Advertisement

Clay Minerals and Ceramics

Chapter
Part of the Natural Science in Archaeology book series (ARCHAEOLOGY)

Abstract

The study of ceramics and the clays used to produce ancient earthenwares fill detailed and discursive publications in archaeology. Geoarchaeology chiefly concerns itself with those aspects of ceramics and clays wherein it can make the most pertinent contributions in geology, petrology, and mineralogy, to name the most obvious areas. As an aluminosilicate mineral, clay is practically ubiquitous. As a marine sediment, it floors the deepest portions of the world’s oceans (Thomsen 1877). Because of its geological commonplace, clay is the potter’s equivalent of ore for the metallurgist.

Keywords

Clay Mineral Neutron Activation Analysis Firing Temperature Ceramic Body Detrital Mineral 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Arias M, Barral MT, Diaz-Fierros F (1995) Effects of iron and aluminium oxides on the colloidal and surface properties of kaolin. Clays Clay Miner 43:406–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertsch PM, Seaman JC (1999) Characterization of complex mineral assemblages: implications for contaminant transport and environmental remediation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96(7):3350–3357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bishop RL (1994) Pre-Columbian pottery: research in the Maya region. In: Archaeometry of pre-Columbian sites and artifacts: proceedings of a symposium organized by the UCLA Institute of Archaeology and the Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 23–27 March 1992, pp 15–65. Getty Conservation InstituteGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackman MJ (1992) The effect of human size sorting on the mineralogy and chemistry of ceramic clays. In: Neff H (ed) Chemical characterization of ceramic pastes in archaeology. Prehistory Press, Madison, pp 113–124Google Scholar
  5. Boaretto E, Wu X, Yuan J, Bar-Yosef O, Chu V, Pan Y, Weiner S, Liu K, Cohen D, Jiao T, Li S, Gu H, Goldberg P, Weiner S (2009) Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(24):9595–9600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Braun DP (1982) Radiographic analysis of temper in ceramic vessels: goals and initial methods. J Field Archaeol 9(2):183–192Google Scholar
  7. Braun DP (1983) Pots as tools. In: Moore J, Keene AS (eds) Archaeological hammers and theories. Academic, New York, pp 107–134Google Scholar
  8. Bronitsky G (ed) (1989) Pottery technology:ideas and approaches. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown JA (1989) The beginnings of pottery as an economic process. In: van der Leeuw SE, Torrence R (eds) What’s new? A closer look at the process of innovation. Unwin Hyman, London, pp 203–224Google Scholar
  10. Brown RM (2000) The ceramics of Southeast Asia: their dating and identification. Art Media Resources, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  11. Bunn RA, Magelky RD, Ryan JN, Elimelech M (2002) Mobilization of natural colloids from an iron oxide-coated sand aquifer: effect of pH and ionic strength. Environ Sci Technol 36(3):314–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carr C (1984) The nature of organization of intrasite archaeological records and spatial analytic approaches to their investigation. Adv Archaeol Method Theory 7:103–222Google Scholar
  13. Carr C (1990) Advances in ceramic radiography and analysis: applications and potentials. J Archaeol Sci 17(1):13–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Casali F (2006) X-ray and neutron digital radiography and computed tomography for cultural heritage. Phys Tech Study Art Archaeol Cult Herit 1:41–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chayes F (1954) The theory of thin-section analysis. J Geol 62:92–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chayes F (1956) Petrographic modal analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Childe VG (1948) Man makes himself. Watts & Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Clarke DL (1968) Analytical archaeology. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Colomban P, Sagon G, Huy LQ, Liem NQ, Mazerolles L (2004) Vietnamese (15th century) blue-and-white, Tam Thai lustre porcelain/stonewares: glaze composition and decoration techniques. Archaeometry 46(1):125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Courty MA, Roux V (1995) Identification of wheel throwing on the basis of ceramic surface features and microfabrics. J Archaeol Sci 22:17–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Courty MA, Goldberg P, Macphail R (1990) Soils and micromorphology in archaeology. Soil Sci 150(6):904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Craig OE, Saul H, Lucquin A, Nishida Y, Taché K, Clarke L, Thompson A, Altoft DT, Uchiyama J, Ajimoto M, Gibbs K, Isaksson S, Heron CP, Jordan P (2013) Earliest evidence for the use of pottery. Nature 496:351–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Day PM, Quinn PS, Rutter JB, Kilikoglou V (2011) A world of goods: transport jars and commodity exchange at the late bronze age harbor of Kommos, Crete. Hesperia 80(4):511–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diederichs S, Ortman SG, Schleher KL, Varien MD (2013) The neolithic revolution in the pueblo world: new evidence from the basketmaker III period in Southwestern Colorado. Presented at the 78th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  25. Digby A (1948) Radiographic examination of Peruvian pottery techniques. Actes du XXVIII Congrds International des Americainistes, ParisGoogle Scholar
  26. Driese SG, Schultz BS, McKay LD (2011) Genesis of clay-rich soils from carbonate bedrock on upland surfaces in the valley and ridge province, eastern Tennessee, USA. Southeast Geol 48(1):1–22Google Scholar
  27. Evershed RP (1990) Preliminary report of the analysis of lipids from samples of skin from seven Dutch bog bodies. Archaeometry 32(2):139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evershed RP (2008) Organic residue analysis in archaeology: the archaeological biomarker revolution. Archaeometry 50:895–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Evershed RP, Heron C, Charters S, Goad L.J (1992) The survival of food residues: new methods of analysis, interpretation and application. In: Pollard AM (ed) New developments in archaeological science: a joint symposium of the Royal Society and the British Academy, February 1991, pp 187–208. Proceedings of the British Academy 77. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Archaeometry 34(2): 253–265Google Scholar
  30. Evershed RP, Mottram HR, Dudd SN, Charters S, Stott AW, Lawrence GJ, Gibson AM, Conner A, Blinkhorn PW, Reeves V (1997) New criteria for the identification of animal fats preserved in archaeological pottery. Naturwissenschaften 84(9):402–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fadem CM, Perryman CR, Hauser EM, Birkel JF (2014) Geoarchaeology and the basketmaker communities project: preliminary results. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia (19–22 Oct 2014)Google Scholar
  32. Feathers JF (1989) Effects of temper on strength of ceramics: response to Broniksky and Hamer. Am Antiq 54:579–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferring CR, Perttula TK (1987) Defining the provenience of red-slipped pottery from Texas and Oklahoma by petrographic methods. J Archaeol Sci 14:437–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foust RD Jr, Ambler JR, Turner LD (1989) Trace element analysis of Pueblo II Kayenta Anasazi sherds. In: Allen RO (ed) Archaeological chemistry, vol IV. American Ceramic Society, Washington, DC, pp 125–144Google Scholar
  35. Petrie WMF (1904) Methods & aims in archaeology. Macmillan and Company, Limited, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Freestone IC, Middleton AP (1987) Mineralogical applications of the analytical SEM in archaeology. Mineral Mag 51:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Galehouse JS (1971) Point counting. In: Carver R (ed) Procedures in sedimentary petrology. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Garret EM (1986) A petrographic analysis of Black Mesa ceramics. In: Plog S (ed) Spatial organization and trade. Southern Illinois Press, Carbondale, pp 114–142Google Scholar
  39. Glasscock MD, Speakman RJ, Popelka-Filcoff RS (eds) (2007a) Archaeological chemistry: analytical approaches and archaeological interpretation, ACS Symposium Series 969. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  40. Glasscock M, Speakman RJ, Popelka-Filcoff RS (2007b) Archaeological chemistry: analytical techniques and archaeological interpretation, ACS Symposium Series 969. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goldberg PA (1995) Microstratigraphy, micromorphology site formation processes, soils. In: The practical impact of science on field archaeology: maintaining long-term analytical options. a workshop on cyprus, 22–23 July 1995. The Weiner Laboratory of the American School of Classical Studies, AthensGoogle Scholar
  42. Gosselain OP (1992) The bonfire of enquiries? Pottery firing temperature in archaeology: what for? J Archaeol Sci 19:243–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hancock R, Betancourt PP (1987) INAA of Minoan ceramics from Kommos, Crete. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 114:393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hancock RGV, Millet NB, Mills AJ (1986) A rapid INAA method to characterize Egyptian ceramics. J Archaeol Sci 13(2):107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hong Z, Xiao-Nian Z (1992) Electrokinetic properties of Ferralsols in China in relation to pedogenic development. Geoderma 54(1):173–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harvig L, Lynnerup N, Amsgaard Ebsen J (2011) Computed tomography and computed radiography of late bronze age cremation urns from Denmark: an interdisciplinary attempt to develop methods applied in bioarchaeological cremation research. Archaeometry 54(2):369–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hayden B (1995) The emergence of prestige technologies and pottery. In: Barnett WK, Hoopes JW (eds) The emergence of pottery. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pp 257–266Google Scholar
  48. Hayden B (1998) Practical and prestige technologies: the evolution of material systems. J Archaeol Method Theory 5(1):1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Heron C, Evershed RP (1993) The analysis of organic residues and the study of pottery use. Archaeol Method Theory 5:247–284Google Scholar
  50. Herbert JM, McReynolds TE (eds) (2008) Woodland pottery sourcing in the Carolina sandhills. University of North Carolina, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  51. Heron C (1989) The analysis of organic residues in archaeological ceramics. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wales College of CardiffGoogle Scholar
  52. Herz N, Garrison EG (1998) Geological methods for archaeology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Hill RS (2012) Final report: artist and community collaboration initiative. Lifelong education, administration and policy, College of Education and the Institute of Native American Studies. The University of Georgia, AthensGoogle Scholar
  54. Ikawa-Smith F (1976) On ceramic technology in East Asia. Curr Anthropol 17:513–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Josephs R (2005) A petrographic analysis of extended Middle Missouri ceramics from North Dakota. Plains Anthropol 50(194):111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kamilli D, Lamberg-Karlovsky CC (1979) Petrographic and electron microprobe analysis of ceramics from Tepe Yalya. Archaeometry 21:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kamilli D, Sternberg A (1985) New approaches to mineral analysis in ancient ceramics. In: Rapp G Jr, Gifford JA (eds) Archaeological geology. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 313–330Google Scholar
  58. Keally CT, Taniguchi Y, Kuzmin YV, Shewkomud IY (2004) Chronology of the beginning of pottery manufacture in East Asia. Radiocarbon 46(1):345–352Google Scholar
  59. Keene DA (2004) Reevaluating late prehistoric coastal subsistence and settlement strategies: new data from Grove’s Creek Site, Skidaway Island, Georgia. Am Antiq 69(40):671–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Keene DA, Garrison EG (2013) A survey of Irene phase architecture on the Georgia coast. Life among the tides: recent archaeology on the Georgia Bight: Proceedings of the Sixth Caldwell Conference, St. Catherines Island, Georgia, 20–22 May 2011. In: Thompson VD, Thomas DH (eds) Anthropological papers of the American Museum of natural history, no. 98, pp 289–315Google Scholar
  61. Kilikoglou V, Maniatis Y, Grimanis AP (1988) The effect of purification and firing of clays on trace element provenance studies. Archaeometry 30.1:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kilikoglou V, Vekinis G, Maniatis Y (1995) Toughening of ceramic earthenwares by quartz inclusions: an ancient art revisited. Ada Metall Mater 43:2959–2965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kilikoglou V, Vekinis G, Maniatis Y, Day PM (1998) Mechanical performance of quartz tempered ceramics. Part 1: strength and toughness. Archaeometry 40:261–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kim J, Liaw PK (1998) The nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites. Nondestruct Eval Overview 50(11):1–15Google Scholar
  65. Kingery WD (1984) Interactions of ceramic technology with society. In: Rice PM (ed) Pots and potters: current approaches in ceramic archaeology, vol 24, Monograph. Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles, pp 171–178Google Scholar
  66. Kingery WD (1992a) Sintering from prehistoric times to the present. Solid State Phenom 25:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kingery WD (1992b) Attic pottery gloss technology. Archaeomaterials 5:47–54Google Scholar
  68. Kingery WD (1993) A role for materials science. In: Kingery WD (ed) Learning from things. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 175–180Google Scholar
  69. Kingery WD, Friermanm JD (1974) The firing temperature of a karanova sherd and inferences about south-east European chalcolithic refractory technology. Proc Prehist Soc 40:204–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kingery WD, Vandiver PB (1988) Ceramic masterpieces—art structure and technology. Free Press (Macmillan), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Kingery WD (1990) The changing roles of ceramics in society: 26,000 BP to the present. American Ceramic Society, WestervilleGoogle Scholar
  72. Kooistra MJ, Kooistra LI (2003) Integrated research in archaeology using soil micromorphology and palynology. Catena 54:603–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kramer C (1985) Ceramic ethnoarchaeology. Annu Rev Anthropol 14:77–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Layzell AL, Eppes MC, Lewis RQ (2012) Soil chronosequence study of the terraces of the Catawba river near Charlotte, NC: insights into the long-term evolution of a major piedmont drainage basin. Southeast Geol 49(10):13–24Google Scholar
  75. Leroi-Gourhan A (1993) Gesture and speech (Le geste et la parole). Bostock Berger A translater. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  76. Lombard JP (1987) Provenance of sand temper in Hohokam ceramics. Geoarchaeology 2:91–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Longacre WA (ed) (1991) Ceramic ethnoarchaeology. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  78. Lubbock J (1865) Pre-historic times. Williams and Norgate, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maggetti M (1982) Phase analysis and its significance for technology and origin. In: Olin JS, Franklin AD (eds) Archaeological ceramics. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pp 121–133Google Scholar
  80. Maggetti M (2011) Paul-Louis Cyfflé’s (1724–1806) search for porcelain. Eur J Mineral 23:993–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Majewski T, O’Brein MJ (1987) The use and misuse of nineteenth-century English and American ceramics in archaeological analysis. Adv Archaeol Method Theory 11:97–209Google Scholar
  82. Matson FR (1960) The quantitative study of ceramic materials. In: Heizer RF, Cook SF (eds) The application of quantitative methods in archaeology, vol 28, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology. Wenner-Gren Foundation, New York, pp 43–51Google Scholar
  83. McReynolds TE, Skaggs SA, Schroeder PA (2008) Feldspar and clay mineralogy. In: Herbert JM, Mc Reynolds TE (eds) Woodland pottery sourcing in the Carolina Sandhills. Research report no. 29. Research Laboratories of Archaeology. The University of North Carolina at Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  84. Neff H (1993) Archaeology theory, sampling, and analytical techniques in the archaeological study of prehistoric ceramics. Am Antiq 58(1):23–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nelson B (ed) (1984) Decoding prehistoric ceramics. Southern Illinois University Press, CarbondaleGoogle Scholar
  86. Olin JS, Blackman MJ (1989) Compositional classification of Mexican majolica ceramics of the Spanish colonial period. In: Allen RO (ed) Archaeological chemistry, vol IV. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 87–124Google Scholar
  87. Peacock DPS (1970) The scientific analysis of ancient ceramics: a review. World Archaeol 1:375–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Peacock DPS (1981) Archaeology, ethnology, and ceramic production. In: Howard H, Morris E (eds) Production and distribution: a ceramic viewpoint, vol 120, B.A.R. International series. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, pp 187–194Google Scholar
  89. Plog S (1980) Stylistic variation in prehistoric ceramics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pollard AM, Wood ND (1986) Development of Chinese porcelain technology at Jingdezhen. In: Olin JS, Blackman MJ (eds) Proceedings of the 24th international archaeometry symposium. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 105–114Google Scholar
  91. Pope F (2014) Dragon sea: a true tale of treasure, archeology, and greed off the Coast of Vietnam. Houghton Mifflin HarcourtGoogle Scholar
  92. Quinn PS (2013) Ceramic petrography: the interpretation of archaeological pottery & related artefacts in thin section ceramic petrography. Archaeopress, Oxford, i+254 ppGoogle Scholar
  93. Reber EA, Evershed RP (2004) How did Mississippians prepare maize? The application of compound-specific carbon isotope analysis to absorbed pottery residues from several Mississippi valley sites. Archaeometry 46(1):19–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rice PM (1987) Pottery analysis: a sourcebook. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  95. Rice PM (1996a) Recent ceramic analysis 1. Function, style, and origins. J Archaeol Res 4:133–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rice PM (1996b) Recent ceramic analysis: 2. Composition, production, and theory. J Archaeol Res 4:165–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rice PM (1999) On the origins of pottery. J Archaeol Method Theory 6(1):1–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rice PM (1987/2001). Pottery analysis: a sourcebook. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  99. Rye O (1977) Pottery manufacturing techniques: X-ray studies. Archaeometry 19(2):205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sassaman KE (1993) Early pottery in the southeast: tradition and innovation in cooking technology. University of Alabama Press, TuscaloosaGoogle Scholar
  101. Schiffer MB (1988) The effects of surface treatment on permeability and evaporative cooling effectiveness of pottery. In: Farquhar RM, Hancock RGV, Pavlish LA (eds) Proceedingsof the 26th International Archaeometry Symposium. University of Toronto, Toronto, pp 23–29Google Scholar
  102. Schiffer MB (1990) Technological change in water-storage and cooking pots: some predictions from experiment. In: The changing roles of ceramics in society: 26,000 BP to the present, vol 5. The American Ceramic Society, Inc, Westerville, pp 119–136Google Scholar
  103. Seaman JC, Bertsch PM, Strom RN (1997) Characterization of colloids mobilized from southeastern coastal plain sediments. Environ Sci Technol 31(10):2782–2790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shepard AO (1936) The technology of Pecos pottery. In: Kidder AV, Shepard AO (eds) Glaze-paint, culinary and other wares, vol II, The Pottery of Pecos. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 389–588Google Scholar
  105. Shepard AO (1942) Rio Grande glaze-paint ware. A study illustrating the place of ceramic technological analysis in archaeological research. Publication 528. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  106. Shepard AO (1954) Ceramics for the archaeologist, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 609. Carnegie Institution, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  107. Shepard AO (1956) Ceramics for the archaeologist, vol 609. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, p 1971Google Scholar
  108. Shepard AO (1966) Rio Grande glaze–paint pottery: a test for petrographic analysis. In: Matson FR (ed) Ceramics and man, vol 41, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology. Wenner-Gren Foundation, New York, pp 62–87Google Scholar
  109. Skibo JM, Schiffer MB, Reid KC (1989) Organic-tempered pottery: an experimental study. Am Antiq 54:122–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Skibo JM, Schiffer MB (1995) The clay cooking pot: an exploration of women’s technology. In: Skibo JM, Walker WH, Nielsen AE (eds) Expanding archaeology. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp 80–91Google Scholar
  111. Skibo JM, Feinman GM (1999) Pottery and people: a dynamic interaction. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake CityGoogle Scholar
  112. Sinopoli C (1991) Approaches to archaeological ceramics. Plenum, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sohl NF, Owens JP (1991) Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Carolina coastal plain. The geology of the Carolinas. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 191–220Google Scholar
  114. Speakman et al (2011a)Google Scholar
  115. Speakman RJ, Little NC, Creel D, Miller MR, Iñañez JG (2011a) Sourcing ceramics with portable XRF spectrometers? A comparison with INAA using Mimbres pottery from the American Southwest. J Archaeol Sci 38:3483–3496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stanjek H, Häusler W (2004) Basics of x-ray diffraction. Hyperfine Interact 154(1–4):107–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stewart JD, Fralick P, Hancock RGV, Kelley JH, Garrett EM (1990) Petrographic analysis and INAA geochemistry of prehistoric ceramics from Robinson Pueblo, New Mexico. J Archaeol Sci 17:601–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stoltman JB (1989) A quantitative approach to the petrographic analysis of ceramic thin sections. Am Antiq 54:147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stoltman JB (1991) Ceramic petrography as a technique for documenting cultural interaction: an example from the upper Mississippi Valley. Am Antiq 56(1):103–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stoltman JB (2001) The role of petrography in the study of archaeological ceramics. In: Goldberg P, Holliday VT, Ferring CR (eds) Earth sciences and archaeology. Springer, New York, pp 297–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sullivan AP (1984) Design styles and Cibola whiteware: examples from the grasshopper area, east-central Arizona. In: Sullivan AP, Hantman JL (eds) Regional analysis of prehistoric ceramic variation: contemporary studies of the Cibola whitewares, Anthropological Research Papers No. 31. Arizona State University, Tempe, pp 74–93Google Scholar
  122. Sullivan AP (1988) Prehistoric southwestern ceramic manufacture: the limitations of current evidence. Am Antiq 53:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Swartz CH, Ulery AL, Gschwend PM (1997) An AEM-TEM study of nanometer-scale mineral associations in an aquifer sand: implications for colloid mobilization. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61(4):707–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Thomas DH (1998a) St. Catherines: an island in time. Georgia Endowment for the Humanities, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  125. Thomas DH (1998b) Archaeology, 3rd edn. Harcourt Brace, Fort WorthGoogle Scholar
  126. Thomson CW (1877) The voyage of the ‘Challenger’. The Atlantic. A preliminary account of the general results of the exploring voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the year 1873 and the early part of the year 1876. Volume 2. MacMillan and Co. Digital Edition published in 2014. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  127. Tite MS, Maniatis Y (1975) Examination of ancient pottery using the scanning electron microscope. Nature 257:122–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tite MS (1995) Firing temperature determinations—how and why? In: Lindahl A, Stilborg O (eds) The aim of laboratory analyses of ceramics in archaeology, Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien Konferenser 34, Stockholm, pp 37–42Google Scholar
  129. Tite M (1999) Pottery production, distribution, and consumption: the contribution of the physical sciences. J Archaeol Method Theory 6(3):181–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tite MS, Maniatis Y, Meeks ND, Bimson M, Hughes MJ, Leppard SC (1982) 3. Technological studies of ancient ceramics from the Near East, Aegean, and southeast Europe. In: Early pyrotechnology: the evolution of the first fire-using industries. Papers presented at a seminar on early pyrotechnology held at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, and the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 19–20 April 1979. One of the Smithsonian Institution-National Bureau of Standards seminars on the application of the Materials and Measurement Sciences to Archeology and Museum Conservation, organized by Franklin D. Alan and Jacqueline S. Olin, pp 61–71. Smithsonian Institution PressGoogle Scholar
  131. Titterington PF (1935) Certain, bluff mounds of western Jersey County, Illinois. Am Antiq l(l):646Google Scholar
  132. Truncer J (2004) Steatite vessel age and occurrence in temperate eastern North America. Am Antiq 69:487–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vandiver P (1988) The implications of variation in ceramic technology: the forming of Neolithic storage vessels in China and the Near East. Archaeomaterials 2:139–174Google Scholar
  134. Vandiver PB, Soffer O, Klima B, Svoboda J (1989) The origins of ceramic technology at Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia. Science 246(4933):1002–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vandiver P (2001) The role of materials research in ceramics and archaeology. Ann Rev Mater Res 31(1):373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Vaughn SJ (1990) Petrographic analysis of the early Cycladic wares from Akrotiri, Thera. In: Hardy DA (ed) Thera and the Aegean World III, Vol. 1: archaeology. Thera Foundation, London, pp 470–487Google Scholar
  137. Vaughn SJ (1991) Material and technical characterization of Base Ring Ware: a new fabric technology. In: Barlow JA, Bolger DL, Kling B (eds) Cypriot ceramics: reading the prehistoric record, University Museum Monograph 74. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp 199–130Google Scholar
  138. Wagner U, Wagner FE, Riederer J (1986) The use of Mossbauer spectroscopy in archaeometric studies. In: Olin JS, Blackmann MJ (eds) Proceedings of the 1984 International Symposium on Archaeometry. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 129–142Google Scholar
  139. Weiner S, Xu Q, Goldberg P, Liu J, Bar-Yosef O (1998) Evidence for the use of fire at Zhoukoudian, China. Science 281(5374):251–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. West SM (1992) Temper, thermal shock and cooking pots: a study of tempering materials and their physical significance in prehistoric and traditional cooking pottery. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis. University of Arizona, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  141. Whitbread IK (1989) A proposal for the systematic description of thin sections towards the study of ancient ceramic technology. In: Maniatis Y (ed) Archaeometry, proceedings of the 25th International Symposium. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 127–138Google Scholar
  142. Willey GR, Phillips P (1958) Method and theory in American archaeology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 280 pGoogle Scholar
  143. Williams DF (1983) Petrology of ceramics. In: Kempe DRC, Harvey AP (eds) The petrology of artefacts. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 301–329Google Scholar
  144. Williams H, Turner FJ, Gilbert CM (1955) Petrography. W.H. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  145. Wu X, Zhang C, Goldberg P, Cohen D, Pan Y, Arpin T, Bar-Yosef O (2012) Early pottery at 20,000 years ago in Xianrendong Cave, China. Science 336(6089):1696–1700CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations