Advertisement

Epidemiology of Restless Legs Syndrome

  • Mark J. Buchfuhrer
Chapter
  • 511 Downloads

Abstract

Studies going back to Ekbom’s pioneering work have shown that restless legs syndrome (RLS) is not rare in adults, especially in clinical populations [1]. After key aspects of the diagnosis were established in 2003 by consensus of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) [2, 3], several studies have utilized the four core key diagnostic features of RLS (first four of the 2014 revised five RLS diagnostic criteria) [4] to screen for individuals with RLS symptoms. Most of these studies have looked into populations which are European or predominantly derived from European populations (Table 1.1) [5–12]. These studies have shown that between 5 and 12 % of the adults in these populations endorse the five key diagnostic features of RLS [13]. The key diagnostic features of RLS are:

Keywords

Iron Deficiency Circadian Pattern Temporary Relief Unpleasant Sensation High Concordance Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Ekbom KA. Restless legs: a clinical study. Acta Med Scand. 1945;158(Suppl):1–122.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Walters AS. Towards a better definition of the restless legs syndrome. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Mov Disord. 1995;10:634–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Monplaisai J, et al. Restless legs syndrome diagnosis and epidemiology. A report from the restless legs syndrome diagnosis and epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Sleep Med. 2003;4:101–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen RP, Picchietti DL, Garcia-Borreguero D, Ondo WG, Walters AS, Winkleman JW, et al. Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease diagnostic criteria: updated International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) consensus criteria--history, rationale, description, and significance. Sleep Med. 2014;15:860–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ulfberg J, Nystrom B, Carter N, Edling C. Restless legs syndrome among working-aged women. Eur Neurol. 2001;46:17–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ulfberg J, Nystrom B, Carter N, Edling C. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome among men aged 18 to 64 years: an association with somatic disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Mov Disord. 2001;16:1159–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger K, Luedemann J, Trenkwalder C, John U, Kessler C. Sex and the risk of restless legs syndrome in the general population. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:196–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allen RP, Walters AS, Montplaisir J, Hening W, Myers A, Bell TJ, et al. Restless legs syndrome prevalence and impact: REST general population study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1286–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tison F, Crochard A, Léger D, Boúee S, Lainey E, El Hasnaoui A. Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome in French adults: a nationwide survey: the INSTANT study. Neurology. 2005;65:239–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gao X, Schwarzschild MA, Wang H, Ascherio A. Obesity and restless legs syndrome in men and women. Neurology. 2009;72:1255–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allen RP, Stillman P, Myers AJ. Physician-diagnosed restless legs syndrome in a large sample of primary medical care patients in western Europe: prevalence and characteristics. Sleep Med. 2010;11:31–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Möller C, Wetter TC, Köster J, Stiasny-Kolster K. Differential diagnosis of unpleasant sensations in the legs: prevalence of restless legs syndrome in a primary care population. Sleep Med. 2010;11:161–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garcia-Borreguero D, Egatz R, Winkelmann J, Berger K. Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome: the current status. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:153–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee HB, Hening WA, Allen RP, Earley CJ, Eaton WW, Lyketsos CG. Race and restless legs syndrome symptoms in an adult community sample in east Baltimore. Sleep Med. 2006;7:642–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Allen RP, Earley CJ. Defining the phenotype of the restless legs syndrome (RLS) using age-of-symptom-onset. Sleep Med. 2000;1:11–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ondo WG, Dat Vuong K, Wang Q. Restless legs syndrome in monozygotic twins: clinical correlates. Neurology. 2000;55:1404–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark J. Buchfuhrer
    • 1
  1. 1.PIH Health Hospital - DowneyDowneyUSA

Personalised recommendations