Advertisement

Penile Length: Natural History, Preservation, and Recovery

  • Natan P. Davoudzadeh
  • Peter J. Stahl
  • Doron S. StemberEmail author
Chapter
  • 742 Downloads
Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE)

Abstract

Penile size has historically been an important preoccupation for adult men. Penile size has been associated with virility and strength for millennia; conversely, the perception of small size has long been a source of apprehension and anxiety. Penile size, especially during erection, is a symbol of masculinity and of great importance for some men. In this chapter, we discuss how to accurately measure adult penile length and illustrate average penile length from various previous studies in the literature. This chapter also explores the effects that various urological diseases and therapies have on penile length, namely erectile dysfunction, Peyronie’s disease, and radical prostatectomy. We finally discuss strategies for penile size preservation in addition to penile lengthening procedures.

Keywords

Penile size Peyronie’s Erectile dysfunction Radical prostatectomy Penile lengthening 

References

  1. 1.
    Vardi Y, Harshai Y, Gil T, Gruenwald I. A critical analysis of penile enhancement procedures for patients with normal penile size: surgical techniques, success, and complications. Eur Urol. 2008;54:1042–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Talalaj JTS. The strangest human sex, ceremonies and customs. Melbourne: Hill of Content; 1994.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lever J, Frederick DA, Peplau LA. Does size matter? Men’s and women’s views on penis size across the lifespan. Psychol Men Masculinity. 2006;7(3):129–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mattelaer J, Jilek W. Koro—the psychological disappearance of the penis. J Sex Med. 2007;4(5):1509–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barnes HV. Physical growth and development during puberty. Med Clin North Am. 1975;59:1305–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Veale D, Miles S, Bramley S, Muir G, Hodsoll J. Am I normal? A systematic review and construction of nomograms for flaccid and erect penis length and circumference in up to 15,521 men. BJU Int. 2015;115(6):978–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Promodu K, Shanmughadas KV, Bhat S, Nair KR. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study. Int J Impot Res. 2007;19:558–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wessells H, Lue TF, McAninch JW. Penile length in the flaccid and erect states: guidelines for penile augmentation. J Urol. 1996;156(3):995–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ohebshalom M, Mulhall J, Guhring P, Parker M. Measurement of penile curvature in Peyronie’s disease patients: comparison of three methods. J Sex Med. 2007;4(1):199–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsushita K, Stember DS, Nelson CJ, Mulhall JP. Concordance between patient and physician assessment of the magnitude of Peyronie’s disease curvature. J Sex Med. 2014;11(1):205–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johannes CB, Araujo AB, Feldman HA, et al. Incidence of erectile dysfunction in men 40 to 69 years old: Longitudinal results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol. 2000;163:460–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    NIH Consensus Conference. Impotence. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Impotence. JAMA. 1993;270:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Osterberg EC, Maganty A, Ramasamy R, Eid JF. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile length are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length. Int J Impot Res. 2014;26(4):128–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deveci S, Martin D, Parker M, Mulhall JP. Penile length alterations following penile prosthesis surgery. Eur Urol. 2006;51:1128–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levine LA. Peyronie’s disease and erectile dysfunction: Current understanding and future direction. Ind J Urol. 2010;22(3):246–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chitale S, Morsey M, Sethia K. Is penile shortening part of natural history of Peyronie’s disease? Open Urol Nephr J. 2010;3:16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Langston JP, Carson CC. Peyronie disease: plication or grafting. Urol Clin North Am. 2011;38(2):207–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nelson C, Diblasio C, Kendirci M, Hellstrom W, Guhring P, Mulhall JP. The chronicity of depression and distress in men with Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med. 2008;5:185–90.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kadioglu A, Akman T, Sanli O, Gurkan L, Cakan M, Celtik M. Surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a critical analysis. Eur Urol. 2006;50(2):235–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kumar R, Nehra A. Surgical and minimally invasive treatments for Peyronie’s disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2009;19(6):589–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gelbard MK, Dorey F, James K. The natural history of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 1990;144(6):1376–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prieto Castro RM, Leva Vallejo ME, Regueiro L, Curado A, Kindelan JA, Requena Tapia MJ. Combined treatment with vitamin E and colchicine in the early stages of Peyronie’s disease. BJUI Int. 2003;91(6):522–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pryor JP, Farrell CR. Controlled clinical trial of vitamin E in Peyronie’s disease. Prog Reprod Biol Med. 1983;9:41–5.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Safarinejad MR, Hosseini SY, Kolahi AA. Comparison of vitamin E and propionyl-L-carnitine, separately or in combination, in patients with early chronic Peyronie’s disease: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. J Urol. 2007;178(4 Pt 1):1398–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mulhall JP, Anderson MS, Lubrano T, Shankey TV. Peyronie’s disease cell culture models: phenotypic, genotypic, and functional analyses. Int J Impot Res. 2002;14(5):397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roth M, Eickelberg O, Kohler E, Erne P, Block LH. Ca2þ channel blockers modulate metabolism of collagens within the extra-cellular matrix. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5478–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Levine LA. Treatment of Peyronie’s disease with intralesional verapamil injection. J Urol. 1997;158(4):1395–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Levine LA, Goldman KE, Greenfield JM. Experience with intraplaque injection of verapamil for Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 2002;168(2):621–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Levine LA, Merrick PF, Lee RC. Intralesional verapamil injection for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 1994;151(6):1522–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shirazi M, Haghpanah AR, Badiee M, et al. Effect of intralesional verapamil for treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a randomized single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009;41(3):467–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gelbard M, Lipshultz L, Tursi J, Smith T, Kaufman G, Levine LA. Phase 2b study of the clinical efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in patients with Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 2012;187(6):2268–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gelbard M, Goldstein I, Hellstrom W, McMahon C, Smith T, Tursi J, Jones N, Kaufman G, Carson C. Clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of collagenase clostridium histolyticum for the treatment of Peyronie disease in 2 large double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 studies. J Urol. 2013;190:199–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Levine LA, Newell MM. FastSize medical extender for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2008;5(3):305–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gontero P, Di Marco M, Giubilei G, Bartoletti R, Pappagallo G, Tizzani A. Use of penile extender device in the treatment of penile curvature as a result of Peyronie’s disease. Results of phase II prospective study. J Sex Med. 2008;6(2):558–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ralph DJ, Gonzalez-Cadvid N, Mirone V, Perovic S, Sohn M, Usta M, Levine L. The management of Peyronie’s disease: evidence-based 2010 guidelines. J Sex Med. 2010;7(7):2359–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kadioglu A, Kucukdurmaz F, Sanli O. Current status of the surgical management of Peyronie’s disease. Nat Rev Urol. 2011;8(2):95–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Smith JF, Walsh TJ, Lue TF. Peyronie’s disease: a critical appraisal of current diagnosis and treatment. Int J Impot Res. 2008;20(5):445–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ding S, Lu J, Zhang H, Wei L, Ding K. A novel modification of tunical plication by plaque thinning: long-term results in treating penile curvature of Peyronie’s disease. Int Urol Nephrol. 2010;42(3):597–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Horstmann M, Kwol M, Amend B, Hennenlotter J, Stenzi A. A self-reported long-term follow-up of patients operated with either shortening techniques or a TachoSil grafting procedure. Asian J Androl. 2011;13(2):326–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Paez A, Mejias J, Vallejo J, Romero I, de Castro M, Gimeno F. Long-term patient satisfaction after surgical correction of penile curvature via tunical plication. Int Braz J Urol. 2007;33(4):502–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Van Der Horst C, Martinez Portillo FJ, Seif C, Alken P, Juenemann KP. Treatment of penile curvature with Essed-Schroder tunical plication: aspects of quality of life from the patients’ perspective. BJU Int. 2004;93:105–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kendirci M, Hellstrom WJ. Critical analysis of surgery for Peyronie’s disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2004;14(6):381–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levine LA, Larsen SM. Surgery for Peyronie’s disease. Asian J Androl. 2013;15(1):27–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pendleton CM, Wang R. Peyronie’s disease: current therapy. Transl Androl Urol. 2013;2(1):15–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Syed AH, Abbasi Z, Hargreave TB. Nesbit procedure for disabling Peyronie’s curvature: a median follow-up of 84 months. Urology. 2003;61(5):999–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gelbard MK, Hayden B. Expanding contractures of the tunica albuginea due to Peyronie’s disease with temporalis fascia free grafts. J Urol. 1991;145(4):772–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gur S, Limin M, Hellstrom WJ. Current status and new developments in Peyronie’s disease: medical, minimally invasive and surgical treatment options. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12(6):931–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kadioglu A, Sanli O, Akman T, Ersay A, Guven S, Mammadov F. Graft materials in Peyronie’s disease surgery: a comprehensive review. J Sex Med. 2007;4(3):581–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Breyer BN, Brant WO, Garcia MM, Bella AJ, Lue TF. Complications of porcine small intestine submucosa graft for Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 2007;177(2):589–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Knoll LD. Use of small intestinal submucosa graft for the surgical management of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 2007;178(6):2474–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brannigan RE, Kim ED, Oyasu R, McVary KT. Comparison of tunica albuginea substitutes for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 1998;159(3):1064–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Levine LA, Greenfield JM, Estrada CR. Erectile dysfunction following surgical correction of Peyronie’s disease and a pilot study of the use of sildenafil citrate rehabilitation for postoperative erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2005;2(2):241–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Taylor FL, Abern MR, Levine LA. Prediciting erectile dysfunction following surgical correction of Peyronie’s disease without inflatable penile prosthesis placement: vascular assessment and preoperative risk factors. J Sex Med. 2012;9(1):296–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Levine LA, Dimitriou RJ. A surgical algorithm for penile prosthesis placement in men with erectile failure and Peyronie’s disease. Int J Impot Res. 2000;12(3):147–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Levine LA, Estrada CR. Human cadaveric pericardial graft for the surgical correction of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 2003;170(6 Pt 1):2359–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wilson SK, Delk 2nd JR. A new treatment for Peyronie’s disease: modeling the penis over an inflatable penile prosthesis. J Urol. 1994;152(4):1121–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rahman NU, Carrion RE, Bochinski D, Lue TF. Combined penile plication surgery and insertion of penile prosthesis for severe penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. J Urol. 2004;171(6 Pt 1):2346–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mulhall JP, Slovick R, Hotaling J, Aviv N, Valenzuela R, Waters WB, Flanigan RC. Erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy: hemodynamic profiles and their correlation with the recovery of erectile function. J Urol. 2002;167(3):1371–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Parekh A, Chen MH, Hoffman KE, Choueiri TK, Hu JC, Bennett CL, Kattan MW, Sartor O, Stein K, Graham PL, D’Amico AV, Nguyen PL. Reduced penile size and treatment regret in men with recurrent prostate cancer after surgery, radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation, or radiotherapy alone. Urology. 2013;81(1):130–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fraiman MC, Lepor H, McCullough AR. Changes in penile morphometrics in men with erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Mol Urol. 1999;3(2):109–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Munding MD, Wessells HB, Dalkin BL. Pilot study of changes in stretched penile length 3 months after radical retropubic prostatectomy. Urology. 2001;58(4):567–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Savoie M, Kim SS, Soloway MS. A prospective study measuring penile length in men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2003;169(4):1462–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Engel JD, Sutherland DE, Williams SB, Wagner KR. Changes in penile length after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. J Endourol. 2011;25(1):65–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bacon CG, Mittleman MA, Kawachi I, Giovannucci E, Glasser DB, Rimm EB. Sexual function in men older than 50 years of age: results from health professional follow-up study. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:161–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Costello AJ, Brooks M, Cole OJ. Anatomical studies of the neurovascular bundle and cavernosal nerves. BJU Int. 2004;94(7):1071–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Oster JR, Epstein M. Use of centrally acting sympatholytic agents in the management of hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1638–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    McCullough AR. Penile change following radical prostatectomy: size, smooth muscle atrophy, and curve. Curr Urol Rep. 2008;9(6):492–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gontero P, Galzerano M, Bartoletti R. New insights into the pathogenesis of penile shortening after radical prostatectomy and the role of postoperative sexual function. J Urol. 2007;178(2):602–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Carlsson S, Nilsson AE, Johansson E, Nyberg T, Akre O, Steineck G. Self-perceived penile shortening after radical prostatectomy. Int J Impot Res. 2012;24(5):179–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Briganti A, Fabbri F, Salonia A, Gallina A, Chun FK, Deho F. Preserved postoperative penile size correlates well with maintained erectile function after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2007;52:702–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Moreland RB. Is there a role of hypoxemia in penile fibrosis: a viewpoint presented to the Society for the Study of Impotence. Int J Impot Res. 1998;10(2):113–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Iacono F, Giannella R, Somma P, Manno G, Fusco F, Mirone V. Histological alterations in cavernous tissue after radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2005;173(5):1673–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mulhall JP. Penile length changes after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2005;96(4):472–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Klein LT, Miller MI, Buttyan R, Raffo AJ, Burchard M, Devris G, Cao YC, Olsson C, Shabsigh R. Apoptosis in the rat penis after penile denervation. J Urol. 1997;158(2):626–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    User HM, Hairston JH, Zelner DJ, McKenna KE, McVary KT. Penile weight and cell subtyped specific changes in a post-radical prostatectomy model of erectile dysfunction. J Urol. 2003;169(3):1175–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zhou S, Chen LS, Miyauchi Y, Miyauchi M, Kar S, Kangavari S, Fishbein MC, Sharifi B, Chen PS. Mechanisms of cardiac nerve sprouting after myocardial infarction in dogs. Circ Res. 2004;95:76–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hall SJ, Basile G, Bertero EB, de las Morenas A, Goldstein I. Extensive corporeal fibrosis after penile irradiation. J Urol. 1995;153(2):372–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yuan J, Westney OL, Wang R. Design and application of a new rat-specific vacuum erectile device for penile rehabilitation research. J Sex Med. 2009;6:3247–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Raina R, Agarwal A, Ausmundson S, et al. Early use of vacuum constriction device following radical prostatectomy facilitates early sexual activity and potentially earlier return of erectile function. Int J Impot Res. 2006;18:77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kohler TS, Pedro R, Hendlin K, et al. A pilot study on the early use of the vacuum erection device after radical retropubic prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2007;100:858–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dalkin BL, Christopher BA. Preservation of penile length after radical prostatectomy: early intervention with a vacuum erection device. Int J Impot Res. 2007;19:501–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Alter GJ. Aesthetic genital surgery. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia. In: Richard ME, Gary JA, editors. Reconstructive and plastic surgery of the external genitalia. Adult and pediatric. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1999. p. 46–70.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mondaini N, Ponchietti R, Gontero P, Muir GH, Natali A, Caldarera E, Biscioni S, Rizzo M. Penile length is normal in most men seeking penile lengthening procedures. Int J Impot Res. 2002;14(4):283–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ponchietti R, Mondaini N, Bonafe M, Di Loro F, Biscioni S, Masieri L. Penile length and circumference: a study on 3,300 young Italian males. Eur Urol. 2001;39(2):183–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dillon BE. Chama, Honig SC. Penile size and penile enlargement surgery: a review. Int J Impot Res. 2008;20(5):519–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Austoni E, Guarneri A, Cazzaniga A. A new technique for augmentation phalloplasty: albugineal surgery with bilateral saphenous grafts—three years of experience. Eur Urol. 2002;42(3):245–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Perovic SV, Djordjevic MLJ. Penile lengthening. BJU Int. 2000;86(9):1028–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Alter GJ. Penile enhancement. In: McGuire EJ, editor. Advances in urology, vol. 9. St Louis: Mosby; 1996. p. 225–54.