Definition – Pathogenesis Risk Factors – Classification – Scoring

  • Bertrand Richert
  • Nilton Di Chiacchio
  • Marie Caucanas
  • Nilton Gioia Di Chiacchio


There is still a debate about the cause of ingrowing toenails: is it the nail plate itself, the soft tissues or both that are at fault? There are few real risk factors that may promote ingrowing toenails, mainly nail abnormalities like too wide or transverse overcurved nails. Ingrowing is precipitated by improper nail cutting in most instances. The best way to classify ingrowing nails is from their location: lateral, distal or proximal. Each of these categories has different subtypes. Several severity index scoring may help the clinician to find the best treatment plan.


Ingrowing nails Etiology Risk factors Scoring Classification Lateral ingrowing Distal ingrowing Proximal ingrowing Retronychia Harpoon nail Pincer nail Plicated nail Omega nail Juvenile ingrowing nail 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bertrand Richert
    • 1
  • Nilton Di Chiacchio
    • 2
  • Marie Caucanas
    • 3
  • Nilton Gioia Di Chiacchio
    • 4
  1. 1.CHU BrugmannUniversité Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Dermatology ClinicHospital do Servidor Público MunicipalSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Clinique St Jean LanguedocToulouseFrance
  4. 4.Hospital do Servidor Público MunicipalSão PauloBrazil

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