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Optimizing Access Policies for Big Data Repositories: Latency Variables and the Genome Commons

Part of the Studies in Big Data book series (SBD,volume 18)

Abstract

The design of access policies for large aggregations of scientific data has become increasingly important in today’s data-rich research environment. Planners routinely consider and weigh different policy variables when deciding how and when to release data to the public. This chapter proposes a methodology in which the timing of data release can be used to balance policy variables and thereby optimize data release policies. The global aggregation of publicly-available genomic data, or the “genome commons” is used as an illustration of this methodology.

Keywords

  • Commons
  • Genome
  • Data sharing
  • Latency

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Notes

  1. 1.

    By “materially encumbered” I mean that one or more material restrictions on the use of the data exist. These might include a contractual or policy embargo on presentation or publication of further results based on that data. At the extreme end of the spectrum, patent rights that wholly prevent use of the data can be viewed as another variety of encumbrance.

  2. 2.

    Knowledge latency in a given information commons may be expressed either as a mandated value (derived from policy requirements), or as an actual value. It goes without saying that the actual value for knowledge latency may deviate from the mandated value for a number of reasons, including technical variations in data deposit practices and intentional or inadvertent non-compliance by data generators. As with any set of policy-imposed timing requirements (e.g., time periods for making filings with governmental agencies), it is important to consider the mandated time delay for the deposit of data to an information commons. Because a mandated value is also, theoretically, the maximum amount of time that should elapse before a datum is deposited in the commons, knowledge latency is expressed in this chapter in terms of its maximum value.

  3. 3.

    As with knowledge latency, this term may be applied to an individual datum (i.e., representing the time before a particular datum becomes freely usable) or to the commons as a whole (i.e., representing the maximum time that it will take for data within the commons to become freely usable).

  4. 4.

    In the U.S. and many other countries, the patent term lasts for twenty years from the date of filing.

  5. 5.

    Prior work had focused on simple model organisms and technology development.

  6. 6.

    Creative Commons is a non-profit organization that makes available a suite of open access licenses intended to facilitate the contribution of content and data to the public. See creativecommons.org.

  7. 7.

    A “click-wrap” agreement (alternatively referred to as a “click-through” or “click-to-accept” agreement or license) is “an electronic form agreement to which [a] party may assent by clicking an icon or a button or by typing in a set of specified words” [24].

  8. 8.

    The Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, P.L. 96-517, codified at 35 U.S.C. §§200-12, rationalized the previously chaotic rules governing federally-sponsored inventions and strongly encourages researchers to obtain patents on inventions arising from federally-funded research.

  9. 9.

    The GDS policy refers specifically to the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Assn. for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, 133 S.Ct. 2107 (2013).

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Contreras, J.L. (2016). Optimizing Access Policies for Big Data Repositories: Latency Variables and the Genome Commons. In: Emrouznejad, A. (eds) Big Data Optimization: Recent Developments and Challenges. Studies in Big Data, vol 18. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30265-2_9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30265-2_9

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