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Johnston JH. Lengthening of the congenital or acquired small penis. BJU Int. 1974;46(6):685–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shirong L, Xuan Z, Zhengxiang W, Dongli F, Julong W, Dongyun Y. Modified penis lengthening surgery: review of 52 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105(2):596–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Li CY, Kayes O, Kell PD, Christopher N, Minhas S, Ralph DJ. Penile suspensory ligament division for penile augmentation: indications and results. Eur Urol. 2006;49(4):729–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shaeer O, Shaeer K, el-Sebaie A. Minimizing the losses in penile lengthening: “V-Y half-skin half-fat advancement flap” and “T-closure” combined with severing the suspensory ligament. J Sex Med. 2006;3(1):155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Srinivas BV, Vasan SS, Sajid M. Penile lengthening procedure with V-Y advancement flap and an interposing silicone sheath: A novel methodology. Indian J Urol. 2012;28(3):340–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rolle L, Ceruti C, Timpano M, Sedigh O, Destefanis P, Galleto E, Falcone M, Fontana D. A new, innovative, lengthening surgical procedure for Peyronie’s disease by penile prosthesis implantation with double dorsal-ventral patch graft: the “sliding technique”. J Sex Med. 2012;9(9):2389–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Egydio PH, Kuehhas FE. Penile lengthening and widening without grafting according to a modified ‘sliding’technique. BJU Int. 2015;116(6):965–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sansalone S, Garaffa G, Djinovic R, Egydio P, Vespasiani G, Miano R, Loreto C, Ralph DJ. Simultaneous penile lengthening and penile prosthesis implantation in patients with Peyronie’s disease, refractory erectile dysfunction, and severe penile shortening. J Sex Med. 2012;9(1):316–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Taylor FL, Levine LA. Surgical correction of Peyronie’s disease via tunica albuginea plication or partial plaque excision with pericardial graft: long-term follow up. J Sex Med. 2008;5(9):2221–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Daitch JA, Angermeier KW, Montague DK. Modified corporoplasty for penile curvature: long-term results and patient satisfaction. J Urol. 1999;162(6):2006–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rehman J, Benet A, Minsky LS, Melman A. Results of surgical treatment for abnormal penile curvature: Peyronie’s disease and congenital deviation by modified Nesbit plication (tunical shaving and plication). J Urol. 1997;157(4):1288–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gholami SS, Lue TF. Correction of penile curvature using the 16-dot plication technique: a review of 132 patients. J Urol. 2002;167(5):2066–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dugi DD, Morey AF. Penoscrotal plication as a uniform approach to reconstruction of penile curvature. BJU Int. 2010;105(10):1440–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chung E, Clendinning E, Lessard L, Brock G. Five-year follow-up of Peyronie’s graft surgery: outcomes and patient satisfaction. J Sex Med. 2011;8(2):594–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Simonato A, Gregori A, Varca V, Venzano F, De Rose AF, Ambruosi C, Esposito M, Carmignani G. Penile dermal flap in patients with Peyronie’s disease: long-term results. J Urol. 2010;183(3):1065–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cormio L, Zucchi A, Lorusso F, Selvaggio O, Fioretti F, Porena M, Carrieri G. Surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease by plaque incision and grafting with buccal mucosa. Eur Urol. 2009;55(6):1469–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    El-Sakka AL, Rashwan HM, Lue TF. Venous patch graft for Peyronie’s disease. Part II: outcome analysis. J Urol. 1998;160(6 Pt 1):2050–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Craatz S, Spanel-Borowski K, Begemann JF, Olianas R, Fisch M, Hohenfellner R. The dorsal lamina of the rectus sheath: a suitable grafting material for the penile tunica albuginea in Peyronie’s disease? BJU Int. 2006;97(1):134–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    O’Donnell PD. Results of surgical management of Peyronie’s disease. J Urol. 1992;148(4):1184–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Goyal NK, Kumar A, Das SK, Pandey AK, Sharma GK, Trivedi S, Dwivedi US, Singh PB. Experience with plaque excision and dermal grafting in the surgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Singapore Med J. 2008;49(10):805–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Levine LA, Benson J, Hoover C. Inflatable penile prosthesis placement in men with Peyronie’s disease and drug-resistant erectile dysfunction: A single-center study. J Sex Med. 2010;7(11):3775–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Austoni E, Colombo F, Romano AL, Guarneri A, Kartalas GI, Cazzaniga A. Soft prosthesis implant and relaxing albugineal incision with saphenous grafting for surgical therapy of Peyronie’s disease: a 5-year experience and long-term follow-up on 145 operated patients. Eur Urol. 2005;47:223–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Grasso M, Lania C, Fortuna F, Blanco S, Piacentini I. Preservation of cavernosal erectile function after soft penile prosthesis implant in Peyronie’s disease: long-term follow-up. Adv Urol 2008;646052.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Shaeer O. Trans-corporal incision of Peyronie’s plaques. J Sex Med. 2011;8:589–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natan P. Davoudzadeh
    • 1
  • Peter J. Stahl
    • 2
  • Doron S. Stember
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of UrologyMount Sinai HospitalNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations