• Michael ThoennessenEmail author


The introduction gives a brief overview of the different types of currently known isotopes. The criteria for the claims of isotope discoveries from the initial observation of radioactivity to the capability of detecting individual isotopes are described.


Strong Force Large Scale Experiment Radioactive Nuclide Isotope Discovery Binding Neutron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    G. Fea, Nuovo Cimento 12, 368 (1935)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Erler et al., Nature 486, 509 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ENSDF, Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File, maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory, published in Nuclear Data Sheets (Academic Press, Elsevier Science),
  4. 4.
    IUPAC Transfermium Working Group, Pure Appl. Chem. 63, 879 (1991)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.C. Barber et al., Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 29, 453 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Thoennessen, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 056301 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Thoennessen, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 23, 1430002 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Thoennessen, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24, 1530002 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations