Advertisement

Ultrasound-Guided Injections

Chapter

Abstract

Anatomic landmark palpation-guided injections (ALMPG) have long been part of the treatment for arthritis and soft tissue rheumatism among musculoskeletal providers. Ultrasound-guided (USG) injections have been shown to be more accurate and less painful than ALMPG injections and increases procedural safety to allow for additional procedures at the point-of-care that previously have had not been considered (e.g., hip joint injection). This chapter reviews the evidence based support for USG injections and reviews USG injection approaches for common joint and soft tissue injections in clinical practice.

Keywords

Ultrasound-guided Injections Image-guidance Corticosteroid injections Arthrocentesis Tenotomy 

References

  1. 1.
    Epis O, Bruschi E. Interventional ultrasound: a critical overview on ultrasound-guided injections and biopsies. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2014;32(1 Suppl 80):S78–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    del Cura JL. Ultrasound-guided therapeutic procedures in the musculoskeletal system. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2008;37:203–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peng PW, Narouze S. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures in pain medicine: a review of anatomy, sonoanatomy, and procedures: part I: nonaxial structures. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:458–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tagliafico A, Russo G, Boccalini S, Michaud J, Klauser A, Serafini G, Martinoli C. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder. Radiol Med. 2014;119:318–26.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Iagnocco A, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist XLVI. Ultrasound guided injection in the shoulder: a descriptive literature review. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2013;31:477–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peng PW, Cheng P. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures in pain medicine: a review of anatomy, sonoanatomy, and procedures. Part III: shoulder. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011;36:592–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gilliland CA, Salazar LD, Borchers JR. Ultrasound versus anatomic guidance for intra-articular and periarticular injection: a systematic review. Phys Sports Med. 2011;39:121–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bodor M, Fullerton B. Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2010;21:509–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boniface KS, Ajmera K, Cohen JS, Liu YT, Shokoohi H. Ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis of the elbow: a posterior approach. J Emerg Med. 2013;45:698–701.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim TK, Lee JH, Park KD, Lee SC, Ahn J, Park Y. Ultrasound versus palpation guidance for intra-articular injections in patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the elbow. J Clin Ultrasound. 2013;41:479–85.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Atchia I, Birrell F, Kane D. A modular, flexible training strategy to achieve competence in diagnostic and interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:1583–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen CP, Lew HL, Tsai WC, Hung YT, Hsu CC. Ultrasound-guided injection techniques for the low back and hip joint. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;90:860–7.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rowbotham EL, Grainger AJ. Ultrasound-guided intervention around the hip joint. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197:W122–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jacobson JA, Bedi A, Sekiya JK, Blankenbaker DG. Evaluation of the painful athletic hip: imaging options and imaging-guided injections. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199:516–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nestorova R, Vlad V, Petranova T, Porta F, Radunovic G, Micu MC, Iagnocco A. Ultrasonography of the hip. Med Ultrason. 2012;14:217–24.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peng PW. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures in pain medicine: a review of anatomy, sonoanatomy, and procedures. Part IV: hip. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2013;38:264–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Robotti G, Canepa MG, Bortolotto C, Draghi F. Interventional musculoskeletal US: an update on materials and methods. J Ultrasound. 2013;30(16):45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Royall NA, Farrin E, Bahner DP, Stawicki SP. Ultrasound-assisted musculoskeletal procedures: a practical overview of current literature. World J Orthop. 2011;2:57–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brown AK, O’Connor PJ, Roberts TE, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z, Emery P. Recommendations for musculoskeletal ultrasonography by rheumatologists: setting global standards for best practice by expert consensus. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;53:83–92.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kane D, Balint PV, Sturrock RD. Ultrasonography is superior to clinical examination in the detection and localization of knee joint effusion in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2003;30:966–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Delaunoy I, Feipel V, Appelboom T, Hauzeur JP. Sonography detection threshold for knee effusion. Clin Rheumatol. 2003;22:391–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ike RW, Somers EC, Arnold EL, Arnold WJ. Ultrasound of the knee during voluntary quadriceps contraction: a technique for detecting otherwise occult effusions. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62:725–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Balint PV, Kane D, Hunter J, et al. Ultrasound guided versus conventional joint and soft tissue fluid aspiration in rheumatology practice: a pilot study. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:2209–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raza K, Lee CY, Pilling D, Heaton S, Situnayake RD, Carruthers DM et al. Ultrasound guidance allows accurate needle placement and aspiration from small joints in patients with early inflammatory arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003;42:976–9.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wiler JL, Costantino TG, Filippone L, Satz W. Comparison of ultrasound-guided and standard landmark techniques for knee arthrocentesis. J Emerg Med. 2010;39:76–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sibbitt Jr WL, Kettwich LG, Band PA, Chavez-Chiang NR, DeLea SL, Haseler LJ et al. Does ultrasound guidance improve the outcomes of arthrocentesis and corticosteroid injection of the knee? Scand J Rheumatol. 2012;41:66–72.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D’Agostino MA, Schmidt WA. Ultrasound-guided injections in rheumatology: actual knowledge on efficacy and procedures. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2013;27:283–94.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cunnington J, Marshall N, Hide G, Bracewell C, Isaacs J, Platt P, et al. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection into the joint of patients with inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1862–9.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maricar N, Parkes MJ, Callaghan MJ, Felson DT, O’Neill TW. Where and how to inject the knee – a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2013;43:195–203.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Berkoff DJ, Miller LE, Block JE. Clinical utility of ultrasound guidance for intra-articular knee injections: a review. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:89–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Finnoff JT, Nutz DJ, Henning PT, Hollman JH, Smith J. Accuracy of ultrasound-guided versus unguided pes anserinus bursa injections. PM R. 2010;2:732–9.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bloom JE, Rischin A, Johnston RV, Buchbinder R. Image-guided versus blind glucocorticoid injection for shoulder pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;8:CD009147.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Patel DN, Nayyar S, Hasan S, Khatib O, Sidash S, Jazrawi LM. Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus blind glenohumeral injections: a cadaveric study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21:1664–8.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Amber KT, Landy DC, Amber I, Knopf D, Guerra J. Comparing the accuracy of ultrasound versus fluoroscopy in glenohumeral injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Ultrasound. 2014;42:411–6.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sabeti-Aschraf M, Lemmerhofer B, Lang S, Schmidt M, Funovics PT, Ziai P, et al. Ultrasound guidance improves the accuracy of the acromioclavicular joint infiltration: a prospective randomized study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19:292–5.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Borbas P, Kraus T, Clement H, Grechenig S, Weinberg AM, Heidari N. The influence of ultrasound guidance in the rate of success of acromioclavicular joint injection: an experimental study on human cadavers. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21:1694–7.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gazzillo GP, Finnoff JT, Hall MM, Sayeed YA, Smith J. Accuracy of palpating the long head of the biceps tendon: an ultrasonographic study. PM R. 2011;3:1035–40.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hashiuchi T, Sakurai G, Morimoto M, Komei T, Takakura Y, Tanaka Y. Accuracy of the biceps tendon sheath injection: ultrasound-guided or unguided injection? A randomized controlled trial. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20:1069–73.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nam SH, Kim J, Lee JH, Ahn J, Kim YJ, Park Y. Palpation versus ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections and short-term effect in the distal radioulnar joint disorder: a randomized, prospective single-blinded study. Clin Rheumatol. 2014;33:1807–14.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dubreuil M, Greger S, LaValley M, Cunnington J, Sibbitt WL Jr, Kissin EY. Improvement in wrist pain with ultrasound-guided glucocorticoid injections: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2013;42:492–7.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lohman M, Vasenius J, Nieminen O. Ultrasound guidance for puncture and injection in the radiocarpal joint. Acta Radiol. 2007;48:744–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Smith J, Brault JS, Rizzo M, Sayeed YA, Finnoff JT. Accuracy of sonographically guided and palpation guided scaphotrapeziotrapezoid joint injections. J Ultrasound Med. 2011;30:1509–15.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    McCann PA, Wakeley CJ, Amirfeyz R. The effect of ultrasound guided steroid injection on progression to surgery in thumb CMC arthritis. Hand Surg. 2014;19:49–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mandl LA, Hotchkiss RN, Adler RS, Ariola LA, Katz JN. Can the carpometacarpal joint be injected accurately in the office setting? Implications for therapy. J Rheumatol. 2006;33:1137–9.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kume K, Amano K, Yamada S, Kuwaba N, Ohta H. In de Quervain’s with a separate EPB compartment, ultrasound-guided steroid injection is more effective than a clinical injection technique: a prospective open-label study. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2012;37:523–7.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lee DH, Han SB, Park JW, Lee SH, Kim KW, Jeong WK. Sonographically guided tendon sheath injections are more accurate than blind injections: implications for trigger finger treatment. J Ultrasound Med. 2011;30:197–203.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wisniewski SJ, Smith J, Patterson DG, Carmichael SW, Pawlina W. Ultrasound-guided versus nonguided tibiotalar joint and sinus tarsi injections: a cadaveric study. PM R. 2010;2:277–81.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Reach JS, Easley ME, Chuckpaiwong B, Nunley 2nd JA. Accuracy of ultrasound guided injections in the foot and ankle. Foot Ankle Int. 2009;30:239–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Khosla S, Thiele R, Baumhauer JF. Ultrasound guidance for intra-articular injections of the foot and ankle. Foot Ankle Int. 2009;30:886–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Muir JJ, Curtiss HM, Hollman J, Smith J, Finnoff JT. The accuracy of ultrasound-guided and palpation-guided peroneal tendon sheath injections. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;90:564–71.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sage W, Pickup L, Smith TO, Denton ER, Toms AP. The clinical and functional outcomes of ultrasound-guided vs landmark-guided injections for adults with shoulder pathology – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52:743–51.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Soh E, Li W, Ong KO, Chen W, Bautista D. Image-guided versus blind corticosteroid injections in adults with shoulder pain: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;25(12):137.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dogu B, Yucel SD, Sag SY, Bankaoglu M, Kuran B. Blind or ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections and short-term response in subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91:658–65.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lee HJ, Lim KB, Kim DY, Lee KT. Randomized controlled trial for efficacy of intra-articular injection for adhesive capsulitis: ultrasonography-guided versus blind technique. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90:1997–2002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ucuncu F, Capkin E, Karkucak M, Ozden G, Cakirbay H, Tosun M, et al. A comparison of the effectiveness of landmark-guided injections and ultrasonography guided injections for shoulder pain. Clin J Pain. 2009;25:786–9.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hsieh LF, Hsu WC, Lin YJ, Wu SH, Chang KC, Chang HL. Is ultrasound-guided injection more effective in chronic subacromial bursitis? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:2205–13.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ekeberg OM, Bautz-Holter E, Tveitå EK, Juel NG, Kvalheim S, Brox JI. Subacromial ultrasound guided or systemic steroid injection for rotator cuff disease: randomised double blind study. BMJ. 2009;338:a3112.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sabeti-Aschraf M, Stotter C, Thaler C, Kristen K, Schmidt M, Krifter RM, et al. Intra-articular versus periarticular acromioclavicular joint injection: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Arthroscopy. 2013;29:1903–10.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chen CM, Chen JS, Tsai WC, Hsu HC, Chen KH, Lin CH. Effectiveness of device-assisted ultrasound-guided steroid injection for treating plantar fasciitis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;92:597–605.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tsai WC, Hsu CC, Chen CP, Chen MJ, Yu TY, Chen YJ. Plantar fasciitis treated with local steroid injection: comparison between sonographic and palpation guidance. J Clin Ultrasound. 2006;34:12–6.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Li Z, Xia C, Yu A, Qi B. Ultrasound- versus palpation-guided injection of corticosteroid for plantar fasciitis: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;21(9):e92671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ball EM, McKeeman HM, Patterson C, Burns J, Yau WH, Moore OA, et al. Steroid injection for inferior heel pain: a randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:996–1002.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sibbitt Jr WL, Band PA, Kettwich LG, Chavez-Chiang NR, Delea SL, Bankhurst AD. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the cost-effectiveness of sonographic guidance for intra-articular injection of the osteoarthritic knee. J Clin Rheumatol. 2011;17:409–15.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sibbitt Jr WL, Peisajovich A, Michael AA, Park KS, Sibbitt RR, Band PA, Does sonographic needle guidance affect the clinical outcome of intraarticular injections? J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1892–902.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sibbitt Jr WL, Band PA, Chavez-Chiang NR, Delea SL, Norton HE, Bankhurst AD. A randomized controlled trial of the cost-effectiveness of ultrasound-guided intraarticular injection of inflammatory arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2011;38:252–63.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Makhlouf T, Emil NS, Sibbitt Jr WL, Fields RA, Bankhurst AD. Outcomes and cost-effectiveness of carpal tunnel injections using sonographic needle guidance. Clin Rheumatol. 2014;33:849–58.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hayward WA, Haseler LJ, Kettwich LG, Michael AA, Sibbitt Wl Jr, Bankhurst AD. Pressure generated by syringes: implications for hydrodissection and injection of dense connective tissue lesions. Scand J Rheumatol. 2011;40:379–82.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Orlandi D, Corazza A, Silvestri E, Serafini G, Savarino EV, Garlaschi G, et al. Ultrasound-guided procedures around the wrist and hand: How to do. Eur J Radiol. 2014;83:1231–8.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cardone DA, Tallia AF. Diagnostic and therapeutic injection of the hip and knee. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67:2147–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chavez-Chiang CE, Sibbitt Jr WL, Band PA, Chavez-Chiang NR, Delea SL, Bankhurst AD. The highly accurate anteriolateral portal for injecting the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol. 2011;3:6.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jelsing EJ, Finnoff JT, Cheville AL, Levy BA, Smith J. Sonographic evaluation of the iliotibial band at the lateral femoral epicondyle: does the iliotibial band move? J Ultrasound Med. 2013;32:1199–206.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hong JH, Kim JS. Diagnosis of iliotibial band friction syndrome and ultrasound guided steroid injection. Korean J Pain. 2013;26:387–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Di Sante L, Paoloni M, Dimaggio M, Colella L, Cerino A, Bernetti A, et al. Ultrasound-guided aspiration and corticosteroid injection compared to horizontal therapy for treatment of knee osteoarthritis complicated with Baker’s cyst: a randomized, controlled trial. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2012;48:561–7.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Di Sante L, Paoloni M, Ioppolo F, Dimaggio M, Di Renzo S, Santilli V. Ultrasound-guided aspiration and corticosteroid injection of Baker’s cysts in knee osteoarthritis: a prospective observational study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;89:970–5.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bandinelli F, Fedi R, Generini S, Porta F, Candelieri A, Mannoni A, et al. Longitudinal ultrasound and clinical follow-up of Baker’s cysts injection with steroids in knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2012;31:727–31.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kim JS, Kim MW, Park DY. Indirect ultrasound guidance increased accuracy of the glenohumeral injection using the superior approach: a cadaveric study of injection accuracy. Ann Rehabil Med. 2013;37:202–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rutten MJ, Collins JM, Maresch BJ, Smeets JH, Janssen CM, Kiemeney LA, et al. Glenohumeral joint injection: a comparative study of ultrasound and fluoroscopically guided techniques before MR arthrography. Eur Radiol. 2009;19:722–30.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Molini L, Mariacher S, Bianchi S. US guided corticosteroid injection into the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa: technique and approach. J Ultrasound. 2012;15:61–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ramey LN, Knowlton SE, Amorese-O’Connell L, Kohler MJ. Ultrasound identification of maximal subdeltoid bursa distention alters the ultrasound-guided injection approach for shoulder pain. Phys Med Rehabil Int. 2015;2(5):1048.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Edelson G, Saffuri H, Obid E, Lipovsky E, Ben-David D. Successful injection of the acromioclavicular joint with use of ultrasound: anatomy, technique, and follow-up. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014;23:e243–50.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Davidson J, Jayaraman S. Guided interventions in musculoskeletal ultrasound: what’s the evidence? Clin Radiol. 2011;66:140–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gatt DL, Charalambous CP. Ultrasound-guided barbotage for calcific tendonitis of the shoulder: a systematic review including 908 patients. Arthroscopy. 2014;30:1166–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    de Witte PB, Selten JW, Navas A, Nagels J, Visser CP, Nelissen RG, et al. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: a randomized controlled trial of ultrasound-guided needling and lavage versus subacromial corticosteroids. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:1665–73.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Louwerens JK, Sierevelt IN, van Noort A, van den Bekerom MP. Evidence for minimally invasive therapies in the management of chronic calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014;23:1240–9.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Yoo JC, Koh KH, Park WH, Park JC, Kim SM, Yoon YC. The outcome of ultrasound-guided needle decompression and steroid injection in calcific tendinitis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010;19:596–600.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Housner JA, Jacobson JA, Misko R. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for the treatment of chronic tendinosis. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:1187–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Coombes BK, Bisset L, Brooks P, Khan A, Vicenzino B. Effect of corticosteroid injection, physiotherapy, or both on clinical outcomes in patients with unilateral lateral epicondylalgia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2013;6(309):461–9.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Chaudhury S, de La Lama M, Adler RS, Gulotta LV, Skonieczki B, Chang A, et al. Platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: sonographic assessment of tendon morphology and vascularity (pilot study). Skeletal Radiol. 2013;42:91–7.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zhu J, Hu B, Xing C, Li J. Ultrasound-guided, minimally invasive, percutaneous needle puncture treatment for tennis elbow. Adv Ther. 2008;25:1031–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tallia AF, Cardone DA. Diagnostic and therapeutic injection of the wrist and hand region. Am Fam Physician. 2003;15(67):745–50.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vuillemin V, Guerini H, Morvan G. Musculoskeletal interventional ultrasonography: the upper limb. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2012;93:665–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Louis LJ. Musculoskeletal ultrasound intervention: principles and advances. Radiol Clin North Am. 2008;46:515–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hui AC, Wong S, Leung CH, et al. A randomized controlled trial of surgery vs steroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurology. 2005;64:2074–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ly-Pen D, Andreu JL, de Blas G, Sánchez-Olaso A, Millán I. Surgical decompression versus local steroid injection in carpal tunnel syndrome: a one-year, prospective, randomized, open, controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:612–9.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Smith J, Wisniewski SJ, Finnoff JT, Payne JM. Sonographically guided carpal tunnel injections: the ulnar approach. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:1485–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Grassi W, Farina A, Filippucci E, Cervini C. Intralesional therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome: a sonographic-guided approach. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002;20:73–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Freire V, Guérini H, Campagna R, Moutounet L, Dumontier C, Feydy A, et al. Imaging of hand and wrist cysts: a clinical approach. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199:W618–28.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sibbitt Jr WL, Eaton RP. Corticosteroid responsive tenosynovitis is a common pathway for limited joint mobility in the diabetic hand. J Rheumatol. 1997;24:931–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sibbitt Jr WL, Michael AA, Poole JL, Chavez-Chiang NR, Delea SL, et al. Nerve blocks at the wrist for painful injections of the palm. J Clin Rheumatol. 2011;17:173–8.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Smith J, Hurdle MF, Weingarten TN. Accuracy of sonographically guided intra-articular injections in the native adult hip. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:329–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Levi DS. Intra-articular hip injections using ultrasound guidance: accuracy using a linear array transducer. PM R. 2013;5:129–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mallow M, Nazarian LN. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2014;25:279–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wilson SA, Shanahan EM, Smith MD. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome: Does imaging-identified pathology influence the outcome of interventions? Int J Rheum Dis. 2013;6:621–7.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Klauser AS, Martinoli C, Tagliafico A, Bellmann-Weiler R, Feuchtner GM, Wick M, et al. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2013;17:43–8.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Silva F, Adams T, Feinstein J, Arroyo RA. Trochanteric bursitis: refuting the myth of inflammation. J Clin Rheumatol. 2008;14:82–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    McEvoy JR, Lee KS, Blankenbaker DG, del Rio AM, Keene JS. Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections for treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome: greater trochanter bursa versus subgluteus medius bursa. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;201:313–7.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Brinks A, van Rijn RM, Willemsen SP, Bohnen AM, Verhaar JA, Koes BW, et al. Corticosteroid injections for greater trochanteric pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial in primary care. Ann Fam Med. 2011;9:226–34.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Cohen SP, Strassels SA, Foster L, Marvel J, Williams K, Crooks M, et al. Comparison of fluoroscopically guided and blind corticosteroid injections for greater trochanteric pain syndrome: multicentre randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009;338:b1088.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Narouze S, Peng PW. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures in pain medicine: a review of anatomy, sonoanatomy, and procedures. Part II: axial structures. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:386–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sofka CM, Saboeiro G, Adler RS. Ultrasound-guided adult hip injections. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;16:1121–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Provenzano DA, Narouze S. Sonographically guided lumbar spine procedures. J Ultrasound Med. 2013;32:1109–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Peng PW, Tumber PS. Ultrasound-guided interventional procedures for patients with chronic pelvic pain – a description of techniques and review of literature. Pain Physician. 2008;11:215–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Morvan G, Vuillemin V, Guerini H. Interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography of the lower limb. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2012;93:652–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yablon CM. Ultrasound-guided interventions of the foot and ankle. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2013;17:60–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Masala S, Fiori R, Bartolucci DA, Mammucari M, Angelopoulos G, Massari F, et al. Diagnostic and therapeutic joint injections. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2010;27:160–71.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sofka CM, Adler RS. Ultrasound-guided interventions in the foot and ankle. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2002;6:163–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Smith J, Finnoff JT, Henning PT, Turner NS. Accuracy of sonographically guided posterior subtalar joint injections: comparison of 3 techniques. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:1549–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Cardone DA, Tallia AF. Diagnostic and therapeutic injection of the ankle and foot. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68:1356–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Vallone G, Vittorio T. Complete Achilles tendon rupture after local infiltration of corticosteroids in the treatment of deep retrocalcaneal bursitis. J Ultrasound. 2014;29(17):165–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Filardo G, Kon E, Di Matteo B, Di Martino A, Tesei G, Pelotti P, et al. Platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of refractory Achilles tendinopathy: results at 4 years. Blood Transfus. 2014;12:533–40.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ferrero G, Fabbro E, Orlandi D, Martini C, Lacelli F, Serafini G, et al. Ultrasound-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma in chronic Achilles and patellar tendinopathy. J Ultrasound. 2012;15:260–6.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Maida E, Presley JC, Murthy N, et al. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections: where does the injectate go? J Ultrasound Med. 2013;32:1451–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Markovic M, Crichton K, Read JW, Pawlina W, Smith J. Effectiveness of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection in the treatment of Morton’s neuroma. Foot Ankle Int. 2008;29:483–7.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Morgan PA, Monaghan GA, Richards S. A systematic review of ultrasound-guided and non ultrasound-guided therapeutic injections to treat Morton’s neuroma. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2014. Epub ahead of print.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fredberg U, van Overeem HG, Bolvig L. Placement of intra-articular injections verified by ultrasonography and injected air as contrast medium. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60:542.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sahler CS, Spinner DA, Kirschner JS. Ultrasound-guided first metatarsophalangeal joint injections: description of an in-plane, gel standoff technique in a cadaveric study. Foot Ankle Spec. 2013;6:303–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Long BW. Image-guided percutaneous needle biopsy: an overview. Radiol Technol. 2000;71:335–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of New Mexico Health Sciences CenterAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations