Cnidarians and Their Polychaete Symbionts

  • Tina N. MolodtsovaEmail author
  • Temir A. Britayev
  • Daniel Martin


Cnidarians, especially skeleton-bearing anthozoans and hydrocorals, are known to host abundant and diverse symbiotic fauna encompassing members of the majority of metazoan taxa, ranging from sponges and flat worms to fishes. Members of the class Polychaeta are between the most diverse and perhaps the least studied taxa of coral symbionts. The last revision (Martin and Britayev, Oceanogr Mar Biol 36:217–340, 1998) reckoned about 60 species of symbiotic polychaetes associated with more than 100 species of cnidarian hosts. However, this number is considerably underestimated. Some populations of scleractinians, sea fans and black corals show up to 100 % infestation by symbiotic polychaetes. Close association and inter-relation of highly host-specific symbionts and cnidarian hosts often lead to dramatic changes in the host morphology. At the moment, actual mechanisms of most of mutual relations between host and symbiont in such associations are generally unknown. The objective of the present paper is to summarize data on species composition and ecology of polychaetes associated with cnidarians. In our review, we report 281 species of cnidarian hosts involved in 324 relationships with symbiotic polychaetes. Most polychaete-hosting cnidarians belong to skeleton-bearing taxa, particularly Scleractinia (125 species or 44.48 % of the total cnidarian hosts), Alcyonaria (73 species or 25.97 %) and Hydrozoa (60 species or 21.35 %). About 120 species of symbiotic polychaetes of ten families are reported from cnidarian hosts. Polynoidae include the highest number of cnidarian-associated polychaetes (almost one half of the currently known species), followed by Syllidae and Serpulidae. Host symbiont interrelations, host specificity, location, infestation characteristics and adaptive modifications of symbionts, as well as host reaction on symbionts presence, have been considered. Our review highlights that (1) every group of cnidarians seems to have their own assemblage of symbiotic polychaetes, (2) some deep-sea alcyonaceans and black corals have never been reported without their often undetermined polynoid symbionts so that its presence has been considered as a species-specific, robust taxonomic character, and (3) we certainly expect the polychaete symbionts associated with deep-sea corals to be a hidden hot-spot of diversity, with many species still waiting to be described.


Cnidaria Polychaeta Symbiosis Host-symbiont interrelations Adaptations 



Authors would like to thank P. Lozouet and O. Savinkin for photos of corals; H. Zibrowius, S. Cairns, D. Opresko, L. van Ofwegen, G. Williams, F. Sinniger, B. Hoeksema and N. Keller, for advises and comments regarding different groups of cnidarian hosts. The research was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Researches (grant No 13-04-01332) for T.N. Molodzova and Russian Science Foundation (grant No 14-14-01179) for T.A. Britayev. This review is also a contribution of D. Martin to the Research Project MARISYMBIOMICS (CTM2013-43287-P), funded by the Spanish State Research Plan, and to the Consolidated Research Group on Marine Benthic Ecology of the Generalitat de Catalunya (2014SGR120).


  1. Alderslade P (1998) Revisionary systematics in the gorgonian family Isididae, with descriptions of numerous new taxa (Coelenterata: Octocorallia). Rec West Aust Mus S55:1–359Google Scholar
  2. Allen EJ (1915) Polychaeta of Plymouth and the South Devon coast including a list of the Archiannelida. J Mar Biol Assoc 10:592–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen EJ (1921) Regeneration and reproduction of the syllid Procerastea. Philos T R Soc B 211:131–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alós C (1988) Anelidospoliquetos de Cabo de Creus (Alt Emporda). Doctoral thesis, Universitat de Barcelona, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  5. Alós C (1989) Adiciones a la fauna de Anelidos Poliquetos de la peninsula Iberica: familia Syllidae. Cah Biol Mar 30:329–337Google Scholar
  6. Álvarez-Campos P, San Martín G, Aguado MT (2013) A new species and new records of the commensal genus Alcyonosyllis Glasby & Watson, 2001 and a new species of Parahaplosyllis Hartmann-Schröder, 1990 (Annelida: Syllidae: Syllinae) from Philippine Islands. Zootaxa 3734:156–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey-Brock JH (1985) Polychaetes from Fijian coral reefs. Pac Sci 39:195–220Google Scholar
  8. Barnich R, Fiege D (2010) On the distinction of Harmothoe globifera (GO Sars, 1873) and some other easily confused polynoids in the NE Atlantic, with the description of a new species of Acanthicolepis Norman in McIntosh, 1900 (Polychaeta, Polynoidae). Zootaxa 2525:1–18Google Scholar
  9. Barnich R, Gambi MC, Fiege D (2012a) Revision of the genus Polyeunoa McIntosh, 1885 (Polychaeta, Polynoidae). Zootaxa 3523:25–38Google Scholar
  10. Barnich R, Orensanz JM, Fiege D (2012b) Remarks on some scale worms (Polychaeta, Polynoidae) from the Southwest Atlantic with notes on the genus Eucranta Malmgren, 1866, and description of a new Harmothoe species. Mar Biodivers 42:395–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnich R, Beuck L, Freiwald A (2013) Scale worms (Polychaeta: Aphroditiformia) associated with cold-water corals in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. J Mar Biol Assoc 93:2129–2143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bayer FM (1964) The genus Corallium (Gorgonacea: Scleraxonia) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. Bull Mar Sci 14:465–478Google Scholar
  13. Bellan G (1959) Annélidespolychètes. Campagne de la ‘Calypso’ enMerd’Alboranetdans la BaieIbéro-Marocaine. Ann Inst Oceanogr 37:315–342Google Scholar
  14. Ben-Tzvi O, Einbinder S, Brokovich E (2006) A beneficial association between a polychaete worm and a scleractinian coral? Coral Reefs 25:98–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bergsma GS (2009) Tube-dwelling coral symbionts induce significant morphological change in Montipora. Symbiosis 49:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bergsma GS (2012) Epibiotic mutualists alter coral susceptibility and response to biotic disturbance through cascading trait-mediated indirect interactions. Coral Reefs 31:461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Britayev TA (1981) Two new species of commensal polynoids (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) and bibliography on polychaetes, symbionts of Coelenterata. [In Russian]. Zool Zh 60:817–824Google Scholar
  18. Britayev TA (1991) Life cycle of the symbiotic scaleworm Arctonoe vittata (Polychaeta: Polynoidae). Ophelia Suppl 5:305–312Google Scholar
  19. Britayev TA, Antokhina TI (2012) Symbiotic polychaetes from Nhatrang Bay, Vietnam. In: Britayev TA, Pavlov DS (eds) Benthic fauna of the Bay of Nhatrang, Southern Vietnam, vol 2. KMK Scientific Press, Moscow, p 491Google Scholar
  20. Britayev T, San Martín GLA (2001) Description and life-history traits of a new species of Proceraea with larvae infecting Abietinaria turgida (Polychaeta, Syllidae & Hydrozoa, Sertulariidae). Ophelia 54:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Britayev T, Gil J, Altuna A, Calvo M, Martin D (2014) New symbiotic associations involving polynoids (Polychaeta, Polynoidae) from Atlantic waters, with redescriptions of Parahololepidella greeffi (Augener, 1918) and Gorgoniapolynoe caeciliae (Fauvel, 1913). Mem Mus Vic 71:27–43Google Scholar
  22. Britayev TA, Antokhina TI, Marin IN (2015) A scaleworm (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) living with corals. Mar Biodiv 45:627–628. doi: 10.1007/s12526-014-0305-5
  23. Buhl-Mortensen P (2001) Aquarium observations on the deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa (L., 1758) (Scleractinia) and selected associated invertebrates. Ophelia 54:83–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Buhl-Mortensen L, Mortensen PB (2004) Symbiosis in deep-water corals. Symbiosis 37:33–61Google Scholar
  25. Buhl-Mortensen L, Mortensen PB (2005) Distribution and diversity of species associated with deep-sea gorgonian corals off Atlantic Canada. In: Freiwald A, Roberts JM (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, pp 849–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cairns SD (1986) Stylasteridae (Hydrozoa: Hydroida) of the Galapagos Islands. Smithson Contrib Zool 426:1–42Google Scholar
  27. Cairns SD (1987) Conopora adeta, new species (Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) from Australia, the first known unattached stylasterid. Proc Biol Soc Wash 100:141–146Google Scholar
  28. Cairns SD (1991) New records of Stylasteridae (Hydrozoa: Hydroida) from the Galapagos and Cocos Islands. Proc Biol Soc Wash 104:209–228Google Scholar
  29. Cairns SD (2006) Studies on western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Part 6: The genera Primnoella Gray, 1858, Thouarella Gary, 1870; Dasystenella Versluys, 1906. Proc Biol Soc Wash 119:161–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cairns SD (2009) Review of Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Hawai’i and adjacent seamounts. Part 2: Genera Paracalyptrophora Kinoshita, 1908; Candidella Bayer, 1954; and Calyptrophora Gray, 1866. Pac Sci 63:413–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cairns SD (2011a) Global diversity of the stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Athecatae). PLoS ONE 6(7), e21670. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021670 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cairns SD (2011b) A revision of the Primnoidae (Octocorallia: Acyonacea) from the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea. Smithson Contrib Zool 634:1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cairns SD (2012) The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: New Zealand Primnoidae (Anthozoa: Alcyonacea). Part 1. Genera Narella, Narelloides, Metanarella, Calyptrophora, and Helicoprimnoa. NIWA Biodiv Mem 126:1–72Google Scholar
  34. Cairns SD, Bayer FM (2004) Studies on Western Atlantic Octocorallia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Part 5: The Genera Plumarella Gray, 1870; Acanthoprimnoa, n. gen.; and Candidella Bayer, 1954. Proc Biol Soc Wash 117:447–487Google Scholar
  35. Cairns SD, Bayer FM (2008) A review of the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Hawai’i and Adjacent Seamounts. The genus Narella Gray, 1870. Pac Sci 62:83–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cairns SD, Lindner A (2011) A revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and adjacent waters. Zoo Keys 158:1–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cairns SD, Zibrowius H (1997) Cnidaria Anthozoa: Azooxanthellate Scleractinia from the Philippine and Indonesian Regions. Mém Mus Natn Hist Nat 172:27–243Google Scholar
  38. Cairns SD, Zibrowius H (2013) Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from South Africa. Zootaxa 3691:1–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Caullery M (1925) Schizogenèse et schizogamie de Procerastea halleziana Malaquin. Parasitism de ce Syllidian sur les Tubularies. Bull Soc Zool Fr 50:204–208Google Scholar
  40. Chisholm JRM, Kelley R (2001) Worms start the reef-building process. Nature (London) 409:152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Day JH (1967) A monograph on the Polychaetes of Southern Africa. Part 1. Errantia. Trust Brit Mus (Nat Hist) 656:1–656Google Scholar
  42. De Bary A (1879) Die Erscheinung der Symbiose. Vortrag auf der Versammlung der Deutschen Naturforscher und Aertze zu Cassel. Verlag von Karl J. Trubner, Strasburg, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  43. DeVantier LL, Reichelt RR, Bradbury RR (1986) Does Spirobranchus giganteus protect host Porites from predation by Acanthaster planci: predator pressure as a mechanism of coevolution? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 32:307–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Di Camillo CG, Martin D, Britayev TA (2011) Symbiotic association between Solanderia secunda (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Solanderiidae) and Medioantenna variopinta sp. nov. (Annelida, Polychaeta, Polynoidae) from North Sulawesi (Indonesia). Helgol Mar Res 65:495–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ditlevsen H (1917) Annelids. I. Danish Ingolf-Exped 4(4):1–71Google Scholar
  46. Eckelbarger KJ, Watling L, Fournier H (2005) Reproductive biology of the deep-sea polychaete Gorgoniapolynoe caeciliae (Polynoidae), a commensal species associated with octocorals. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 85:1425–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fage L (1936) Sur l’association d’un annélide polychète Lumbriconereis flabellicola n. sp. et d’un madrépore Flabellum pavoninum distinctum E et H. Congr Int Zool (CR) 1:941–945Google Scholar
  48. Fauchald K (1992) A review of the genus Eunice (Polycaeta: Eunicidae) based upon type material. Smithson Contrib Zool 523:1–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fauvel P (1913) Quatrième note préliminare sur les Polychètes provenant des campagnes de l’“Hirondelle” et de la “Princesse-Alice”, ou déposées dans le Musée Océanografique de Monaco. Bull Inst Océanogr Monaco 270:1–80Google Scholar
  50. Fauvel P (1923) Faune de France. Polychètes Errantes Faune de France 5:1–488Google Scholar
  51. Garberoglio RM, Lazo DG (2011) Post-mortem and symbiotic sabellid and serpulid-coral associations from the Lower Cretaceous of Argentina. Rev Bras Paleontolog 14:215–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gardiner SL (1976) Errant Polychaete Annelids from North Carolina. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 91:77–220Google Scholar
  53. Genzano GN, San Martín G (2002) Association between the polychaete Procerastea halleziana (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Autolytinae) and the hydroid Tubularia crocea (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Mar del Plata intertidal zone, Argentina. Cah Biol Mar 43:165–170Google Scholar
  54. George JD, Hartmann-Schröeder G (1985) Polychaetes: British Amphinomida, Spintherida and Eunicida In: Kermack DM, Barnes RSK (eds) Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) vol 32. Linnean Society, London, Estuarine and Coastal Science association, Hull, pp 1–221Google Scholar
  55. Glasby CJ (1994) A new genus and species of polychaete, Bollandia antipathicola (Nereidoidea, Syllidae), from black coral. Proc Biol Soc Wash 107:615–621Google Scholar
  56. Glasby CJ, Aguado M (2009) A new species and new records of the anthozoan commensal genus Alcyonosyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae). Beagle Rec N Territ Mus Arts Sci 25:53–61Google Scholar
  57. Glasby CJ, Krell FT (2009) Bollandiella nom. nov. for the polychaete genus Bollandia Glasby, 1994 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Phyllodocida:? Syllidae). Proc Biol Soc Wash 122:355–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Glasby CJ, Watson C (2001) A new genus and species of Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) commensal with octocorals. Beagle Rec N Territ Mus Arts Sci 17:43–51Google Scholar
  59. Glynn PW, Enoch IC (2011) Invertebrates and their roles in coral reef ecosystems. In: Dubinsky Z, Stambler N (eds) Coral reefs: an ecosystem in transition. Springer, London, pp 273–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grillo MC, Goldberg WM, Allemand D (1993) Skeleton and sclerite formation in the precious red coral Corallium rubrum. Mar Biol 117:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hanley JR (1992) Checklist of scaleworms (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) from Hong Kong. In: Morton B (ed) The marine flora and fauna of Hong Kong and southern China III. Proceedings of the Fourth International Marine Biological Workshop: the Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China, Hong Kong, 11–29 April 1989, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, pp 361–369Google Scholar
  62. Hanley JR, Burke M (1991a) A new genus and species of commensal scaleworm (Polychaeta, Polynoidae) from the Cascade Plateau, Tasman Sea. Beagle Rec N Territ Mus Arts Sci 8:97–102Google Scholar
  63. Hanley JR, Burke M (1991b) Polychaeta polynoidae: scaleworms of the Chesterfield Islands and Fairway Reefs, Coral sea. Mém Mus Natn Hist Nat (A) 151:9–82Google Scholar
  64. Hartman O (1954) Marine annelids from the northern Marshall Islands. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 260Q:615–644Google Scholar
  65. Hartmann-Schröder G (1960) Polychaeten aus dem Roten Meer. Kiel Meeresforsch 16:69–125Google Scholar
  66. Hartmann-Schröder G (1985) Polynoe caeciliae Fauvel (Polynoidae), ein mit Korallen assoziierter Polychaet. Mitt Hambg Zool Mus Inst 82:31–35Google Scholar
  67. Hartmann-Schröder G (1989) Polynoe thouarellicola n. sp. aus der Antarktis, assoziiert mit Hornkorallen, und Wiederbeschreibung von Polynoe antarctica Kinberg, 1858 (Polychaeta, Polynoidae). Zool Anz 3(4):205–221Google Scholar
  68. Hartmann-Schröder G (1991) Syllis onkylochaeta sp. n., ein korallenfressender Polychaet (Syllidae) aus dem Korallenaquarium des Löbbecke-Museums. Helgoländer Meeresun 45:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hartmann-Schröder G (1992) Drei neue Polychaeten-arten der familien Polynoidae und Syllidae von Neu-Kaledonien, assoziiert mit einer verkalten Hydrozoe. Helgoländer Meeresun 46:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hartmann-Schröder G (1993) Haplosyllys xeniaecola, ein neuer Polychaet (Syllidae) von der Molukken (Indonesien). Helgoländer Meeresun 47:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hartmann-Schröder G, Zibrowius H (1998) Polychaeta associated with Antipatharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): description of Polynoidae and Eunicidae. Mitt Hambg Zool Mus Inst 95:29–44Google Scholar
  72. Herring PJ (1991) Observations on bioluminescence in some deep-water anthozoans. Hydrobiologia 216:573–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hoeksema BW, ten Hove HA (2014) First record of a christmas tree worm in a mushroom coral (Loyalty Islands, Southwest Pacific). Coral Reefs 33:717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Horst R (1915) On new and little-known species of Polynoinae from the Netherland’s East-Indies. Zool Meded Leiden 1:2–20Google Scholar
  75. Hove HA ten (1994) Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Seychelles and Amirante Islands. In: van der Land J (ed) Oceanic reefs of the Seychelles. Cruise Reports of Netherlands Indian Ocean Program, vol 2, Naturalis, Leiden, pp 107–116Google Scholar
  76. Hunte W, Marsden JR, Conlin BE (1990) Habitat selection in the tropical polychaete Spirobranchus giganteus. I: distribution on corals. Mar Biol 104:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hutchings P (2008) Role of polychaetes in bioerosion of coral substrates. In: Wisshak M, Tapanila L (eds) Current developments in bioerosion. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Imajima M (1997) Polychaetous Annelids of Suruga Bay, Central Japan. Nat Sci Mus Monogr 12:149–228Google Scholar
  79. Imajima M (2003) Polychaetous Annelids from Sagami Bay and Sagami Sea collected by the Emperor Showa of Japan and deposited at the Showa Memorial Institute, National Science Museum, Tokyo (II). Orders included within the Phyllodocida, Amphinomida, Spintherida and Eunicida. Nat Sci Mus Monogr 23:1–221Google Scholar
  80. Imajima M, Hartman O (1964) The polychaetous annelids of Japan. Allan Hancock Found Spec Publ 26:1–452Google Scholar
  81. Jensen A, Frederiksen R (1992) The fauna associated with the bank-forming deepwater coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinaria) on the Faroe shelf. Sarsia 77:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Johnsen S, Frank TM, Haddock SH, Widder EA, Messing CG (2012) Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: I. Bioluminescence at 500–1,000 m depth in the Bahamian Islands. J Exp Biol 215:3335–3343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kumagai NH, Aoki MN (2003) Seasonal changes in the epifaunal community on the shallow-water gorgonian Melithaea flabellifera. J Mar Biol Assoc 83:1221–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lattig P, Martin D (2009) A taxonomic revision of the genus Haplosyllis Langerhans, 1887. Zootaxa 2220:1–40Google Scholar
  85. Laubier L (1960) Une nouvelle sous-espèce de Syllidien: Haplosyllis depressa Augener ssp. nov. chamaeleon, ectoparasite sur l’octocoralliaire Muricea chamaeleon Von Koch. Vie et Milieu 11:75–87Google Scholar
  86. Lewis JB (1998) Reproduction, larval development and functional relationships of the burrowing, spionid polychaete Dipolydora armata with the calcareous hydrozoan Millepora complanata. Mar Biol 130:651–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lewis JB (2006) Biology and ecology of the hydrocoral Millepora on coral reefs. Adv Mar Biol 60:1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Light WJ (1970a) Polydora alloporis, new species, a commensal spionid (Annelida, Polychaeta) from a hydrocoral off Central California. Proc Calif Acad Sci 37:459–472Google Scholar
  89. Light WJ (1970b) A new spionid (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Gulf of California. Bull South Calif Acad Sci 69:74–79Google Scholar
  90. Lindner A, Cairns SD, Guzman HM (2004) Distichopora robusta sp. nov., the first shallow-water stylasterid (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) from the tropical eastern Pacific. J Mar Biol Assoc 84:943–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Liu P-J, Hsieh H-L (2000) Burrow architecture of the spionid polychaete Polydora villosa in the corals Montipora and Porites. Zool Stud 39:47–54Google Scholar
  92. López E, San Martín G, Jiménez M (1996) Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida, Polichaeta) from Chafarinas Islands (Alborán Sea, W Mediterranean). Misc Zool 19:105–118Google Scholar
  93. Marenzeller E (1904) Steinkorallen. Wiss Ergebn Dt Tiefsee-Exped 7:261–318Google Scholar
  94. Margolis L, Esch GW, Holmes JC, Kuris AM, Schad GA (1982) The use of ecological terms in parasitology (report of a committee of the American Society of Parasitologists). J Parasitol 68:131–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Marsden JR (1992) Reproductive isolation in two forms of the serpulid polychaete, Spirobranchus polycerus (Schmarda) in Barbados. Bull Mar Sci 51:14–19Google Scholar
  96. Martin D, Britayev TA (1998) Symbiotic polychaetes: review of known species. Oceanogr Mar Biol 36:217–340Google Scholar
  97. Martin D, Núñes J, Riera R, Gil J (2002) On the associations between Haplosyllis (Polychaeta, Syllidae) and gorgonians (Cnidaria, Octocorallaria), with the description of a new species. Biol J Linn Soc 77:455–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Martin D, Aguado MT, Britayev TA (2009) Review of the symbiotic genus Haplosyllides (Polychaeta: Syllidae), with a description of a new species. Zool Sci 26:646–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Miranda VDR, Brasil ACDS (2014) Two new species and a new record of scale-worms (Polychaeta) from Southwest Atlantic deep-sea coral mounds. Zootaxa 3856:211–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Miura T, Shirayama Y (1992) Lumbineris flabellicola (Fage, 1936), a lumbrinerid polychaete associated with a Japanese haermatypic coral. Benthos Res 43:23–27Google Scholar
  101. Molodtsova TN (2006) New species of Hexapathes Kinoshita, 1910 (Anthozoa, Antipatharia, Cladopathidae) from the South-West Pacific. Zoosystema 28:597–606Google Scholar
  102. Molodtsova TN (2013) Deep-sea mushroom soft corals (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea: Alcyoniidae) of the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Mar Biol Res 9:488–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Molodtsova T, Budaeva N (2007) Modifications of corallum mophology in black corals as an effect of associated fauna. Bull Mar Sci 81:469–479Google Scholar
  104. Mueller CE, Lundälv T, Middelburg JJ, van Oevelen D (2013) The symbiosis between Lophelia pertusa and Eunice norvegica stimulates coral calcification and worm assimilation. PLoS ONE 8(3), e58660. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058660 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nakamura T, Yamasaki H, Van Woesik R (2003) Water flow facilitates recovery from bleaching in the coral Stylophora pistillata. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 256:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nicol JAC (1953) Luminescence in polynoid worms. J Mar Biol Assoc 32:65–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nishi E, Tachikawa H (1999) New record of a commensal scale worm Medioantenna clavata Imajima, 1997 (Polychaeta: Polynoidae), from Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Nat Hist Res 5:107–110Google Scholar
  108. Núñez J, Barnich R, Santos L, Maggio Y (2011) Poliquetos escamosos (Annelida, Polychaeta) colectados en las campañas “Fauna II, III, IV”(Proyecto “Fauna Ibérica”) y catálogo de las especies conocidas para el ámbito íbero-balear. Graellsia 67:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nutting CC (1908) Descriptions of the Alcyonaria collected by the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Steamer Albatross in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands in 1902. Proc U.S. Nat Mus 34:543–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nygren A, Pleijel F (2010) Redescription of Imajimaea draculai—a rare syllid polychaete associated with the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 90:1441–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. O’Connor B, Könnecker G, McGrath D, Keegan BF (1977) Pachycerianthus multiplicatus Carlgren, biotope or biocoenosis? In: Keegan BF, Ceidigh PO, Boaden PJS (eds) Biology of benthic organisms. 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, October, 1976. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 475–482Google Scholar
  112. Okuda S (1937) Spioniform polychaetes from Japan. J Fac Sci Hokk Imp Un Zool 5:217–254Google Scholar
  113. Okuda S (1950) Notes on some commensal polychaetes from Japan. Ann Zool Jpn 24:49–53Google Scholar
  114. Opresko DM (2006) Three new species of the genus Leiopathes (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia) from coastal waters of Australia and Tasmania. Rec South Aust Mus 32:143–154Google Scholar
  115. Pettibone MH (1963) Marine polychaete worms of the New England region. 1. Families Aphroditidae through Trochochaetidae. US Natl Mus Bull 227:1–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pettibone MH (1969a) Review of some species referred to Scalisetosus McIntosh (Polychaeta, Polynoidae). Proc Biol Soc Wash 82:1–30Google Scholar
  117. Pettibone MH (1969b) Australaugenira pottsi, new name for Polynoe longicirrus Potts, from the Maldive Islands (Polychaeta: Polynoidae). Proc Biol Soc Wash 82:519–524Google Scholar
  118. Pettibone MH (1969c) The genera Polyeunoa McIntosh, Hololepidella Willei, and three new genera (Polychaeta, Polynoidae). Proc Biol Soc Wash 82:43–62Google Scholar
  119. Pettibone MH (1970) Polychaeta Errantia of the Siboga Expedition. Part IV. Some additional polychaetes of the Polynoidae, Hesionidae, Nereidae, Goniadidae, Eunicidae, and Onuphidae, selected as new species by the late Dr. Hermann Augener with remarks on other related species. Siboga-Exp 24(4):199–270Google Scholar
  120. Pettibone MH (1989) A new species of Benhamipolynoe (Polychaeta: Polynoidae: Lepidasteniinae) from Australia, associated with the unattached stylasterid coral Conopora adeta. Proc Biol Soc Wash 102:300–304Google Scholar
  121. Pettibone MH (1991a) Polynoids commensal with gorgonian and stylasterid corals, with a new genus, new combinations, and new species (Polychaeta: Polynoidae: Polynoinae). Proc Biol Soc Wash 104:688–713Google Scholar
  122. Pettibone MH (1991b) Polynoid polychaetes commensal with antipatharian corals. Proc Biol Soc Wash 104:714–726Google Scholar
  123. Pettibone MH (1993) Scaled polychaetes (Polynoidae) associated with ophiuroids and other invertebrates and review of species referred to Malmgrenia McIntosh and replaced by Malmgeniella Hartman, with descriptions of new taxa. Smithson Contrib Zool 538:1–92Google Scholar
  124. Plyuscheva M, Martin D (2009) On the morphology of elytra as luminescent organs in scale-worms (Polychaeta, Polynoidae). Zoosymposia 2:379–389Google Scholar
  125. Radashevsky VI, Hsieh HL (2000) Polydora (Polychaeta: Spionidae) species from Taiwan. Zool Stud 39:218–235Google Scholar
  126. Randall RH, Eldredge LG (1976) Skeletal modification by a polychaete annelid in some scleractinian corals. In: Mackie GO (ed) Coelenterate ecology and behavior. Plenum Press, New York, pp 453–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Roberts JM (2005) Reef-aggregating behaviour by symbiotic eunicid polychaetes from cold-water corals: do worms assemble reefs? J Mar Biol Assoc UK 85:813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rowley S (2008) A critical evaluation of the symbiotic association between tropical tube-dwelling polychaetes and their hermatypic coral hosts, with a focus on Spirobranchus giganteus (Pallas, 1766). Plymouth Stud Sci 1:335–353Google Scholar
  129. Rullier F (1974) Quelques annelides polychaetes de Cuba recueillies dans des eponges. Trav Mus Natl Hist Nat Grigore Antipa 14:9–77Google Scholar
  130. Rullier F, Amoureux L (1979) Campagne de la Calypso au large des côtes Atlantiques de l’Amérique du Sud (1961–1962) I 33 Annélides Polychètes. Ann I Oceanogr 55:145–206Google Scholar
  131. San Martín G, Nishi E (2003) A new species of Alcyonosyllis Glasby and Watson, 2001 (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae) from Shimoda, Japan, commensal with the gorgonian Melithaea flabellifera. Zool Sci 20:371–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Simpson A, Watling L (2011) Precious corals (Coralliidae) from north-western Atlantic Seamounts. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 91:369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Spooner GM, Wilson DP, Trebble N (1957) Phylum Annelida. In: Plymouth Marine Fauna, 3rd edn. Marine Biological Association UK, Plymouth, pp 109–149Google Scholar
  134. Stella JS, Pratchett MS, Hutchings PA, Jones GP (2011) Coral-associated invertebrates: diversity, ecological importance and vulnerability of disturbance. Oceanogr Mar Biol 49:43–104Google Scholar
  135. Stewart HL, Holbrook SJ, Schmitt RJ, Brooks AJ (2006) Symbiotic crabs maintain coral health by clearing sediments. Coral Reefs 25:609–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stiller M (1996) Verbreitung und Lebensweise der Aphroditiden und Polynoiden (Polychaeta) im östlichen Weddellmeer und im Lazarevmeer (Antarktis). Ber Polarforsch 185:1–200Google Scholar
  137. Stock JH (1986) Cases of hyperassociation in the Copepoda (Herphyllobiidae and Nereicolidae). Syst Parasitol 8:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Strathmann RR, Cameron RA, Strathmann M (1984) Spirobranchus giganteus (Pallas) breaks the rules for suspension feeders. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol 70:245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sun R, Yang DJ (2004) Invertebrata, vol 33. Annelida, Polychaeta II. Nereidida (= Nereimorpha). Nereididae, Syllidae, Hesionidae, Pilargidae, Nephtydae. Fauna Sinica, China Science Press, Beijing, pp 1–550Google Scholar
  140. Taylor ML, Cairns SD, Agnew DJ, Rogers AD (2013) A revision of the genus Thouarella Gray, 1870 (Octocorallia: Primnoidae), including an illustrated dichotomous key, a new species description, and comments on Plumarella Gray, 1870 and Dasystenella, Versluys, 1906. Zootaxa 3602:1–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. ten Hove HA (1970) Serpulinae (Polychaeta) from the Caribbean. 1. The genus Spirobranchus. Stud Fauna Curaçao Caribb Isl 32:14–19Google Scholar
  142. ten Hove HA (1989) Serpulinae (Polychaeta) from the Caribbean: IV Pseudovermilia madracicola sp.n., a symbiont of corals. Natuurwetenschappelijke Studiekring voor Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen 123:135–144Google Scholar
  143. Totton AK (1923) Coelenterata. Part III-Antipatharia (and their cirripede commensals). Nat Hist Rep Brit Antarct Exped Zool 5:97–120Google Scholar
  144. Tu T, Dai C, Jeng M (2012) Precious corals (Octocorallia: Coralliidae) from the northern West Pacific region with descriptions of two new species. Zootaxa 3395:1–17Google Scholar
  145. Tu T, Altuna A, Jeng MS (2015) Coralliidae (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the INDEMARES 2010 expedition to north and northwest Spain (northeast Atlantic), with delimitation of a new species using both morphological and molecular approaches. Zootaxa 3926:301–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Uchida H (1978) Serpulid tube worms (Polychaeta, Sedentaria) from Japan with the systematic review of the group. Bull Mar Park Res Stn 2:1–98Google Scholar
  147. Utinomi H (1956) On the so-called ‘Umi-Utiwa’ a peculiar flabellate gorgonacean, with notes on a syllidean polychaete commensal. Publ Seto Mar Biol Lab 5:243–250Google Scholar
  148. Verrill AE (1881) New England Annelida. Part I. Historical sketch, with annotated lists of the species hitherto recorded. Trans Conn Acad Arts Sci 4:285–324Google Scholar
  149. Versluys J (1906) Die Gorgoniden der Siboga-Expedition. II. Die Primnoidae. Siboga- Exped 13a:1–187Google Scholar
  150. Wagner D, Luck DG, Toonen RG (2012) Biology and ecology of black corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia). Adv Mar Biol 63:67–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Watling L, France SC, Pante E, Simpson A (2011) Biology of deep-water corals. Adv Mar Biol 60:41–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wehe T (2006) Revision of scale worms (Polychaeta: Aphroditoidea) occurring in the seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. Part I. Polynoidae. Fauna Arab 22:23–197Google Scholar
  153. Wielgus J, Levy O (2006) Differences in photosynthetic activity between coral sections infested and not infested by boring spionid polychaetes. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 86:727–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wielgus J, Glassom D, Chadwick-Furman NE (2002) An aberrant growth form of Red Sea corals caused by polychaete infestations. Coral Reefs 21:315–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wielgus J, Glassom D, Chadwick-Furman NE (2006) Patterns of polychaete worm infestation of stony corals in the northern Red Sea and relationships to water chemistry. Bull Mar Sci 78:377–388Google Scholar
  156. Williams GC (2003) Capitate taxa of the soft coral genus Eleutherobia (Octocorallia: Alcyoniidae) from Palau and South Africa; a new species and a new combination. Zool Verh Leiden 345:419–436Google Scholar
  157. Wright JD, Woodwick KH (1977) A new species of Autolytus (Polychaeta: Syllidae) commensal on a Californian hydrocoral. Bull South Calif Acad Sci 76:42–48Google Scholar
  158. Zapata-Guardiola R, López-González PJ (2010) Redescription of Thouarella brucei Thomson and Ritchie, 1906 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Primnoidae) and description of two new Antarctic primnoid species. Zootaxa 2616:48–68Google Scholar
  159. Zibrowius H (1980) Les scléractiniaires de la Méditerranée et de l’Atlantique nord-oriental. Mém Inst Océanogr Monaco 11:1–284Google Scholar
  160. Zibrowius H (1981) Associations of Hydrocorallia Stylasterina with gall-inhabiting Copepoda Siphonostomatoidea from the South-West Pacific. Part 1. On the stylasterine hosts, including two new species, Stylaster papuensis and Crypthelia cryptotrema. Bijdr Dierk 51:268–286Google Scholar
  161. Zibrowius H, Cairns SD (1992) Revision of the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Mém Mus Natl Hist Nat A Zool 153:1–136Google Scholar
  162. Zibrowius H, Southward EC, Day JH (1975) New observations on a little-known species of Lumbrineris (Polychaeta) living on various Cnidarians, with notes on its recent and fossil Scleractinian hosts. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 55:83–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tina N. Molodtsova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Temir A. Britayev
    • 2
  • Daniel Martin
    • 3
  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Blanes – Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientíficasBlanesSpain

Personalised recommendations