Advertisement

An Archetypal Approach to Coaching

  • Daniel Hercules du ToitEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to motivate the utilization of Jungian depth psychology as an approach towards coaching through (a) positioning archetypal psychology as a paradigm, (b) providing an overview of archetypal psychological constructs, and (c) to indicate how archetypal coaching can be utilized for aiding the coachee in dealing with irrationality and to facilitate personal growth. Archetypal psychology, as coaching approach, works at its best when dealing with irrational behaviour and reactions, and also for personal growth. Archetypal psychology provides an approach to stimulate true growth and awareness. This approach can be used for individual coaching and adds specific insights for group coaching by approaching the group as an “individual” with a personality, a shadow and possible neuroses. One of the main aims of coaching, is to facilitate sustained behavior change. An archetypal approach addresses behavioural problems at its roots. By changing the root cause of problematic behavior, chances of bringing about sustained behavior change are better than when only looking at the behavior without considering its unconscious drivers. This chapter will position archetypal psychology within the tradition of coaching, (as opposed to its clinical applications) through comparisons with traditional coaching approaches. Flowing from this, the chapter will highlight the profile of the coach likely to utilize archetypal psychology as a paradigm for coaching. The main constructs relating to Jungian archetypal psychology, such as the unconscious, complexes, archetypes, persona, shadow, anima/animus and individuation will be discussed as it relates to the coaching process to assist the coachee in dealing with irrational behaviour and to foster personal growth. Archetypal psychology provides unique methods and models for assisting coachees to deal with irrational behaviour, such as anger outbursts, shyness/withdrawal, and conflict avoidance as well as methods to change reactions and habits, such as fear of presentations or even to aid the coachee to stop smoking. Methods to managing irrational beliefs and behaviour will be discussed. Finally, we postulate the use of Jung’s three-stage model (nurturing stage, adaptating stage and integrating stage) of individuation as a mechanism to aid in personal growth. Specific coaching strategies to facilitate change will be presented and discussed. The chapter will conclude with applying these concepts in transcultural coaching.

Keywords

Archetypal psychology Personal growth Irrationality Jungian coaching Individuation Higher levels of awareness 

References

  1. Abbott, G., Gilbert, K., & Rosinski, P. (2013). Cross-cultural working in coaching and mentoring. In J. Passmore, D. B. Peterson, & T. Freire (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of the psychology of coaching and mentoring (pp. 483–500). Retrieved from http://ir.nmu.org.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/144889/cfdaf6e32f456ab57cc53be33169b53f.pdf?sequence–1#page=312
  2. Agervold, M. (2007). Bullying at work: A discussion of definitions and prevalence, based on an empirical study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48(2), 161–172. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00585.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, U. (2012). Psychodynamic coaching focus and depth. London: Karnac Book Ltd.Google Scholar
  4. Brotman, L. E., Liberi, W. P., & Wasylyshyn, K. M. (1998). Executive coaching: The need for standards of competence. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, 50(1), 40–46. doi: 10.1037/1061-4087.50.1.40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Coetzee, Y. (2012). Intercultural experiences of South African business coaches. Master’s thesis, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark.Google Scholar
  6. Coleman, A. (1999). Up from scapegoating. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  7. Du Toit, D. H. (2011). A Jungian perspective on the psycho-social maturity of leaders. Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  8. Freud, S. (1950). Collected papers, 1(7), (6th impression). London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-analysts.Google Scholar
  9. Gilbert, K., & Cartwright, S. (2008). Cross-cultural consultancy initiatives to develop Russian managers. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7(4), 504–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hamlin, R. G., Ellinger, A. D., & Beattie, R. S. (2007). Coaching at the heart of managerial effectiveness: A cross-cultural study of managerial behaviours. Human Resource Development International, 9(3), 305–331. doi: 10.1080/13678860600893524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Handy, C. B. (1995). The age of unreason (2nd ed.). London: Random House.Google Scholar
  12. Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42–63. doi: 10.1016/0090-2616(80)90013-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s recent consequences: Using dimension scores in theory and research. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 1(1), 11–30. Retrieved from http://ccm.sagepub.com.nwulib.nwu.ac.za/content/1/1/11.full.pdf+html Google Scholar
  14. Jung, C. G. (1948). The integration of the personality (5th ed.). London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  15. Jung, C. G. (1959). Concerning the archetypes, with special reference to the anima concept. Collected Works, 9(Part I), 54–72.Google Scholar
  16. Kalsched, D. (1996). The inner world of trauma: Archetypal defences of the personal spirit. London: Routledge Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Kets de Vries, M. F. R. (2006). The leadership mystique: Leading behavior in the human enterprise (2nd ed.). London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Koortzen, P., & Oosthuizen, R. (2010). A competence executive coaching model. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(1), 1–11. doi: 10.4102/sajip.v36i1.837.Google Scholar
  19. Lowman, R. L. (2007). Coaching and consulting in multicultural contexts: Integrating themes and issues. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 296–303. doi: 10.1037/1065-9293.59.4.296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McCauley, C. D., Moxley, R. S., & Van Velsor, E. (Eds.). (1998). The center for creative leadership: Handbook of leadership development. California: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  21. Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  22. Samuels, A. (1985). Jung and post-Jungians. London: Routledge Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schein, E. (1969). The mechanisms of change. In W. G. Bennis, K. D. Denne, & R. Chin (Eds.), The planning of change (pp. 98–108). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  24. Schott, R. L. (1992). Abraham Maslow, humanistic psychology, and organization leadership: A Jungian perspective. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 32(1), 106–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schuster, J. (2013). Therapy, depth psychology and executive coaching: Where and how do they meet? [Adobe Digital Editions Version]. Retrieved from http://www.evocateurblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Coaching-and-Therapy-Article-For-Download.pdf
  26. Stein, M. (1998). Jung’s map of the soul: An introduction. Chicago: Open Court.Google Scholar
  27. Stein, M. (2006). Individuation. In R. K. Papadopoulos (Ed.), The handbook of Jungian psychology: Theory, practice and applications. London: Routledge Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Twohy, M. (2008). “The first step to enlightenment is disillusionment.” – New Yorker Cartoon. Retrieved from http://www.art.com/products/p15063313190-sa-i6845919/mike-twohy-the-first-step-toward-enlightenment-is-dissillusionment-new-yorker-cartoon.htm

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Optentia Research Focus AreaNorth-West UniversityVanderbijlparkSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations