Methods of the Nanoparticle Preparation in Solutions
This chapter contains a review of the main chemical methods used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in solutions. All of them are based on the reduction of metal ions with various reducing agents in conditions favoring the subsequent formation of nanoparticles. Here we include the methods using; (1) the traditional chemical reducers, (2) reduction with solvated electron generated by the UV or ionizing radiation, (3) electrochemical reduction and (4) biological reduction with natural extracts. Synthesis both in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions as well as in reverse micelles is described. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods conformably to their application for the studies of biological effects of metal nanoparticles are estimated. In summary, the requirements are presented which should be met by the methods used for the preparation of metal nanoparticles applied in studies of their biological activity.