• Ewa Łupikasza
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)


Extreme climatic and weather events are imperishable subjects of climatological studies. Although the understanding of these rare and unexpected phenomena has improved over the past decades, the factors governing their occurrence and magnitude still need to be studied. This chapter starts with the executive summary including the most important conclusions on origin-based extreme precipitation types (air-mass and frontal precipitation) and their relationship to atmospheric circulation which are discussed in this book. It also reviews a vast body of literature on synoptic contributions to the development of extreme precipitation. It presents sources of meteorological and synoptic data used throughout this study and discusses the quality of weather data and the criteria used for sectioning precipitation series. The climatology of frontal precipitation and air-mass precipitation presented in this volume has been developed using daily totals recorded at 513 European weather stations during the period spanning December 1950 to February 2008. A large set of synoptic charts covering the same period has also been used. The majority (64 %) of the individual precipitation series has been found to be complete, that is, either free from gaps or where any gaps account for no more than 1 % of days in the study period. This chapter also includes the executive summary, which brings together the most important conclusions from the comprehensive synoptic/climatic analysis of extreme precipitation taking into account both circulation types and atmospheric fronts in Europe. The analysis has demonstrated the existence of regional groups with seasonal patterns of occurrence of extreme precipitation types. A regional and seasonal variability in the relationship between the occurrence of origin-based types of extreme precipitation and atmospheric circulation was also discovered.


Air-mass precipitation Frontal precipitation Synoptic charts Europe 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ewa Łupikasza
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Earth SciencesUniversity of SilesiaSosnowiecPoland

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