A Surface Modification Decision Tree to Influence Design in Additive Manufacturing
Additive manufacturing (AM) presents a very different set of design challenges to traditional manufacturing. Layer-wise building brings about issues with residual stresses and support requirements which lead to failures during processing of poorly-designed parts. Additionally, there is a need for post-processing due to poor part quality, which adds another process to the chain with its own unique design limitations. This paper discusses the issues surrounding designing for AM and the subsequent post-processing. A future vision is proposed for the selection of post-processes and the relative design adjustments to accommodate the chosen techniques. A decision tree is presented as a framework for process selection based on part requirements. Although at present, the data necessary to realize this vision is incomplete, with further research into the capabilities and design constraints of different post-processes, this approach could provide a systematic method for integrating design for post-processing with AM design.
KeywordsAdditive manufacturing Design for additive manufacturing Post processing Surface modification
The authors are pleased to thank the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC No. EP/L505341/1) and our industrial partner for their support during this research.
- 1.Wohlers, T.T.: Wohlers report 2014: 3D printing and additive manufacturing state of the industry annual worldwide progress report., 19th ed. Fort Collins, CO: Wohlers Associates, Inc., (2014)Google Scholar
- 4.Manogharan, G., Wysk, R., Harrysson, O., Aman, R.: AIMS- a metal additive-hybrid manufacturing system : system architecture and attributes. In: 43rd Proceedings of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME, pp. 1–14 (2015)Google Scholar
- 11.Uhlmann, P.E., Rethmeier, P.M., Graf, B., Kersting, R., Bergmann, A.: Flexible manufacturing with an additive process chain design, production and surface finish. In: Achieving Precision Tolerances in Additive Manufacturing. ASPE Spring Topical Meeting, pp. 5–9 (2015)Google Scholar
- 14.Beaucamp, A.T., Namba, Y., Charlton, P., Arthur, A.: Finishing of Electron Beam Melted Titanium (Ti6Al4 V) Using Shape Adaptive Grinding Tools, ASPE Spring Meet. - Addit. Manuf. Berkeley, Calif., (2014)Google Scholar
- 16.Bergmann, C., Schmiedel, A.: Postprocessing of selective laser melting components using abrasive flow machining and cleaning. Int. Addit. Manuf. Symp. (2013)Google Scholar
- 17.Lamikiz, A., Sánchez, J.A., López de Lacalle, L.N., Arana, J.L.: Laser polishing of parts built up by selective laser sintering. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 47, 12–13, pp. 2040–2050 (2007)Google Scholar