Where Light and Nutrients Collide: The Global Distribution and Activity of Subsurface Chlorophyll Maximum Layers
A satellite view of the world’s oceans presents a mosaic of high chlorophyll (Chla) regions adjacent vast Chla deserts. However, such a view is limited because it reflects conditions of near surface waters only, and misses the vast and sometimes permanent regions of elevated Chla that can exist in subsurface waters. Subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) are widespread features of the global ocean and are composed of phytoplankton communities that are chromatically and nutritionally adapted to these environments. In this chapter, we first outline the drivers that structure the formation and persistence of SCMLs in marine systems. We develop a simple model that predicts the global distribution and seasonal persistence of SCMLs and find that during any given season, between 59 and 73 % of the ocean may support an SCML. Using a well established global net primary production model, we further predict that approximately 47 % of ocean primary production occurs within SCMLs, a surprisingly large fraction, given the degree of light limitation at these depths. For context, we synthesize key works that have investigated primary production, phytoplankton biomass, and/or nutrient turnover within SCMLs across a range of ocean biomes. These recent studies support previous hypotheses that SCMLs are important sites for new production, and indicate that this new production largely occurs during times when SCMLs are moving deeper into nutriclines or when they are supplied with nutrients through other mechanisms (e.g., tides). In a final section, we draw upon our formative studies in limnology to make linkages between marine and lacustrine systems in terms of the structure and function of SCMLs. Because of large gradients in size, optical properties, and nutritional status across lakes, these systems may present ideal environments to test hypotheses related to the regulation and consequences of SCML productivity.
KeywordsDeep chlorophyll maximum Phytoplankton Primary production Photoacclimation
We wish to thank our past and present mentors, particularly Bob Hecky and Stephanie Guildford, for encouraging us through our careers. We also extend our appreciation to Sébastien Gardoll for a brief residency in Paris, to formulate the ideas that became this chapter. Data and the model code of Westberry et al. (2008) were obtained from the NASA-funded Oregon State University Ocean Productivity project (http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/ocean.productivity/).
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