Information and Communication Technologies have fostered the emergence of companies such as Google, Amazon, Facebook and Apple, known as GAFA, on the Internet. These companies are interrelated, form the business ecosystems (b-ecosystems) and have a core activity which they complement with others.
- Mobile Device
- Core Activity
- Scope Economy
- Entrepreneurship Ecosystem
- Innovation Ecosystem
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Miguel, J.C., Casado, M.Á. (2016). GAFAnomy (Google, Amazon, Facebook and Apple): The Big Four and the b-Ecosystem. In: Gómez-Uranga, M., Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, J., Barrutia, J. (eds) Dynamics of Big Internet Industry Groups and Future Trends. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31147-0_4
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