Advertisement

Spallation and Charged-Particle Induced Fission

  • Michael ThoennessenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

With the continuous development of accelerators delivering a wide range of nuclides at higher energies and more intensity it became possible to induce and explore more violent nuclear collisions. The population of the over 400 new isotopes produced in these so-called spallation reactions is described in the present chapter.

Keywords

Fission Fragment Isotope Separator Spallation Reaction Cesium Isotope Alternate Gradient Synchrotron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    B.B. Cunningham et al., Phys. Rev. 72, 739 (1947)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.G. Harvey, Spallation, in Chapter 3 in Progress in Nuclear Physics, ed. by O.R. Frisch, vol. 7 (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1959), p. 90Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Serber, Phys. Rev. 72, 1114 (1947)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    O. Kofoed-Hansen, K.O. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 82, 96 (1951)ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.H. Goeckermann, I. Perlman, Phys. Rev. 76, 628 (1949)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Lhersonneau et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 9, 385 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.H. Goeckermann, I. Perlman, Phys. Rev. 73, 1127 (1948)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H.G. Hicks, R.S. Gilbert, Phys. Rev. 94, 371 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Hagebo, A. Kjelberg, A.C. Pappas, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 24, 117 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.M. Alexander, U. Schindewolf, C.D. Coryell, Phys. Rev. 111, 228 (1958)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.E. Gleit, C.D. Coryell, Phys. Rev. 122, 229 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.E. Gleit, C.D. Coryell, Phys. Rev. 124, 1914 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Lindner, I. Perlman, Phys. Rev. 73, 1202 (1948)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H.H. Hopkins, B.B. Cunningham, Phys. Rev. 73, 1406 (1948)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.R. Miller, R.C. Thompson, B.B. Cunningham, Phys. Rev. 74, 347 (1948)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H.M. Neumann, I. Perlman, Phys. Rev. 78, 191 (1950)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H.H. Hopkins, Phys. Rev. 77, 717 (1950)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Lindner, I. Perlman, Phys. Rev. 78, 499 (1950)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.C. Thomas, E.O. Wiig, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 2818 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.W. Fink, D.H. Templeton, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 2818 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B.J. Stover, Phys. Rev. 81, 8 (1951)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.O. Rasmussen et al., Phys. Rev. 80, 475 (1950)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.G. Karraker, D.H. Templeton, Phys. Rev. 81, 510 (1951)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G.W. Barton, A. Ghiorso, I. Perlman, Phys. Rev. 82, 13 (1951)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R.W. Fink, E.O. Wiig, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 2365 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E.K. Hyde, G.D. O’Kelley, Phys. Rev. 82, 944 (1951)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.G. Karraker, A. Ghiorso, D.H. Templeton, Phys. Rev. 83, 390 (1951)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.E. Batzel, D.R. Miller, G.T. Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 84, 671 (1951)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R.W. Fink, E.O. Wiig, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74, 2457 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    W.J. Worthington Jr., Phys. Rev. 87, 158 (1952)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Rudstam, P.C. Stevenson, R.L. Folger, Phys. Rev. 87, 358 (1952)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.A. Caretto Jr., E.O. Wiig, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74, 5235 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Lindner, R.N. Osborne, Phys. Rev. 88, 1422 (1952)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Dropesky, E.O. Wiig, Phys. Rev. 88, 683 (1952)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Lindner, Phys. Rev. 91, 642 (1953)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    L.P. Gillon, K. Gopalakrishnan, A. de Shalit, Phys. Rev. 93, 124 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A.A. Caretto Jr., E.O. Wiig, Phys. Rev. 93, 175 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.C. Michel, D.H. Templeton, Phys. Rev. 93, 1422 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    B.C. Haldar, E.O. Wiig, Phys. Rev. 94, 1713 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    H.B. Mathur, E.K. Hyde, Phys. Rev. 95, 708 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Andersson et al., Phil. Mag. 46, 70 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    W.E. Nervik, G.T. Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 97, 1092 (1955)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    W.G. Smith, J.M. Hollander, Phys. Rev. 98, 1258 (1955)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.-C. Roy, T.P. Kohman, Can. J. Phys. 35, 649 (1957)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    B.C. Haldar, E.O. Wiig, Phys. Rev. 105, 1285 (1957)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Andersson, E. Arbman, B. Jung, Ark. Fysik 11, 297 (1957)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    W.R. Ware, E.O. Wiig, Phys. Rev. 117, 191 (1960)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    K.S. Toth et al., Phys. Rev. 116, 118 (1959)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    B. Jung, G. Andersson, Nucl. Phys. 15, 108 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    F.D.S. Butement, P. Glentworth, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 15, 205 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    F.D.S. Butement, G.G.J. Boswell, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 16, 10 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    G. Andersson, I.B. Häller, R. Ringh, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 17, 15 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    E.R. Merz, A.A. Caretto Jr., Phys. Rev. 122, 1558 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    W.H. Sullivan, N.R. Sleight, and E.M. Gladrow, Rhodium Radioisotopes Induced in Deuteron-Bombarded Ruthenium, Declassified Plutonium Project Report No. MDDC-918Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    C.D. Coryell, N. Sugarman (eds.), Radiochemical Studies: The Fission Products, Nat. Nucl. Ener. Ser. IV, 9, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    R.S. Krishnan, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 36, 500 (1940)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    A.C. Helmholz, Phys. Rev. 60, 160 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    H. Bradt et al., Helv. Phys. Acta 18, 256 (1945)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    H. Bradt et al., Helv. Phys. Acta 19, 218 (1946)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. Blachot, Nucl. Data Sheets 107, 355 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J.M. Cork et al., Phys. Rev. 79, 938 (1950)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    J.R. Gum, M.L. Pool, Phys. Rev. 80, 315 (1950)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. Ghiorso, W.W. Meinke, G.T. Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 74, 695 (1948)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    W.W. Meinke, A. Ghiorso, G.T. Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 75, 314 (1949)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    E.K. Hyde, A. Ghiorso, G.T. Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 77, 765 (1950)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    W.W. Meinke, A. Ghiorso, G.T. Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 85, 429 (1952)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    F.F. Momyer et al., Phys. Rev. 86, 805 (1952)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    F.F. Momyer, E.K. Hyde, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 1, 274 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    F.F. Momyer, E.K. Hyde, Phys. Rev. 101, 136 (1956)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    F.D.S. Butement, V.J. Robinson, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 26, 1 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    F.D.S. Butement, V.J. Robinson, S.M. Qaim, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 26, 491 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    R.L. Hahn, M.F. Roche, K.S. Toth, Nucl. Phys. A 113, 206 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    V.E. Viola, M.M. Minor, C.T. Roche, Nucl. Phys. A 217, 372 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Y.Y. Chu, M.L. Zhou, Phys. Rev. C 28, 1379 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    I.N. Meshkov, A.N. Sissakian, G.V. Trubnikov, Proceedings of IPAC 2010, Kyoto, 23–28 May 2010, TUZRA02, https://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/IPAC10/talks/tuzra02_talk.pdf
  76. 76.
  77. 77.
    G.M. Gorodinskii et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 21, 1611 (1957)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    M.Ya. Kuznetsova et al., Sov. At. Energy 4, 766 (1958)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    P.M. Aron et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 22, 811 (1958)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    A.V. Kalyamin, I.Y. Levenberg, B.A. Yakovlev, Sov. At. Energy 6, 435 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    N.A. Antoneva et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 23, 196 (1959)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    I.S. Dneprovskii, Sov. At. Energy 8, 38 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    A.A. Abdurazakov et al., Nucl. Phys. 21, 164 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    A.K. Lavrukhina, T.V. Malysheva, B.A. Khotin, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 6, 236 (1961)ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    V.I. Baranov et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 24, 1086 (1960)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    A.A. Abdurazakov et al., Sov. Phys. JETP 14, 1229 (1962)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. Abdumalikov et al., Phys. Lett. 5, 359 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    K.Ya. Gromov et al. Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1104 (1965)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Z.T. Zhelev et al., Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 2, 682 (1966)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    E. Herrmann, G. Pfrepper, D. Christov, Radiochim. Acta 7, 10 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zh Zhelev et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 32, 1497 (1968)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    R. Arlt et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 33, 1133 (1969)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    R. Arlt et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 33, 1144 (1969)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    R. Arlt et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 34, 619 (1970)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    A.A. Abdurazakov et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 34, 706 (1970)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    J. Vandlik et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 34, 1472 (1970)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    R. Arlt et al., JETP Lett. 13, 397 (1971)ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    I. Votsilka et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 38(1), 49 (1974)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    J. Vandlik et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 38(4), 26 (1974)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    R.M. Diamond, J.M. Hollander, Nucl. Phys. 8, 143 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    F.D.S. Butement, G.B. Briscoe, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 25, 151 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    G. Graeffe, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A VI(128) (1963)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    R.G. Korteling, E.K. Hyde, Phys. Rev. 136, B425 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    C. Brun, Y. Le Beyec, M. Lefort, Phys. Lett. 16, 286 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    F.D.S. Butement, M.Y. Mirza, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 28, 303 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    A.M. Poskanzer, R.A. Esterlund, R. McPherson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1030 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    H.-J. Bleyl, H. Münzel, G. Pfennig, Radiochim. Acta 8, 200 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    K.S. Toth et al., Phys. Rev. 183, 1004 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Y.Y. Chu, E.M. Franz, G. Friedlander, Phys. Rev. 187, 1529 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    F.W.N. de Boer et al., Radiochim. Acta 13, 118 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    K.S. Toth et al., Phys. Rev. C 2, 1480 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    C. Ekström, M. Olsmats, B. Wannberg, Nucl. Phys. A 170, 649 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    J. van Klinken et al., Z. Phys. 246, 369 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    E.E. Berlovich et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 36, 2165 (1972)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    B.J. Meijer, F.W.N. de Boer, P.F.A. Goudsmit, Radiochim. Acta 19, 150 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    E.E. Berlovich et al., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 38(8), 14 (1974)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    J. van Klinken, S.J. Feenstra, Phys. Rev. C 12, 2111 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    G.P. Nowicki et al., Nucl. Phys. A 249, 76 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    J. Deslauriers, S.C. Gujrathi, S.K. Mark, Z. Phys, A 303, 151 (1981)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    S. Lunardi et al., Z. Phys. A 324, 433 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    A.M. Poskanzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1271 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    A.M. Poskanzer et al., Phys. Lett. B 27, 414 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    T.D. Thomas et al., Phys. Lett. B 27, 504 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    J.D. Bowman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 614 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    J.D. Bowman et al., Phys. Rev. C 9, 836 (1974)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    G.W. Butler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1380 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    X.L. Tu et al., Z. Phys. A 337, 361 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    G. Rudstam, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 38, 282 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    G. Andersson, G. Rudstam, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 29, 93 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    G. Andersson, G. Rudstam, G. Sorensen, Ark. Fysik 28, 37 (1965)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    P.G. Hansen et al., Phys. Lett. B 28, 415 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    J. Chaumont et al., Phys. Lett. B 29, 652 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    D.J. Hnatowich et al., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 32, 3137 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    P.G. Hansen et al., Nucl. Phys. A 148, 249 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    P.G. Hansen et al., Nucl. Phys. A 160, 445 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    P. Hornshoj et al., Nucl. Phys. A 163, 277 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    P. Hornshoj et al., Nucl. Phys. A 187, 637 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    H.L. Ravn, S. Sundell, L. Westgaard, Phys. Lett. B 39, 337 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    B.R. Erdal et al., Nucl. Phys. A 194, 449 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    R. Klapisch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1254 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    O. Scheidemann, E. Hagebo, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 35, 3055 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    E. Hagberg et al., Nucl. Phys. A 208, 309 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    H.L. Ravn et al., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 37, 383 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    L. Westgaard et al., Z. Phys. A 275, 127 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    J.M. D’Auria et al., Phys. Lett. B 66, 233 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    J.P. Husson, C.F. Liang, C. Richard-Serre, J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 38, L (1977)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    E. Hagberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 792 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    E. Hagberg et al., Nucl. Phys. A 293, 1 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    T. Elmroth et al., Nucl. Phys. A 304, 493 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    J.M. D’Auria et al., Nucl. Phys. A 301, 397 (1978)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    G.T. Ewan et al., Z. Phys. A 296, 223 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    G.T. Ewan et al., Nucl. Phys. A 352, 13 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    S.A. Ahmad et al., Phys. Lett. B 133, 47 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    F. Calaprice et al., Phys. Rev. C 30, 1671 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    P. Hill et al., Z. Phys. A 320, 531 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    M.J.G. Borge et al., Z. Phys. A 325, 429 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    W. Kurcewicz et al., Nucl. Phys. A 464, 1 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    D.G. Burke et al., Z. Phys. A 333, 131 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    M.J.G. Borge et al., Z. Phys. A 333, 109 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    A. Bouldjedri et al., Z. Phys. A 339, 311 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    H. Grawe et al., Z. Phys. A 341, 247 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    D. Neidherr et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 112501 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    P. Aagaard et al., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 5, 105 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    G. Albouy et al., Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 249, 407 (1959)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    N. Poffe et al., J. Phys. Radium 21, 343 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    G. Albouy, M.M. Gusakow, N. Poffe, J. Phys. Radium 21, 751 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    A. Santoni, A. Caruette, J. Valentin, J. Phys. (Paris) 24, 407 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    P. Paris, F. Perrin, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 258, 5855 (1964)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    H. Abou-Leila, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 259, 3003 (1964)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    G. Gerschel et al., Nuovo Cimento 37, 1756 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    P. Lagarde et al., J. Phys. (Paris) 27, 116 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    P. Paris, F. Perrin, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 265, 510 (1967)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    O. Rahmouni, J. Phys. (Paris) 29, 550 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    R. Arlt et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 102, 253 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    T.B. Vandlik et al., JETP Lett. 15, 271 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    A. Latuszynski et al., Nukleonika 20, 1043 (1974)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    J.C. Putaux, J. Obert, P. Aguer, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 121, 615 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    G.D. Alkhazov et al., Z. Phys. A 291, 397 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    G.D. Alkhazov et al., Z. Phys. A 295, 305 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    C.F. Liang et al., Z. Phys. A 297, 303 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    G.D. Alkhazov et al., Acta Phys. Pol. B 12, 175 (1981)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    G.D. Alkhazov et al., Acta Phys. Pol. B 12, 825 (1981)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    G.D. Alkhazov et al., Z. Phys. A 305, 185 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    C.F. Liang et al., Z. Phys. A 309, 185 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    C.F. Liang et al., Z. Phys. A 321, 695 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    C.F. Liang et al., J. Phys. G 15, L31 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    K.A. Mezlev et al., Z. Phys. A 337, 109 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    K.-L. Gippert et al., Nucl. Phys. A 453, 1 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    H.L. Ravn et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 139, 267 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    P. Paris et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 139, 251 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    E. Nolte et al., Z. Phys. A 306, 223 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    I. Amarel et al., Phys. Lett. B 24, 402 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    I. Amarel, H. Gauvin, A. Johnson, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 31, 577 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    M.-I. Macias-Marques et al., J. Phys. (Paris) 32, 237 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    B.L. Tracy et al., Phys. Lett. B 34, 277 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    J. Äystö et al., Phys. Lett. B 201, 211 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    J. Äystö et al., Nucl. Phys. A 480, 104 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    H. Penttilä et al., Phys. Rev. C 38, 931 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    J. Äystö et al., Nucl. Phys. A 515, 365 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    H. Penttilä et al., Z. Phys. A 338, 291 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    M. Leino et al., Phys. Rev. C 44, 336 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    H. Penttilä et al., Phys. Rev. C 44, 935 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    J. Äystö et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1167 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Z. Janas et al., Nucl. Phys. A 552, 340 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    S. Ichikawa et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 374, 330 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    S. Ichikawa et al., Phys. Rev. C 58, 1329 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    M. Asai et al., Phys. Rev. C 59, 3060 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    S. Ichikawa et al., Phys. Rev. C 71, 067302 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    H. Hayashi et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 34, 363 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    J. Äystö et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 26, 394 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    R. Klapisch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 740 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    R. Klapisch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 652 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    H.L. Ravn, Phys. Rep. 54, 201 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    A. Huck et al., Phys. Rev. C 22, 2544 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    M. Langevin et al., Phys. Lett. B 125, 116 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    M. Langevin et al., Phys. Lett. B 130, 251 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    A. Huck et al., Phys. Rev. C 31, 2226 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    K.-L. Kratz et al., Z. Phys. A 325, 489 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    K.-L. Kratz et al., Z. Phys. A 330, 229 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    W. Borchers et al., Phys. Lett. B 216, 7 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    K. Balog et al., Z. Phys. A 342, 125 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    K.-L. Kratz et al., Z. Phys. A 340, 419 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    G. Lhersonneau et al., Z. Phys. A 351, 357 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    V.N. Fedoseyev et al., Z. Phys. A 353, 9 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    P. Hoff et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1020 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    M. Hannawald et al., Phys. Rev. C 62, 054301 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    T. Kautzsch et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 9, 201 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    K.-L. Kratz et al., Hyperfine Interact. 129, 185 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    I. Dillmann et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 13, 281 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    U.C. Bergmann et al., Nucl. Phys. A 714, 21 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    V.I. Mishin et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 73, 550 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations