Design Advocacy

  • Alexandra Jayeun LeeEmail author
Part of the Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications book series (ASTSA)


Design, within the context of architecture, is analogous with conceptualization of the ‘big idea’—an ‘A-ha’ moment—that which triggers a creative activity. Design is also considered a process: as communication medium for bringing together disparate variables that eventually converge on a unified situation or context. The paradoxical goal of design is to espouse universal understanding that leaves little room for misunderstanding its intentions while remaining conducive to multiple interpretations. Whichever the case, the design journey encompasses countless revisions, adjustments, and modifications along the way, but rarely is design considered a failure. Most designers eschew failure, because design failure is the very antithesis of the profession’s objective. In theory, any designed element presented as an end-product has survived the rigors of innumerable tests and of trial and error to eliminate potential redundancies that could result in failures. Failures, in other words, conceded that design has fallen shorts of its intents.


Disaster Research Humanitarian Agency Beauty Contest Post Disaster Urban Crisis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alberti LB (1988) On the art of building (trans: Rykwert J, Leach N, Tavernor R). MIT Press, Cambridge, MassGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrich DP (2012) Building resilience: social capital in post-disaster recovery. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander D (2005) An interpretation of disaster in terms of changes In culture, society and international relations. In: Perry RW, Quarantelli EL (eds) What is a disaster? New answers to old questions. International Research Committee on Disasters, Bloomington, pp 25–38Google Scholar
  4. Alexander DE (2006) Globalization of disaster: trends, problems and dilemmas. J Int Aff 59(2):1–22Google Scholar
  5. Alexander DE (2009 Jan 31) Theoretical notes on vulnerability to disaster. Disaster Plan Emerg ManagGoogle Scholar
  6. Ban S (2012 Dec 3) The christchurch cardboard cathedral and other projects. In: Resilience: Japan and New Zealand moving forward. The University of Auckland, Auckland; New Zealand Asia Institute, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell B, Wakeford K (eds) (2008) Expanding architecture: design as activism. Metropolis Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Belloni R (2007) The trouble with humanitarianism. Rev Int Stud 33:451–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boano C, Lamarca MG, Hunter W, Leclair-Paquet B, Wade A (2010) Are architects the last people needed in reconstruction? Accessed 21 June 2011
  10. Brand S (1994) How buildings learn: what happens after they’re built. Viking, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Cartlidge E (2012) Earthquake experts convicted of manslaughter. In: Advancing Science Serving Society. Science Insider (Online ed.). Washington D.CGoogle Scholar
  12. Cervellati PL (1984) Preservation with participation. In: Hatch CR (ed) The scope of social architecture. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 238–253Google Scholar
  13. Charlesworth ER (2006) Architects without frontiers: war, reconstruction and design responsibility. Architectural Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Connolly AR (2015) U.S. Found Liable for Hurricane Katrina Flooding. United Press International (Online ed.). Washington D.C Google Scholar
  15. Cuff D (2009) Design after disaster. Places: Forum of Des Pub Realm 21(1):4–7Google Scholar
  16. Cutter SL (2005) Are we asking the right question? In: Perry RW, Quarantelli EL (eds) What is a disaster? New answers to old questions. International research committee on disasters, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  17. Davidson CH, Johnson C, Lizarralde G, Dikmen N, Sliwinski A (2007) Truths and myths about community participation in post-disaster housing projects. Habitat Int 31(1):100–116. doi: Google Scholar
  18. Drabek TE (1968) Disaster in Aisle 13: a case study of the Coliseum explosion at the Indiana State Fairgrounds, October 31, 1963. The Ohio State University, ColumbusGoogle Scholar
  19. Fordham M (2005) Disaster and development research and practice: a necessary ecleticism? In: Perry RW, Quarantelli EL (eds) What is a disaster? New answers to old questions. International Research Committee on Disasters, Bloomington, pp 335–346Google Scholar
  20. Fox F (2001) New humanitarianism: does it provide a moral banner for the 21st century? Disasters 24(4):275–289. doi: 10.1111/1467-7717.00178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gledhill K, Ristau J, Reyners M, Fry B, Holden C (2011) The darfield (Canterbury, New Zealand) Mw 7.1 earthquake of September 2010: a preliminary seismological report. Seismol Res Lett 82(3):378–386. doi:10.1785Google Scholar
  22. Hoffman SM, Oliver-Smith A (eds) (2002) Catastrophe & culture: the anthropology of disaster (Catastrophe and culture). NM School of American Research Press, Santa FeGoogle Scholar
  23. Holmes J (2011) Humanitarian response in the 21st century. Brown J World Aff 17(2):113–121Google Scholar
  24. Kreps GA, Drabek TE (1996) Disasters Are Nonroutine Social Problems. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 14(2):129–153Google Scholar
  25. Lacy MJ, Wilkin P (eds) (2005) Global politics in the information age. Manchester University Press, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  26. Margot N (2000) Writing war in the 20th century. The University Press of Virginia, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  27. McClean D (2010) World disasters report 2010: focus on Urban Geneva. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  28. Merkel J, Whitaker C (2010) Rebuilding from below the bottom: Haiti. In: Lahoud A, Rice C, Burke A (eds) Post-traumatic urbanism (vol 80, Architectural Design). Wiley, London, pp 128–134Google Scholar
  29. Nussbaum B (2007) Are designers the enemy of design? Accessed 21 June 2011
  30. Nussbaum B (2010) Is humanitarian design the new imperialism? Accessed 21 June 2011
  31. O’Neil E (2006) Awakening Hippocrates: a primer on health, poverty, and global service. American Medical Association, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  32. Oliver-Smith A (2010) Haiti and the historical construction of disasters. NACLA Report on the Americas 43(4):32–36 (Viewpoint essay)Google Scholar
  33. Olshansky RB, Johnson L (2010) Clear as mud: planning for the rebuilding of New Orleans. American Planning Association, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  34. Pearson C (2011) Humanism and the urban world: leon battista alberti and the renaissance city. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PAGoogle Scholar
  35. Perry RW (2007) What is a Disaster. In: Rodriguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (eds) Handbook of disaster research. Springer, New York, NY, pp 5–9Google Scholar
  36. Quarantelli EL (ed) (1978) Disasters: theory and research. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  37. Rapoport A (1969) House form and culture. Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  38. Roccasecca P (2009) De re aedificatoria. Accessed 25 Mar 2013
  39. Sanderson D (2010) Architects are often the last people needed in disaster reconstruction. Accessed 21 June 2011
  40. Scanlon JT (1988) Disaster’s little known pioneer: Canada’s Samuel Henry Prince. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 6(3):213–232Google Scholar
  41. Smith D (2005) In the eyes of the beholder? Making sense of the system(s) of disaster(s). In: Perry RW, Quarantelli EL (eds) What is a disaster? New answers to old questions. International Research Committee on Disasters, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  42. Stallings RA (2003) Methods of disaster research. In: Kindle DX (ed). Xlibris Publishing, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  43. Stallings RA (1995) Promoting risk: Constructing the earthquake threat. Walter de Gruyter, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  44. Thorpe A (2012) Architecture and design versus consumerism: how design activism confronts growth. Earthscan, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  45. Till J (2009) Architecture depends. MIT, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  46. UNCHS–Habitat (2001) Cities in a globalizing world: Global report on human settlements 2001. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Wigley M (2009) Space in crisis. Accessed 20 Nov 2012
  48. Wilde R (1998) Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes: why and how UNHCR governance of development refugees camps should be subject to international human rights law. Yale Humanitarian Rights and Dev Law J 1(1):107–120Google Scholar
  49. Woods L (1992) Anarchitecture: Architecture is a political act. St. Martin’s Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Woods L (2004) The storm and the fall. Princeton Architectural Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations