosis (Vibrio anguillarum) in eel (Anguilla anguilla). J Fish Biol 10:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Roig FJ, Amaro C (2009) Plasmid diversity in Vibrio vulnificus biotypes. Microbiology 155:489–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Romalde JL, Magariños B, Lores F, Osorio CR, Toranzo AE (1999) Assessment of a magnetic bead-EIA based kit for rapid diagnosis of fish pasteurellosis. J Microbiol Methods 38:147–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. Rørvik K-A, Dehli A, Thomasen M, Ruyter B, Steien SH, Salte R (2003) Synergistic effects of dietary iron and omega-3 fatty acid levels on survival of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., during natural outbreaks of furunculosis and cold water vibriosis. J Fish Dis 26:477–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Rucker RR (1959) Vibrio infections among marine and fresh-water fish. Prog Fish Cult 21:22–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. Rucker RR (1963) Status of fish diseases and relation to production. Report of the Second Governor’s Conference on Pacific Salmon, Seattle, January 1963, 98–101Google Scholar
  475. Saeed MO (1995) Association of Vibrio harveyi with mortalities in cultured marine fish in Kuwait. Aquaculture 136:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Sakai M, Otubo T, Atsuta S, Kobayashi M (1993) Enhancement of resistance to bacterial infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), by oral administration of bovine lactoferrin. J Fish Dis 16:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Sakai T, Yamada H, Shimizu H, Yuasa K, Kamaishi T, Oseko N, Iida T (2006) Characteristics and pathogenicity of brown pigment-producing Vibrio anguillarum isolated from Japanese flounder. Fish Pathol 41:77–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Sakata T, Matsuura M, Shimokawa Y (1989) Characteristics of Vibrio damsela isolated from diseased yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Salati F, Watanabe K, Kawai K, Kusuda R (1989a) Immune response of ayu against Vibrio anguillarum lipopolysaccharide. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. Salati F, Kawai S, Kusuda R (1989b) Characteristics of the lipopolysaccharide from Pasteurella piscicida. Fish Pathol 24:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. Salinas PC, Crosa JH (1995) Regulation of angR, a gene with regulatory and biosynthetic functions in the pJM1 plasmid-mediated iron uptake system of Vibrio anguillarum. Gene 160:17–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. Salte R, Rørvik K-A, Reed E, Norberg K (1994) Winter ulcers of the skin in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: pathogenesis and possible aetiology. J Fish Dis 17:661–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Samad APA, Santoso U, Lee M-C, Nan F-H (2014) Effects of dietary katuk (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr.) on growth, non-specific immune and diseases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection in grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish Shellfish Immunol 36:582–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. Sanjuán E, Amaro C (2007) Multiplex PCR assay for detection of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 and simultaneous discrimination of serovar E strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:2029–2032PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. Sanjuán E, González-Candelas F, Amaro C (2011) Polyphyletic origin of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 as revealed by sequence-based analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:688–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Sano M, Nakano H, Kimura T, Kusuda R (1994) Therapeutic effect of fosfomycin on experimentally induced pseudotuberculosis in yellowtail. Fish Pathol 29:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Sawyer ES, Strout RG (1977) Survival and growth in vaccinated, medicated and untreated coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to Vibrio anguillarum. Aquaculture 10:311–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Sawyer ES, Strout RG, Coutermarsh BA (1979) Comparative susceptibility of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon to three strains of Vibrio anguillarum from the Maine-New Hampshire coast. J Fish Res Board Can 36:280–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Schiewe MH (1981) Taxonomic status of marine vibrios pathogenic for salmonid fish. Dev Biol Stand 49:149–158Google Scholar
  490. Schiewe MH, Crosa JH (1981) Molecular characteristic of Vibrio anguillarum biotype 2. Can J Microbiol 27:1011–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. Schiewe MH, Crosa JH, Ordal EJ (1977) Deoxyribonucleic acid relationships among marine vibrios pathogenic to fish. Can J Microbiol 23:954–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Schiewe MH, Trust TJ, Crosa JH (1981) Vibrio ordalii sp. nov.: a causative agent of vibriosis in fish. Curr Microbiol 6:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Schrøder MB, Espelid S, Jørgense TØ (1992) Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  494. Seljestokken B, Bergh Ø, Melingen GO, Rudra H, Olsen RH, Samuelsen OB (2006) Treating experimentally induced vibriosis (Listonella anguillarum) in cod, Gadus morhua L., with florfenicol. J Fish Dis 29:737–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. Shao M, Ma Y, Liu Q, Zhang Y (2005) Secretory expression of recombinant proteins in an attenuated Vibrio anguillarum strain for potential use in vaccines. J Fish Dis 28:723–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. Shoemaker CA, LaFrentz BR, Klesius PH (2012) Bivalent vaccination of sex reversed hybrid tilapia against Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio vulnificus. Aquaculture 354:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. Silva YJ, Costa L, Pereira C, Mateus C, Cunha A, Calado R, Gomes NCM, Pardo MA, Hernandez I, Almeida A (2014) Phage therapy as an approach to prevent Vibrio anguillarum infections in fish larvae production. Plus One 9:e114197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Silva-Rubio A, Avendaño-Herrera R, Jaureguiberry B, Toranzo AE, Magariños B (2008) First description of serotype O3 in Vibrio anguillarum strains isolated from salmonids in Chile. J Fish Dis 31:235–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Simidu U, Egusa S (1972) A re-examination of the fish-pathogenic bacterium that has been reported as a Pasteurella species. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 38:803–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. Simón M, Mathes A, Blanch A, Engelhardt H (1996) Characterization of a porin from the outer membrane of Vibrio anguillarum. J Bacteriol 178:4182–4188PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  501. Simón M, Jofre J, Blanch AR (1998) Evaluation of the immunospecificity of the porin Om1 of Vibrio anguillarum serotype 01. J Appl Microbiol 84:709–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Singer JT, Schmidt KA, Reno PW (1991) Polypeptides p40, pOM2, and pAngR are required for iron uptake and for virulence of the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum 775. J Bacteriol 173:1347–1352PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  503. Singleton FL, Attwell RW, Jangi MS, Colwell RR (1982a) Influence of salinity and organic nutrient concentration on survival and growth of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic microcosms. Appl Environ Microbiol 43:1080–1085PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  504. Singleton FL, Attwell R, Jangi S, Colwell RR (1982b) Effects of temperature and salinity on Vibrio cholerae growth. Appl Environ Microbiol 44:1047–1058PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  505. Skarmeta AM, Bandín I, Santos Y, Toranzo AE (1995) In vitro killing of Pasteurella piscicida by fish macrophages. Dis Aquat Org 23:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. Skerman VBD, McGowan V, Sneath PHA (1980) Approved lists of bacterial names. Int J Syst Bacteriol 30:225–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. Skov MN, Pedersen K, Larsen JL (1995) Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, ribotyping, and plasmid profiling for typing of Vibrio anguillarum serovar O1. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1540–1545PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  508. Smith IW (1961) A disease of finnock due to Vibrio anguillarum. J Gen Microbiol 74:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Smith SK, Sutton DC, Fuerst JA, Reichelt JL (1991) Evaluation of the genus Listonella and reassignment of Listonella damsela (Love et al) MacDonell and Colwell to the genus Photobacterium as Photobacterium damsela comb. nov. with an emended description. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:529–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. Snieszko SF, Bullock GL, Dunbar CE, Pettijohn LL (1964) Nocardial infection in hatchery-reared fingerling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Bacteriol 88:1809–1810PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  511. Soffientino B, Gwaltney T, Nelson DR, Specker JL, Maule M, Gómez-Chiarri M (1999) Infectious necrotizing enteritis and mortality caused by Vibrio carchariae in summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus during intensive culture. Dis Aquat Org 38:201–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. Sørensen UBS, Larsen JL (1986) Serotyping of Vibrio anguillarum. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:593–597PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  513. Sørum H, Hvaal AB, Heum M, Daae FL, Wiik R (1990) Plasmid profiling of Vibrio salmonicida for epidemiological studies of cold-water vibriosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and cod (Gadus morhua). Appl Environ Microbiol 56:1033–1037PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  514. Sørum H, Myhr E, Zwicker BM, Lillehaug A (1993) Comparison by plasmid profiling of Vibrio salmonicida strains isolated from diseased fish from different North European and Canadian coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50:247–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. Spanggaard B, Huber I, Nielsen J, Nielsen T, Gram L (2000) Proliferation and location of Vibrio anguilllarum during infection of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis 23:423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Staroscik AM, Denkin SM, Nelson DR (2005) Regulation of the Vibrio anguillarum metalloprotease EmpA by posttranslational modification. J Bacteriol 187:2257–2260PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. Steine NO, Melingen GO, Wergeland HI (2001) Antibodies against Vibrio salmonicida lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and whole bacteria in sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vaccinated during the smolting and early post-smolt period. Fish Shellfish Immunol 11:39–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. Sun B, Zhang X-H, Tang X, Wang W, Zhong Y, Chen J, Austin B (2001) A single residue change in Vibrio harveyi hemolysin results in the loss of phospholipase and hemolytic activities and pathogenicity for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). J Bacteriol 189:2575–2579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  519. Sun K, Zhang W-W, Hou J-H, Sun L (2009) Immunoprotective analysis of VhhP2, a Vibrio harveyi vaccine candidate. Vaccine 27:2733–2740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. Tajima K, Yoshimizu M, Ezura Y, Kimura T (1981) Studies on the causative organisms of vibriosis among the pen cultured coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Japan. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 47:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Tajima K, Ezura Y, Kimura T (1987) The possible use of a thermolabile antigen in detection ofVibrio anguillarum. Fish Pathol 22:237–242Google Scholar
  522. Talpur AD (2014) Mentha piperita (peppermint) as feed additive enhanced growth performance, survival, immune response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) against Vibrio harveyi infection. Aquaculture 420:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Talpur AD, Ikhwanuddin M (2012) Dietary effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on haemato-immunological parameters, survival, growth, and disease resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). Aquaculture 364:6–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Talpur AD, Ikhwanuddin M (2013) Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34:254–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. Tapia-Cammas D, Yañez A, Arancibia G, Toranzo AE, Avendaño-Herrera R (2011) Multiplex PCR for the detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Streptococcus phocae in Chilean marine farms. Dis Aquat Org 97:135–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. Tatani M, Muroga K, Sugiyama T, Hiramoto Y (1985) Detection of Vibrio anguillarum from reared fry and fingerlings of ayu. Aquaculture 33:59–66Google Scholar
  527. Thompson FL, Hoste B, Vandemeulebroecke K, Engelbeen K, Denys R, Swings J (2002) Vibrio trachuri Iwamoto et a. 1995 is a junior synonym of Vibrio harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936) Baumann et al. 1981. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:973–976Google Scholar
  528. Thompson FL, Thompson CC, Dias GM, Naka H, Dubay C, Crosa JH (2011) The genus Listonella MacDonell and Colwell 1986 is a later heterotypic synonym of the genus Vibrio Pacini 1854 (Approved Lists 1980) – A taxonomic opinion. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:3023–3027PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. Thomson R, Macpherson HL, Riaza A, Birkbeck TH (2005) Vibrio splendidus type 1 as a cause of mortalities in hatchery-reared larval turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). J Appl Microbiol 99:243–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. Thyssen A, Van Eygen S, Hauben L, Goris J, Swings J, Ollevier F (2000) The application of AFLP for taxonomic and epidemiological studies of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:1013–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  531. Tiainen T, Pedersen K, Larsen JL (1995) Ribrotyping and plasmid profiling of Vibrio anguillarum serovar O2 and Vibrio ordalii. J Appl Bacteriol 73:384–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  532. Tiainen T, Pedersen K, Larsen JL (1997) Immunological reactivity of Vibrio anguillarum sero-subgroups O2a and O2b, and comparison of their lipopolysaccharide profiles. Curr Microbiol 34:38–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Tison DL, Nishibuchi M, Greenwood JD, Seidler RJ (1982) Vibrio vulnificus biogroup 2: a new biogroup pathogenic for eels. Appl Environ Microbiol 44:640–646PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  534. Tolmasky ME, Crosa JH (1984) Molecular cloning and expression of genetic determinants for the iron uptake system mediated by the Vibrio anguillarum plasmid pJM1. J Bacteriol 160:860–866PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  535. Tolmasky ME, Crosa JH (1995) Iron transport genes of the pJM1-mediated iron uptake system of Vibrio anguillarum are included in a transposonlike structure. Plasmid 37:180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Toranzo AE, Barja JL, Hetrick FH (1982) Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Pasteurella piscicida in estuarine and freshwaters. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 3:43–45Google Scholar
  537. Toranzo AE, Barja JL, Colwell RR, Hetrick FM (1983a) Characterization of plasmids in bacterial fish pathogens. Infect Immun 39:184–192PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  538. Toranzo AE, Barja JL, Potter SA, Colwell RR, Hetrick FM, Crosa JH (1983b) Molecular factors associated with virulence of marine vibrios isolated from striped bass in Chesapeake Bay. Infect Immun 39:1220–1227Google Scholar
  539. Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Dhanasiri AKS, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M (2012) Effect of mortality and stress response in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) after Vibrio anguillarum exposure. J Fish Dis 35:591–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. Touraki M, Karamanlidou G, Koziotis M, Christidis I (2013) Antibacterial effect of Lactococcus lactis subs lactis on Artermia franciscana nauplii and Dicentrarchus labrax larvae against the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Aquac Int 21:481–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Traxler GS, Li MF (1972) Vibrio anguillarum isolated from a nasal abscess of the cod fish (Gadus morhua). J Wildl Dis 8:207–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. Trüper HG, De’Clari L (1997) Taxonomic note: necessary correction of specific epiphets formed as substantives (nouns) “in apposition”. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:908–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. Trust TJ, Courtice ID, Khouri AG, Crosa JH, Schiewe MH (1981) Serum resistance and haemagglutination ability of marine vibrios pathogenic for fish. Infect Immun 34:702–707PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  544. Umbreit WW, Ordal EJ (1972) Infection of goldfish with Vibrio anguillarum. Am Soc Microbiol News 32:93–96Google Scholar
  545. Umbreit TH, Tripp MR (1975) Characterization of the factors responsible for death of fish infected with Vibrio anguillarum. Can J Microbiol 21:1272–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Urbanczyk H, Ast JC, Higgins MJ, Carson J, Dunlap PV (2007) Reclassification of Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio logei, Vibrio salmonicida and Vibrio wodanis as Aliivibrio fischeri gen. nov., comb. nov., Aliivibrio logei comb. nov., Aliivibrio salmonicida comb. nov. and Aliivibrio wodanis comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:2823–2829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  547. Uzun E, Ogut H (2015) The isolation frequency of bacterial pathogens from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in the southeastern Black Sea. Aquaculture 437:30–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. Valla S, Frydenlund K, Coucheron DH, Haugan K, Johansen B, Jørgensen T, Knudsen G, Strøm A (1992) Development of a gene transfer system for curing plasmids in the marine fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1980–1985PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  549. Varina M, Denkin SM, Staroscik AM, Nelson DR (2008) Identification and characterization of Epp, the secreted processing protease for the Vibrio anguillarum EmpA metalloprotease. J Bacteriol 190:6589–6597PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. Velji MI, Albright LJ, Evelyn TPT (1990) Protective immunity in juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch following immunization with Vibrio ordalii lipolysaccharide or from exposure to live V. ordalii cells. Dis Aquat Org 9:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Velji MI, Albright LJ, Evelyn TPT (1991) Nature of the immune response in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch following vaccination with Vibrio ordalii lipolysaccharides by two different routes. Dis Aquat Org 11:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. Velji MI, Albright LJ, Evelyn TPT (1992) Immunogenicity of various Vibrio ordalii fractions in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Dis Aquat Org 12:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Vervarcke S, Lescroart O, Ollevier F, Kinget R, Michoel A (2004) Vaccination of African catfish with Vibrio anguillarum O2: 1. ELISA development and response to IP and immersion vaccination. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20:128–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Vervarcke S, Ollevier F, Kinget R, Michoel A (2005) Mucosal reponse in African catfish after administration of Vibrio anguillarum O2 antigens via different routes. Fish Shellfish Immunol 18:125–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Vik-Mo FT, Bergh Ø, Samuelsen OB (2005) Efficacy of orally administered flumequine in the treatment of vibriosis caused by Listonella anguillarum in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Dis Aquat Org 67:87–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. Villamil L, Figueras A, Toranzo AE, Planas M, Novoa B (2003a) Isolation of a highly pathogenic Vibrio pelagius strain associated with mass mortalities of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.) larvae. J Fish Dis 26:293–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  557. Villamil L, Figueras A, Aranguren R, Novoa B (2003b) Non-specific immune response of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), experimentally infected with a pathogenic Vibrio pelagius. J Fish Dis 26:321–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. Volpatti D, Bulfon C, Tulli F, Galeotti M (2013) Growth parameters, innate immune response and resistance to Listonella (Vibrio) anguillarum of Dicentrarchus labrax fed carvacrol supplemented diets. Aquac Res 45:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. Walters GR, Plumb JA (1978) Modified oxidation/fermentation medium for use in the identification of bacterial fish pathogens. J Fish Res Board Can 35:1629–1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Wang S-Y, Lauritz J, Jass J, Milton DL (2003) Role of the major outer-membrane protein from Vibrio anguillarum in bile resistance and biofilm formation. Microbiology 149:1061–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. Wang C, Zhang X-H, Jia A, Chen J, Austin B (2008) Identification of immune-related genes from kidney and spleen of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), by suppression subtractive hybridization following challenge with Vibrio harveyi. J Fish Dis 31:505–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  562. Wang Q, Chen J, Liu R, Jia J (2011) Identification and evaluation of an outer membrane protein OmpU from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi isolate as vaccine candidate in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Lett Appl Microbiol 53:22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. Wang C, Hu Y-H, Sun B-G, Chi H, Li J, Sun L (2013) Environmental isolates P1SW and V3SW as a bivalent vaccine induce effective cross-protection against Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum. Dis Aquat Org 103:45–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. Wang H, Yang W, Shen GY, Zhang JT, Lv W, Ji BF, Meng C (2015) Protein transduction domain of transactivating transcriptional activator fused to outer membrane protein K of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to vaccinate marbled eels (Anguilla marmorata) confers proteciotn against mortality caused by V. parahaemolyticus. Microb Biotechnol 8:673–680PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. Weber B, Lindell K, El Qaidi S, Hjerde E, Willassen N-P, Milton DL (2011) The phosphotransferase VanU represses expression of four qrr antagonizing VanO-mediated quorum-sensing regulation in Vibrio anguillarum. Microbiology 157:3324–3339PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. Wells NA, ZoBell CE (1934) Achromobacter ichthyodermis, n. sp., the etiological agent of an infectious dermatitis of certain marine fishes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 20:123–126PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. West PA, Lee JV (1982) Ecology of Vibrio species, including Vibrio cholerae, in natural waters of Kent, England. J Appl Bacteriol 52:435–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. West PA, Lee JV, Bryant TN (1983) A numerical taxonomic study of species of Vibrio isolated from the aquatic environment and birds in Kent, England. J Appl Bacteriol 55:263–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. Westerdahl A, Olsson JC, Kjelleberg S, Conway PL (1991) Isolation and characterization of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) associated bacteria with inhibitory effects against Vibrio anguillarum. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2223–2228PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  570. Westfall BA (1945) Coagulation film anoxia in fishes. Ecology 26:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. Wiik R, Egidius E (1986) Genetic relationships of Vibrio salmonicida sp. nov. to other fish-pathogenic vibrios. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36:521–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. Wiik R, Andersen K, Daae FL, Hoff KA (1989) Virulence studies based on plasmid profiles of the fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:819–825PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  573. Winter GW, Schreck CB, McIntyre JD (1979) Resistance of different stocks and transferrin genotypes of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri, to bacterial kidney disease and vibriosis. Fish Bull 77:795–802Google Scholar
  574. Wolf MK, Crosa JH (1986) Evidence for the role of a siderophore in promoting Vibrio anguillarum infections. J Gen Microbiol 132:2949–2952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. Wolke RE (1975) Pathology of bacterial and fungal diseases affecting fish. In: Ribelin WE, Migaki G (eds) The pathology of fishes. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp 76–78Google Scholar
  576. Won KM, Park S (2008) Pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi to cultured marine fishes in Korea. Aquaculture 285:8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  577. Wong SK, Zhang X-H, Woo YS (2012) Vibrio alginolyticus thermolabile hemolysin (TLH) induces apoptosis, membrane fragmentation and necrosis in sea bream erythrocytes. Aquaculture 330–333:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. Woo NYS, Ling JLM, Lo KM (1995) Pathogenic Vibrio spp. in the sea bream, Sparus sarba. J Sun Yetsen Uni 3:192–193Google Scholar
  579. Wu H, Ma Y, Zhang Y, Zhang H (2004) Complete sequence of virulence plasmid pEIB1 from the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum strain MVM425 and location of its replication region. Microbiology 97:1021–1028Google Scholar
  580. Wu FS, Tang KH, Yuan YM, Shi XC, Shakeela Q, Zhang X-H (2015) Studies on bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased torafugu (Takifugu rubripes) cultured in marine industrial recirculation aquaculture system in Shandong Province, China. Aquac Res 46:736–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. Xiao P, Mo ZL, Mao YX, Wang CL, Zou YX, Li J (2009) Detection of Vibrio anguillarum by PCR amplification of the empA gene. J Fish Dis 32:293–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  582. Xiao Y, Liu Q, Chen H, Zhang Y (2011) A stable plasmid system for heterologous antigen expression in attenuated Vibrio anguillarum. Vaccine 29:6986–6993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Xie ZY, Hu CQ, Zhang LP, Chen C, Ren CH, Shen Q (2007) Identification and pathogenicity of Vibrio ponticus affecting cultured Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes). Lett Appl Microbiol 45:62–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. Xu D-H, Shoemaker CA, Klesius PH (2009) Enhanced mortality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus following coinfections with ichthyophthiriasis and streptococcosis. Dis Aquat Org 85:187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  585. Xu L, Wang Q, Xiao J, Liu Q, Wang X, Chen T, Zhang Y (2010) Characterization of Edwardsiella tarda waaL: roles in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, stress adaptation and virulence towards fish. Archives or Microbiol 192:1039–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. Xu Z, Wang Y, Han Y, Chen J, Zhang X-H (2011) Mutation of a novel virulence-related gene mltD in Vibrio anguillarum enhanced lethality in zebra fish. Res Microbiol 162:144–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. Yamanoi H, Muroga K, Takahashi S (1980) Physiological characteristics and pathogenicity of NAG vibrio isolated from diseased ayu. Fish Pathol 15:69–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  588. Yan Q, Chen Q, Ma S, Zhuang Z, Wang X (2007) Characteristics of adherence of pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus to the intestinal mucus of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). Aquaculture 269:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  589. Yang H, Chen J, Yang G, Zhang XH, Liu R, Xue X (2009) Protection of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Vibrio anguillarum with a DNA vaccine containing the mutated zinc-metalloprotease gene. Vaccine 27:2150–2155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. Yasunaga N, Hatai K, Tsukahara J (1983) Pasteurella piscicida from an epizootic of cultured red seabream. Fish Pathol 18:107–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. Yasunobu H, Muroga K, Maruyama K (1988) A bacteriological investigation on the mass mortalities of red seabream Pagrus major larvae with intestinal swelling. Suisanzoshoku 1:11–20Google Scholar
  592. Ye J, Foo RWT, Lo KM, Zeng JS, Ling JML, Woo NYS, Xu HS (1997) Studies on the pathogens of vibriosis in cultured sea bream (Sparus sarba) in Hong Kong. Journal of Marine Science Google Scholar
  593. Ye J, Ma Y, Liu Q, Zhao DL, Wang QY, Zhang YX (2008) Regulation of Vibrio alginolyticus virulence by the LuxS quorum-sensing system. J Fish Dis 31:161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. Yii K-C, Yang TI, Lee K-K (1997) Isolation and characterization of Vibrio carchariae, a causative agent of gastroenteritis in the groupers, Epinephelus coioides. Curr Microbiol 35:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  595. Yishan L, Jiaming F, Zaohe W, Jichang J (2011) Genotype analysis of collagenase gene by PCR-SSCP in Vibrio alginolyticus and association with virulence to marine fish. Curr Microbiol. doi: 10.1007/s00284-011-9916-2 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  596. Zappulli V, Patarnello T, Patarnello P, Frassineti F, Franch R, Manírin A, Castagnaro M, Bargelloni L (2005) Direct identification of Photobacterium damselae subspecies piscicida by PCR-RFLP analysis. Dis Aquat Org 65:53–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. Zhang X-H, Austin B (2000) Pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi to salmonids. J Fish Dis 23:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  598. Zhang X-H, Meaden PG, Austin B (2001) Duplication of hemolysin genes in a virulent isolate of Vibrio harveyi. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3161–3167PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. Zhang W-W, Sun K, Cheng S, Sun L (2008) Characterization of DegQvh, a serine protease and a protective immunogen from a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi strain. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:6254–6262PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. Zhang C, Yu L, Qian R (2011a) Cloning and expression of Vibrio harveyi OmpK* and GADPH* genes and their potential application as vaccines in large yellow croakers Pseudosciaena crocea. J Aquat Anim Health 20:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. Zhang X-J, Qin G-M, Bing X-W, Yan B-L, Liang L-G (2011b) Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Vibrio aestuarianus, a pathogen of the cultured tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther. J Fish Dis 34:57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  602. Zhang XZ, Wu ZH, Yang SP, Pang HY, Jian JC, Lu YS (2011c) Expression pattern of heat-shock cognate 70 gene of humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus (Civier), infected with Vibrio harveyi. J Fish Dis 34:719–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. Zhang Q, Yu HR, Tong T, Tong WP, Dong LF, Xu MZ, Wang ZC (2014a) Dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and fructooligosaccharide enhances the growth, non-specific immunity of juvenile ovate pompano, Tachinotus ovatus and its disease resistance against Vibrio vulnificus. Fish Shellfish Immunol 38:7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  604. Zhang Y-Q, Zhang T-T, Li J-N, Liu X-L, Li L (2014b) Design and evaluation of a tandemly arranged outer membrane protein U (OmpU) multi-epitope as a potential vaccine antigen against Vibrio mimicus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Vet Immunol Immunopathol 160:61–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. Zhao J, Aoki T (1989) A specific DNA hybridization probe for detection of Pasteurella piscicida. Dis Aquat Org 7:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  606. Zhao Z, Chen C, Hu C-Q, Ren C-H, Zhao J-J, Zhang LP, Jiang X, Luo P, Wang Q-B (2010) The type III secretion system of Vibrio alginolyticus induces rapid apoptosis, cell rounding and osmotic lysis of fish cells. Microbiology 156:2864–2872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. Zhao Y, Liu Q, Wang X, Zhou L, Wang Q, Zhang Y (2011) Surface display of Aeromonas hydrophila GAPDH in attenuated Vibrio anguillarum to develop a noval multivalent vector vaccine. Mar Biotechnol. doi: 10.1007/s10126-010-9359-y Google Scholar
  608. Zhong Y, Zhang X-H, Chen J, Chi Z, Sun B, Li Y, Austin B (2006) Overexpression, characterization, and pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi hemolysin VHH. Infect Immun 74:6001–6005PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  609. Zhu K, Chi Z, Li J, Zhang F, Li M, Yasoda HN, Wu L (2006) The surface display of haemolysin from Vibrio harveyi on yeast cells and their potential applications as live vaccines in marine fish. Vaccine 24:6046–6052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  610. Zorrilla A, Balebona MC, Moriñigo MA, Sarasquette C, Borrego JJ (1999) Isolation and characterization of the casative agent of pasteurellosis, Photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida, from sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup). J Fish Dis 22:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  611. Zorrilla A, Arijo S, Chabrillon M, Diaz P, Martinez-Manzanares E, Balebona MC, Moriñigo MA (2003) Vibrio species isolated from diseased farmed sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup), and evaluation of the potential virulence role of their extracellular products. J Fish Dis 26:103–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Austin
    • 1
  • Dawn A. Austin
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of AquacultureUniversity of StirlingStirlingUK
  2. 2.School of Life SciencesHeriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations