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Envenomation by Cnidarians and Renal Injuries

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The Cnidaria, Past, Present and Future

Abstract

Natural toxins are among the most important causes of acute kidney injury in humans. Several marine animals produce toxins that are nephrotoxic for humans. Cnidarians produce toxins in nematocysts that offer protection from potential enemies and are used in feeding. Envenomation by these toxins through stings can be toxic for humans, with injuries typically comprising skin eruptions and ulcers. However, the stings of several species induce more severe symptoms such as shock syndromes and organ failure, particularly renal failure. Here I summarize the current state of knowledge concerning renal injuries resulting from envenomation by coelenterates and describe the expected mechanisms, possibilities for therapeutic approaches, and strategies for preventing human diseases in future.

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Mizuno, M. (2016). Envenomation by Cnidarians and Renal Injuries. In: Goffredo, S., Dubinsky, Z. (eds) The Cnidaria, Past, Present and Future. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31305-4_38

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