The Effect of Metal Nanoparticles on Biological Objects (Analysis of the Literature)
This chapter contains the analytical review of the literature devoted to the studies of antimicrobial activity of metal nanoparticles. The majority of data considered here was obtained for silver nanoparticles; some results also reported for the used copper and metal oxide nanoparticles. The objective of our analysis in this review was to try to understand, first, whether the research strategy applied was efficient for elucidation the effects of basic parameters (size, shape, surface charge, and the stabilizing shell composition) of nanoparticles on their biological activity and, second, whether the results obtained make it possible to select, on reasonable grounds, the nanoparticles best suitable for particular applications in medicine and bionanotechnology. The main problems of methodology issuing from this analysis are also indicated. Then we describe in brief the mechanisms of the antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles that have been discussed in the literature, noting also the gaps that arose from the main problems mentioned.