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Contemporary Methods for Quantifying Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Coastal Areas

  • Ram L. RayEmail author
  • Ahmet Dogan
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Water Security book series (AWS)

Abstract

Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), which represents subsurface exchange of water between land and ocean, is a major component of the hydrological cycle. Until the mid-1990s, it was generally believed that SGD rates were not large enough to influence ocean water budgets. This thought might be due to the difficulty in quantifying rates of SGD, because most SGD occurs as diffusive flow, rather than discrete spring flow. However, there is a growing recognition that the submarine discharge of fresh groundwater into coastal oceans is just as important as river discharge in some areas of the coastal ocean. Due to growing ecological concerns about SGD, there is considerable progress on research about SGD with particular emphasis on how to quantify and trace the SGD, and to develop some forecasting or predictive capability of SGD rates based on climatic and seasonal effects. This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of the methods used to quantify SGD to coastal areas and summarizes the previous studies on SGD. In addition, this chapter also discusses driving forces of groundwater flow through coastal aquifers, mechanism of groundwater seawater interaction and some other important issues that are necessary to understand the methods for quantifying SGD in coastal areas. The main goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the applied methodologies to quantify SGD in coastal areas, which in turn will allow researchers, coastal zone managers, and others to choose appropriate methods that meet their specific project requirements.

Keywords

Submarine groundwater discharge SGD Seawater intrusion Coastal Coastal aquifer Coastal ecosystem Seepage meter Chemical tracer Spatial analysis 

Acronyms

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbons

GIS

Geographical information system

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IAPSO

International Association of Physical Sciences of the Oceans

IHP

International Hydrological Program

IOC

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

LOICZ

Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone

OBC

Optical backscattering

PMC

Particulate matter concentration

Ra

Radium

Rn

Radon

RSGD

Recirculated saline groundwater discharge

SCOR

Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research

SE

South East

SF6

Sulphur hexafluoride

SFGD

Submarine fresh groundwater discharge

SFGD

Submarine fresh groundwater discharge

SGR

Submarine groundwater recharge

SPE

Submarine porewater exchange

TABI

Thermal airborne broadband imager

TIR

Thermal infrared

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cooperative Agricultural Research Center, College of Agriculture and Human Sciences, Prairie View A&M UniversityPrairie ViewUSA
  2. 2.Civil Engineering DepartmentHydraulics Lab, Yıldız Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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