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Neuronal Tumors

  • Dario J. Englot
  • Edward F. Chang
  • Nalin GuptaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)

Abstract

Neuronal tumors are rare, typically slow-growing tumors which usually carry a good prognosis. Gangliocytomas, gangliogliomas, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) present in late childhood or early adulthood are most often found in the supratentorial compartment and are commonly accompanied by intractable epilepsy. Complete surgical resection is typically curative and results in favorable seizure control, although tumor progression and persistent seizures are possible with subtotal excision. It is important to distinguish these tumors from low-grade astrocytomas in order to identify appropriate therapy. Central neurocytomas are lobulated, well-circumscribed masses seen in early adulthood, most often found in the lateral ventricles in proximity to the foramen of Monro. Patients usually present with symptoms attributable to raised intracranial pressure secondary to obstructive hydrocephalus. Complete surgical resection carries a favorable prognosis and also has the benefit of reopening CSF pathways, but can be difficult to achieve in some cases. Malignant transformation occurs in only a small minority of neuronal tumors, but has been reported in all tumor types. Although rare, tumor recurrence is seen, necessitating adjuvant therapy such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or radiosurgery in addition to surgical resection.

Keywords

Glial Fibrillary Acid Protein Complete Surgical Resection Gross Total Resection Seizure Freedom Central Neurocytomas 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dario J. Englot
    • 1
  • Edward F. Chang
    • 2
  • Nalin Gupta
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Neurological Surgery & PhysiologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Departments of Neurological Surgery and PediatricsUniversity of California San Francisco & UCSF Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA

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