Skip to main content

Neuroimaging Perspectives on Skilled and Impaired Reading and the Bilingual Experience

  • 1167 Accesses

Part of the Literacy Studies book series (LITS,volume 12)

Abstract

Skilled, fluent reading involves mastery of multiple linguistic (e.g., phonological, semantic, morphological, syntactic) and related cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, attention, working memory). Development of these processes is highly predictive of fluent reading. Among these, impairments in phonological processes such as phonological awareness and decoding (learning of spelling-to-sound correspondences) in combination with processing speed impairments are often implicated as the primary underlying deficits in developmental dyslexia. Here, we review relevant behavioral research on aspects of fluent reading development (phonology, semantics, processing speed) in skilled and disordered reading. We describe recent research in mapping the development of neural systems underlying these reading-related capacities, and their relevant gene-brain-behavior underpinnings. We consider the impact of cross-linguistic and/or multilingual experience on the development of the brain’s reading circuitry. By incorporating behavioral, neural, and genetic research, across different populations (skilled and disordered reading, monolingual and multilingual reading), and across languages, these multiple sources of converging evidence inform the development of fluent reading and contribute to the goal of developing a comprehensive neurobiological model of reading.

Keywords

  • Reading fluency
  • Neural systems
  • Gene-brain-behavior
  • Cross-language reading
  • Bilingual reading
  • Reading disorders
  • Phonology
  • fMRI
  • fNIRS
  • Neuroimaging

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30478-6_3
  • Chapter length: 25 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-30478-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Ackerman, P. T., & Dykman, R. A. (1993). Phonological processes, confrontational naming, and immediate memory in dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 597–609. doi:10.1177/002221949302600910.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P. (1983). Reading comprehension and the assessment and acquisition of word knowledge. Advances in Reading/Language Research, 2, 231–256.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arnell, K. M., Joanisse, M. F., Klein, R. M., Busseri, M. A., & Tannock, R. (2009). Decomposing the relation between rapid automatized naming (ran) and reading ability. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63(3), 173–184.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Aylward, E. H., Richards, T. L., Berninger, V. W., Nagy, W. E., Field, K. M., Grimme, A. C., … Cramer, S. C. (2003). Instructional treatment associated with changes in brain activation in children with dyslexia. Neurology, 61(2), 212–219.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baker, C. I., Liu, J., Wald, L. L., Kwong, K. K., Benner, T., & Kanwisher, N. (2007). Visual word processing and experiential origins of functional selectivity in human extrastriate cortex. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(21), 9087–9092. http://dx.doi.org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/10.1073/pnas.0703300104.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Balconi, M. (2013). Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, working memory and episodic memory processes: Insight through transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques. Neuroscience Bulletin, 29(3), 381–389. doi:10.1007/s12264-013-1309-z.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Berends, I. E., & Reitsma, P. (2006). Addressing semantics promotes the development of reading fluency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 247–265.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Berens, M. S., Kovelman, I., & Petitto, L. A. (2013). Should bilingual children learn reading in two languages at the same time or in sequence? Bilingual Research Journal, 36(1), 35–60. doi:10.1080/15235882.2013.779618.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bialystok, E., Majumder, S., & Martin, M. M. (2003). Developing phonological awareness: Is there a bilingual advantage? Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 27–44. doi:10.1017/S014271640300002X.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bookheimer, S. (2002). Functional MRI of language: New approaches to understanding the cortical organization of semantic processing. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 25, 151–188. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.25.112701.142946.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bookheimer, S. Y., Zeffiro, T. A., Blaxton, T., Gaillard, W., & Theodore, W. (1995). Regional cerebral blood flow during object naming and word reading. Human Brain Mapping, 3(2), 93–106. doi:10.1002/hbm.460030206.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bowers, P. G., & Swanson, L. B. (1991). Naming speed deficits in reading-disability – multiple measures of a singular process. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 51, 195–219. doi:10.1016/0022-0965(91)90032-n.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bowey, J. A., Cain, M. T., & Ryan, S. M. (1992). A reading-level design study of phonological skills underlying fourth-grade children’s word reading difficulties. Child Development, 63(4), 999–1011. doi:10.2307/1131249.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 301(5899), 419–421. doi:10.1038/301419a0.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bruck, M., & Genesee, F. (1995). Phonological awareness in young second language learners. Journal of Child Language, 22(2), 307–324.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brunswick, N., McCrory, E., Price, C. J., Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (1999). Explicit and implicit processing of words and pseudowords by adult developmental dyslexics: A search for Wernicke’s Wortschatz? Brain, 122(Pt 10), 1901–1917.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Caplan, D. (2001). Functional neuroimaging studies of syntactic processing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30, 297–320. doi:10.1023/A:1010495018484.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Caravolas, M., Lervag, A., Defior, S., Seidlova Malkova, G., & Hulme, C. (2013). Different patterns, but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies. Psychological Science, 24(8), 1398–1407. doi:10.1177/0956797612473122.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Castles, A., Bates, T., Coltheart, M., Luciano, M., & Martin, N. G. (2006). Cognitive modelling and the behaviour genetics of reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 29, 92–103. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00294.x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chee, M. W., O’Craven, K. M., Bergida, R., Rosen, B. R., & Savoy, R. L. (1999). Auditory and visual word processing studied with fMRI. Human Brain Mapping, 7(1), 15–28.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clark, K. A., Helland, T., Specht, K., Narr, K. L., Manis, F. R., Toga, A. W., et al. (2014). Neuroanatomical precursors of dyslexia identified from pre-reading through to age 11. Brain. doi:10.1093/brain/awu229.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, L., Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Lehericy, S., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., Henaff, M. A., et al. (2000). The visual word form area: Spatial and temporal characterization of an initial stage of reading in normal subjects and posterior split-brain patients. Brain, 123(2), 291–307.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cone, N. E., Burman, D. D., Bitan, T., Bolger, D. J., & Booth, J. R. (2008). Developmental changes in brain regions involved in phonological and orthographic processing during spoken language processing. NeuroImage, 41(2), 623–635. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.02.055.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cossu, G., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, I. Y., Katz, L., & Tola, G. (1988). Awareness of phonological segments and reading-ability in Italian children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 9(1), 1–16. doi:10.1017/S0142716400000424.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Courchesne, E., Chisum, H. J., Townsend, J., Cowles, A., Covington, J., Egaas, B., … Press, G. A. (2000). Normal brain development and aging: Quantitative analysis at in vivo mr imaging in healthy volunteers. Radiology, 216(3), 672–682.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dehaene, S., Pegado, F., Braga, L. W., Ventura, P., NunesFilho, G., Jobert, A., … Cohen, L. (2010). How learning to read changes the cortical networks for vision and language. Science, 330(6009), 1359–1364.

    Google Scholar 

  • Denckla, M. B., & Rudel, R. (1974). Rapid “automatized” naming of pictured objects, colors, letters and numbers by normal children. Cortex, 10(2), 186–202.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dennis, M. Y., Paracchini, S., Scerri, T. S., Prokunina-Olsson, L., Knight, J. C., Wade-Martins, R., … Stubbs, L. (2009). A common variant associated with dyslexia reduces expression of the kiaa0319 gene. PLoS Genetics, 5(3), 1. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000436.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eden, G. F., Jones, K. M., Cappell, K., Gareau, L., Wood, F. B., Zeffiro, T. A., … Flowers, D. L. (2004). Neural changes following remediation in adult developmental dyslexia. Neuron, 44(3), 411–422. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.10.019.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eviatar, Z., & Ibrahim, R. (2000). Bilingual is as bilingual does: Metalinguistic abilities of arabic-speaking children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21(4), 451–471.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fiebach, C. J., Friederici, A. D., Muller, K., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2002). fMRI evidence for dual routes to the mental lexicon in visual word recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(1), 11–23. doi:10.1162/089892902317205285.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fiez, J. A., Balota, D. A., Raichle, M. E., & Petersen, S. E. (1999). Effects of lexicality, frequency, and spelling-to-sound consistency on the functional anatomy of reading. Neuron, 24(1), 205–218.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fiez, J. A., & Petersen, S. E. (1998). Neuroimaging studies of word reading. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(3), 914–921.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, S. E., & Francks, C. (2006). Genes, cognition and dyslexia: Learning to read the genome. Trends in Cognitive Science, 10(6), 250–257. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2006.04.003.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Foundas, A. L. A., Eure, K. F. K., Luevano, L. F. L., & Weinberger, D. R. D. (1998). MRI asymmetries of broca’s area: The pars triangularis and pars opercularis. Brain and Language, 64(3), 282–296.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Foy, J. G., & Mann, V. (2006). Changes in letter sound knowledge are associated with development of phonological awareness in pre-school children. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(2), 143–161. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00279.x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frost, R. (1998). Toward a strong phonological theory of visual word recognition: True issues and false trails. Psychological Bulletin, 123(1), 71–99.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frost, R. (2012). Towards a universal model of reading. Behavioral Brain Science, 35(5), 263–279. doi:10.1017/s0140525x11001841.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frost, R., Katz, L., & Bentin, S. (1987). Strategies for visual word recognition and orthographical depth: A multilingual comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13(1), 104–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, S. J., Mencl, W. E., Sandak, R., Moore, D. L., Rueckl, J. G., Katz, L., … Pugh, K. R. (2005). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the tradeoff between semantics and phonology in reading aloud. Neuroreport, 16(6), 621–624. doi:10.1097/00001756-200504250-00021.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, S. J., Sandak, R., Mencl, W. E., Landi, N., Moore, D., Porta, G. D., … Pugh, K. R. (2008). Neurobiological and behavioral studies of skilled and impaired word reading. In Single-word reading: Behavioral and biological perspectives (pp. 355–376). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, S. J., Sandak, R., Mencl, W. E., Landi, N., Rueckl, J. G., Katz, L., et al. (2009). Mapping the word reading circuitry in skilled and disabled readers. In How children learn to read: Current issues and new directions in the integration of cognition, neurobiology and genetics of reading and dyslexia research and practice (pp. 3–19). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gabrieli, J. D. (2009). Dyslexia: A new synergy between education and cognitive neuroscience. Science, 325(5938), 280–283. doi:10.1126/science.1171999.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Georgiou, G. K., Torppa, M., Manolitsis, G., Lyytinen, H., & Parrila, R. (2012). Longitudinal predictors of reading and spelling across languages varying in orthographic consistency. Reading and Writing, 25(2), 321–346. doi:10.1007/s11145-010-9271-x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goldberg, R. F., Perfetti, C. A., Fiez, J. A., & Schneider, W. (2007). Selective retrieval of abstract semantic knowledge in left prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(14), 3790–3798. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2381-06.2007.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goswami, U. (2003). Why theories about developmental dyslexia require developmental designs. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7(12), 534–540.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goswami, U. (2008). Reading, dyslexia and the brain. Educational Research, 50(2), 135–148. doi:10.1080/00131880802082625.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. (1990). Phonological skills and learning to read. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goswami, U., Gerson, D., & Astruc, L. (2010). Amplitude envelope perception, phonology and prosodic sensitivity in children with developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 23(8), 995–1019. doi:10.1007/s11145-009-9186-6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grainger, J., & Holcomb, P. J. (2009). An ERP investigation of orthographic priming with relative-position and absolute-position primes. Brain Research, 1270, 45–53. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.02.080.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Graves, W. W., Desai, R., Humphries, C., Seidenberg, M. S., & Binder, J. R. (2010). Neural systems for reading aloud: A multiparametric approach. Cerebral Cortex, 20(8), 1799–1815. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp245.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grigorenko, E. L. (2001). Developmental dyslexia: An update on genes, brains, and environments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(1), 91–125. http://dx.doi.org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/10.1111/1469-7610.00704.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grigorenko, E. L. (2007). Triangulating developmental dyslexia: Behavior, brain, and genes. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harm, M. W., & Seidenberg, M. S. (1999). Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models. Psychological Review, 106(3), 491–528.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Harm, M. W., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2004). Computing the meanings of words in reading: Cooperative division of labor between visual and phonological processes. Psychological Review, 111(3), 662–720.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hatcher, P. J., & Hulme, C. (1999). Phonemes, rhymes, and intelligence as predictors of children’s responsiveness to remedial reading instruction: Evidence from a longitudinal intervention study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72(2), 130–153.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heim, S., Alter, K., Ischebeck, A. K., Amunts, K., Eickhoff, S. B., Mohlberg, H., … Friederici, A. D. (2005). Research report: The role of the left brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in reading words and pseudowords. Cognitive Brain Research, 25(3), 982–993. doi:10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.09.022.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoeft, F., Meyler, A., Hernandez, A., Juel, C., Taylor-Hill, H., Martindale, J. L., … Gabrieli, J. D. (2007). Functional and morphometric brain dissociation between dyslexia and reading ability. Proceedings National Academy Science USA, 104(10), 4234–4239. doi:10.1073/pnas.0609399104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoien, T., Lundberg, I., Stanovich, K. E., & Bjaalid, I.-K. (1995). Components of phonological awareness. Reading and Writing, 7(2), 171–188.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hoover, W. A., & Gough, P. B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing, 2(2), 127–160. doi:10.1007/Bf00401799.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Horwitz, B., Rumsey, J. M., & Donohue, B. C. (1998). Functional connectivity of the angular gyrus in normal reading and dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(15), 8939–8944.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hulme, C., Caravolas, M., Málkova, G., & Brigstocke, S. (2005). Phoneme isolation ability is not simply a consequence of letter-sound knowledge. Cognition, 97(1), B1–B11. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2005.01.002.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hulme, C., Hatcher, P. J., Nation, K., Brown, A., Adams, J., & Stuart, G. (2002). Phoneme awareness is a better predictor of early reading skill than onset-rime awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 82(1), 2–28. doi:10.1006/jecp.2002.2670.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Huttenlocher, P. R., & Dabholkar, A. S. (1997). Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 387(2), 167–178.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jasińska, K. K., & Petitto, L. A. (Revise and Resubmit). Age of bilingual exposure predicts distinct contributions of phonology and semantics to successful reading development.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jasińska, K., & Petitto, L. A. (2011). Dual language exposure in infancy can change neural and language processing in the developing brain: An fNIRS investigation. Paper presented at the Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jasińska, K., & Petitto, L. A. (2013a). Age of bilingual exposure predicts distinct contributions of phonological and semantic knowledge to successful reading development. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development Seattle, WA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jasińska, K. K., & Petitto, L. A. (2013b). How age of bilingual exposure can change the neural systems for language in the developing brain: A functional near infrared spectroscopy investigation of syntactic processing in monolingual and bilingual children. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 6c, 87–101. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2013.06.005

    Google Scholar 

  • Jasińska, K. K., & Petitto, L. A. (2014). Development of neural systems for reading in the monolingual and bilingual brain: New insights from functional near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging. Developmental Neuropsychology, 39(6), 421–439. doi:10.1080/87565641.2014.939180.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kang, J. Y. (2010). Do bilingual children possess better phonological awareness? Investigation of Korean monolingual and Korean-english bilingual children. Reading and Writing, 25(2), 411–431. doi:10.1007/s11145-010-9277-4.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Katz, L., & Feldman, L. B. (1983). Relation between pronunciation and recognition of printed words in deep and shallow orthographies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9(1), 157–166. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.9.1.157.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katz, L., & Frost, R. (1992). The reading process is different for different orthographies: The orthographic depth hypothesis. In R. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.), Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning (pp. 67–84). Oxford, UK: North-Holland.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klingberg, T., Hedehus, M., Temple, E., Salz, T., Gabrieli, J. D., Moseley, M. E., et al. (2000). Microstructure of temporo-parietal white matter as a basis for reading ability: Evidence from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Neuron, 25(2), 493–500.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kovelman, I., Baker, S., & Petitto, L. A. (2008a). Age of first bilingual language exposure as a new window into bilingual reading development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(2), 203–223. doi:10.1017/S1366728908003386.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kovelman, I., Baker, S., & Petitto, L. A. (2008b). Bilingual and monolingual brains compared: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of syntactic processing and a possible “neural signature” of bilingualism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(1), 153–169.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kovelman, I., Shalinsky, M. H., Berens, M. S., & Petitto, L. A. (2008). Shining new light on the brain’s “bilingual signature”: A functional near infrared spectroscopy investigation of semantic processing. Neuroimage, 39(3), 1457–1471. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.10.017

    Google Scholar 

  • Kronbichler, M., Wimmer, H., Staffen, W., Hutzler, F., Mair, A., & Ladurner, G. (2008). Developmental dyslexia: Gray matter abnormalities in the occipitotemporal cortex. Human Brain Mapping, 29(5), 613–625. doi:10.1002/hbm.20425.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kuo, L.-J., & Anderson, R. C. (2012). Effects of early bilingualism on learning phonological regularities in a new language. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111(3), 455–467. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2011.08.013.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kuo, W. J., Yeh, T. C., Lee, J. R., Chen, L. F., Lee, P. L., Chen, S. S., … Hsieh, J. C. (2004). Orthographic and phonological processing of Chinese characters: An fMRI study. Neuroimage, 21(4), 1721–1731. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.12.007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lafrance, A., & Gottardo, A. (2005). A longitudinal study of phonological processing skills and reading in bilingual children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26(4), 559–578. doi:10.1017/S0142716405050307.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Landi, N., Frost, S. J., Mencl, W. E., Preston, J. L., Jacobsen, L. K., Lee, M., … Grigorenko, E. L. (2013). The comt val/met polymorphism is associated with reading-related skills and consistent patterns of functional neural activation. Developmental Science, 16(1), 13–23. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01180.x.

    Google Scholar 

  • Landi, N., Mencl, W. E., Frost, S. J., Sandak, R., & Pugh, K. R. (2010). An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents. Annals of Dyslexia, 60(1), 102–121. doi:10.1007/s11881-009-0029-6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Laurent, A., & Martinot, C. (2009a). Bilingualism and phonological awareness: The case of bilingual (French–occitan) children. Reading and Writing, 23(3–4), 435–452. doi:10.1007/s11145-009-9209-3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laurent, A., & Martinot, C. (2009b). Bilingualism and phonological segmentation of speech: The case of english-French pre-schoolers. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 9(1), 29–49. doi:10.1177/1468798408101102.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lavidor, M., Johnston, R., & Snowling, M. J. (2006). When phonology fails: Orthographic neighbourhood effects in dyslexia. Brain and Language, 96(3), 318–329.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lenneberg, E. H. (1967). Biological foundations of language.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lesaux, N. K., & Siegel, L. S. (2003). The development of reading in children who speak english as a second language. Developmental Psychology, 39(6), 1005–1019. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.39.6.1005.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, A. M. (1989). The alphabetic principle and learning to read. In D. Shankweiler & I. Y. Liberman (Eds.), Phonology and reading disability: Solving the reading puzzle. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lipka, O., & Siegel, L. S. (2007). The development of reading skills in children with english as a second language. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(2), 105–131. doi:10.1080/10888430709336555.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lo, M., Hue, C.-W., & Tsai, F.-Z. (2007). Chinese readers’ knowledge of how Chinese orthography represents phonology. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 49(4), 315–334.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M. T. (1994). Visual lexical access is initially phonological.1. Evidence from associative priming by words, homophones, and pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 123(2), 107–128. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.123.2.107.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCandliss, B. D., Cohen, L., & Dehaene, S. (2003). The visual word form area: Expertise for reading in the fusiform gyrus. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7(7), 293–299. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00134-7.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCardle, P., Scarborough, H. S., & Catts, H. W. (2001). Predicting, explaining, and preventing children’s reading difficulties. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(4), 230–239. doi:10.1111/0938-8982.00023.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mechelli, A., Crinion, J. T., Noppeney, U., O’Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., et al. (2004). Neurolinguistics: Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431(7010), 757. doi:10.1038/431757a.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Melby-Lervåg, M., Lyster, S.-A. H., & Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 322–352. doi:10.1037/a0026744.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Monzalvo, K., & Dehaene-Lambertz, G. (2013). How reading acquisition changes children’s spoken language network. Brain and Language, 127(3), 356–365. doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2013.10.009.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moore, C. J., & Price, C. J. (1999). Three distinct ventral occipitotemporal regions for reading and object naming. NeuroImage, 10(2), 181–192.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., & Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40(5), 665–681. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.665.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Muter, V. V., Hulme, C. C., Snowling, M. M., & Taylor, S. S. (1997). Segmentation, not rhyming, predicts early progress in learning to read. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 65(3), 370–396.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nation, K., & Hulme, C. (1997). Phonemic segmentation, not onset-rime segmentation, predicts early reading and spelling skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 32(2), 154–167.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nation, K., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). Beyond phonological skills: Broader language skills contribute to the development of reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 27(4), 342–356. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2004.00238.x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oullette, G. P. (2006). What’s meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554–566.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Panah, M. A., & Padakannaya, P. (2008). Reading acquisition in Persian: Transition from phonological recoding strategy to orthographic strategy. Psychological Studies, 53(2), 122–125.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paulesu, E., Demonet, J. F., Fazio, F., McCrory, E., Chanoine, V., Brunswick, N., … Frith, U. (2001). Dyslexia: Cultural diversity and biological unity. Science, 291(5511), 2165–2167. doi:10.1126/science.1057179.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paulesu, E., McCrory, E., Fazio, F., Menoncello, L., Brunswick, N., Cappa, S. F., … Frith, U. (2000). A cultural effect on brain function. Nauret Neuroscience, 3(1), 91–96. doi:10.1038/71163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perfetti, C. (2007). Reading ability: Lexical quality to comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(4), 357–383.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perfetti, C. A., & Bell, L. (1991). Phonemic activation during the 1st 40 ms of word identification – evidence from backward-masking and priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 30(4), 473–485. doi:10.1016/0749-596x(91)90017-e.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perfetti, C., & Hart, L. (2002). The lexical quality hypothesis. In C. Verhoeven, C. Elbro, & P. Reitsma (Eds.), Precursors of functional literacy (pp. 189–213). Amsterdam, The Netherlands/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pernet, C., Andersson, J., Paulesu, E., & Demonet, J. F. (2009). When all hypotheses are right: A multifocal account of dyslexia. Human Brain Mapping, 30(7), 2278–2292. doi:10.1002/hbm.20670.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petitto, L.-A., Berens, M. S., Kovelman, I., Dubins, M. H., Jasińska, K., & Shalinsky, M. (2012). The “perceptual wedge hypothesis” as the basis for bilingual babies’ phonetic processing advantage: New insights from fNIRS brain imaging. Brain and Language, 121(2), 130–143. doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2011.05.003.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petitto, L. A., & Holowka, S. (2002). Evaluating attributions of delay and confusion in young bilinguals: Special insights from infants acquiring a signed and a spoken language. Sign Language Studies, 3(1), 4–33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petitto, L. A., Katerelos, M., Levy, B. G., Gauna, K., Tetreault, K., & Ferraro, V. (2001). Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: Implications for the mechanisms underlying early bilingual language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 28(2), 453–496.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petitto, L.-A., Zatorre, R. J., Gauna, K., Nikelski, E. J., Dostie, D., & Evans, A. C. (2000). Speech-like cerebral activity in profoundly deaf people processing signed languages: Implications for the neural basis of human language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(25), 13961–13966.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petrides, M. (2005). Lateral prefrontal cortex: Architectonic and functional organization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 360(1456), 781–795. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1631.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Poldrack, R. A., Wagner, A. D., Prull, M. W., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (1999). Functional specialization for semantic and phonological processing in the left inferior prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage, 10(1), 15–35. doi:10.1006/nimg.1999.0441.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Poulin-Dubois, D., Bialystok, E., Blaye, A., Polonia, A., & Yott, J. (2013). Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals. International Journal of Billingualism, 17(1), 57–70. doi:10.1177/1367006911431198.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Preston, J. L., Frost, S. J., Mencl, W. E., Fulbright, R. K., Landi, N., Grigorenko, E., … Pugh, K. R. (2010). Early and late talkers: School-age language, literacy and neurolinguistic differences. Brain, 133(8), 2185–2195. doi:10.1093/brain/awq163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Price, C. J. (2000). The anatomy of language: Contributions from functional neuroimaging. Journal of Anatomy, 197(Pt 3), 335–359.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Price, C. J. (2010). The anatomy of language: A review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1191, 62–88. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05444.x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Price, C. J. (2012). A review and synthesis of the first 20 years of pet and fMRI studies of heard speech, spoken language and reading. NeuroImage, 62(2), 816–847. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.04.062.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Proctor, C. P., August, D., Carlo, M. S., & Snow, C. (2006). The intriguing role of Spanish language vocabulary knowledge in predicting english reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 159–169. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.159.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, K. (2006). A neurocognitive overview of reading acquisition and dyslexia across languages. Developmental Science, 9(5), 448–450. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2006.00528.x. discussion 451–443.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, K. R., Frost, S. J., Rothman, D. L., Hoeft, F., Del Tufo, S. N., Mason, G. F., … Fulbright, R. K. (2014). Glutamate and choline levels predict individual differences in reading ability in emergent readers. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(11), 4082–4089. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3907-13.2014.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, K. R., Landi, N., Preston, J. L., Mencl, W. E., Austin, A. C., Sibley, D., … Frost, S. J. (2013). The relationship between phonological and auditory processing and brain organization in beginning readers. Brain and Language, 125(2), 173–183. doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2012.04.004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., Katz, L., Frost, S. J., Lee, J. R., … Shaywitz, B. A. (2000). Functional neuroimaging studies of reading and reading disability (developmental dyslexia). Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 6(3), 207–213.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., Lee, J. R., Katz, L., Frost, S. J., … Shaywitz, B. A. (2001). Neuroimaging studies of reading development and reading disability. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(4), 240–249. doi:10.1111/0938-8982.00024.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Fulbright, R. K., Constable, R. T., … Gore, J. C. (2000). The angular gyrus in developmental dyslexia: Task-specific differences in functional connectivity within posterior cortex. Psychological Science, 11(1), 51–56. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00214.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pugh, K. R., Sandak, R., Frost, S. J., Moore, D., & Mencl, W. E. (2005). Examining reading development and reading disability in english language learners: Potential contributions from functional neuroimaging. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 20(1), 24–30.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Raschle, N. M., Chang, M., & Gaab, N. (2011). Structural brain alterations associated with dyslexia predate reading onset. NeuroImage, 57(3), 742–749. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.055.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rimrodt, S. L., Peterson, D. J., Denckla, M. B., Kaufmann, W. E., & Cutting, L. E. (2010). White matter microstructural differences linked to left perisylvian language network in children with dyslexia. Cortex, 46(6), 739–749. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2009.07.008.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rolla San Francisco, A., Mo, E., Carlo, M., August, D., & Snow, C. (2006). The influences of language of literacy instruction and vocabulary on the spelling of Spanish-english bilinguals. Reading and Writing, 19(6), 627–642. doi:10.1007/s11145-006-9012-3.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Roth, F. P., Speece, D. L., & Cooper, D. H. (2002). A longitudinal analysis of the connection between oral language and early reading. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(5), 259–272.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rubin, H., & Turner, A. (1989). Linguistic awareness skills in grade one children in a French immersion setting. Reading and Writing, 1(1), 73–86.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sabb, F. W., Bilder, R. M., Chou, M., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2007). Working memory effects on semantic processing: Priming differences in pars orbitalis. NeuroImage, 37(1), 311–322. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.04.050.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Salmelin, R., Service, E., Kiesila, P., Uutela, K., & Salonen, O. (1996). Impaired visual word processing in dyslexia revealed with magnetoencephalography. Annals of Neurology, 40(2), 157–162. doi:10.1002/ana.410400206.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sandak, R., Mencl, W. E., Frost, S. J., & Pugh, K. R. (2004). The neurobiological basis of skilled and impaired reading: Recent findings and new directions. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8(3), 273–292. doi:10.1207/s1532799xssr0803_6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schlaggar, B. L., & McCandliss, B. D. (2007). Development of neural systems for reading. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 30, 475–503. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.28.061604.135645.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Seghier, M. L., Fagan, E., & Price, C. J. (2010). Functional subdivisions in the left angular gyrus where the semantic system meets and diverges from the default network. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(50), 16809–16817. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3377-10.2010.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Seidenberg, M. S., Bruck, M., Fornarolo, G., & Backman, J. (1985). Word recognition processes of poor and disabled readers: Do they necessarily differ? Applied Psycholinguistics, 6(2), 161–179. doi:10.1017/S0142716400006093.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55(2), 151–218. discussion 219–126.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Share, D. L., & Leikin, M. (2004). Language impairment at school entry and later reading disability: Connections at lexical versus supralexical levels of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8(1), 87–110.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shaw, P., Kabani, N. J., Lerch, J. P., Eckstrand, K., Lenroot, R., Gogtay, N., … Wise, S. P. (2008). Neurodevelopmental trajectories of the human cerebral cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(14), 3586–3594. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.5309-07.2008.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Blachman, B. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., … Gore, J. C. (2004). Development of left occipitotemporal systems for skilled reading in children after a phonologically- based intervention. Biology Psychiatry, 55(9), 926–933. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.12.019.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Constable, R. T., Mencl, W. E., … Gore, J. C. (1998). Functional disruption in the organization of the brain for reading in dyslexia. Proceedings National Academy Science USA, 95(5), 2636–2641.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarksi, P., … Gore, J. C. (2002). Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia. Biology Psychiatry, 52(2), 101–110. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01365-3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Pugh, K. R., Skudlarski, P., Fulbright, R. K., Constable, R., … Gore, J. C. (1996). The functional organization of brain for reading and reading disability (dyslexia. Neuroscientist, 2(4), 245–255. doi:10.1177/107385849600200413.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silani, G., Frith, U., Demonet, J. F., Fazio, F., Perani, D., Price, C., … Paulesu, E. (2005). Brain abnormalities underlying altered activation in dyslexia: A voxel based morphometry study. Brain, 128(Pt 10), 2453–2461. doi:10.1093/brain/awh579.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siok, W. T., Perfetti, C. A., Jin, Z., & Tan, L. H. (2004). Biological abnormality of impaired reading is constrained by culture. Nature, 431(7004), 71–76. doi:10.1038/nature02865.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Snow, C. E., Tabors, P. O., Nicholson, P. A., & Kurland, B. F. (1995). Shell: Oral language and early literacy skills in kindergarten and first-grade children. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10(1), 37–48. doi:10.1080/02568549509594686.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Snowling, M. J. (2004). Language skills and learning to read. Psychologist, 17, 438–441.

    Google Scholar 

  • Steinbrink, C., Vogt, K., Kastrup, A., Muller, H. P., Juengling, F. D., Kassubek, J., et al. (2008). The contribution of white and gray matter differences to developmental dyslexia: Insights from DTI and VBM at 3.0 t. Neuropsychologia, 46(13), 3170–3178. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.07.015.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Strain, E., Patterson, K., & Seidenberg, M. S. (1995). Semantic effects in single-word naming. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory Cognition, 21(5), 1140–1154.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Strain, E., Patterson, K., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2002). Theories of word naming interact with spelling-sound consistency. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory Cognition, 28(1), 207–214. discussion 215–220.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L., Trainin, G., Necoechea, D. M., & Hammill, D. D. (2003). Rapid naming, phonological awareness, and reading: A meta-analysis of the correlation evidence. Review of Educational Research, 73(4), 407–440. doi:10.3102/00346543073004407.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Temple, E., Deutsch, G. K., Poldrack, R. A., Miller, S. L., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., et al. (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(5), 2860–2865. doi:10.1073/pnas.0030098100.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27(5), 276–286. discussion 287–291.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Turkeltaub, P. E., Gareau, L., Flowers, D. L., Zeffiro, T. A., & Eden, G. F. (2003). Development of neural mechanisms for reading. Nature Neuroscience, 6(7), 767–773. doi:10.1038/nn1065.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Waber, D., Wolff, P. H., Forbes, P. W., & Weiler, M. D. (2000). Rapid automatized naming in children referred for evaluation of heterogeneous learning problems: How specific are naming speed deficits to reading disability? Child Neuropsychology, 6(4), 251–261.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192–212. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Hecht, S. A., Barker, T. A., Burgess, S. R., … Garon, T. (1997). Changing relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading as children develop from beginning to skilled readers: A 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 33(3), 468–479. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.33.3.468.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, M., Yang, C., & Cheng, C. (2009). The contributions of phonology, orthography, and morphology in Chinese-english biliteracy acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30(2), 291–314. doi:10.1017/S0142716409090122.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Weber-Fox, C. M., & Neville, H. J. (1999). Functional neural subsystems are differentially affected by delays in second language immersion: Erp and behavioral evidence in bilinguals. In Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis (pp. 23–38). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weber-Fox, C., & Neville, H. J. (2001). Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: An ERP study of bilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44(6), 1338–1353. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2001/104).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Werker, J. (2012). Perceptual foundations of bilingual acquisition in infancy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1251, 50–61. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06484.x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 415–438. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.415.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, M., O’Rourke, A. G., Gidney, C., Lovett, M., Cirino, P., & Morris, R. (2002). The second deficit: An investigation of the independence of phonological and naming-speed deficits in developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 15(1–2), 43–72.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zatorre, R. J., & Belin, P. (2001). Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 11(10), 946–953.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3–29. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.3.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ziegler, J. C., Perry, C., Ma-Wyatt, A., Ladner, D., & Schulte-Korne, G. (2003). Developmental dyslexia in different languages: Language-specific or universal? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 86(3), 169–193.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kaja K. Jasińska .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Additional information

Note

Portions of this chapter have appeared in:

1. Jasińska, K. & Petitto, L.A. (2014). Development of Neural Systems for Reading in the Monolingual and Bilingual Brain: New Insights from functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Neuroimaging. Developmental Neuropsychology. 39(6), 421–39. doi: 10.1080/87565641.2014.939180

2. Jasińska, K. & Petitto, L.A. (Revise and Resubmit). Age of Bilingual Exposure Predicts Distinct Contributions of Phonology and Semantics to Successful Reading Development. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Jasińska, K.K. et al. (2016). Neuroimaging Perspectives on Skilled and Impaired Reading and the Bilingual Experience. In: Khateb, A., Bar-Kochva, I. (eds) Reading Fluency. Literacy Studies, vol 12. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30478-6_3

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30478-6_3

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-30476-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-30478-6

  • eBook Packages: EducationEducation (R0)