Advertisement

The Geomorphological and Geological Context

Chapter
  • 955 Downloads
Part of the Natural Science in Archaeology book series (ARCHAEOLOGY)

Abstract

As noted in the preceding chapter, geomorphology is a discipline more often found in the larger field of physical geography, at least in the United States and Great Britain, while sedimentology is a speciality area of geology. While some in archaeology may wonder at a partition in what is basically earth science, the location of geomorphology within geography has had some unexpected benefits, most notably the recognition and use of the burgeoning techniques of geographic information systems better known as GIS. Likewise geographers were quick to incorporate their traditional interest in remote sensing into GIS studies as well. Digitally based, these large-scale spatial analysis systems have proven to be a boon to geoarchaeological researchers. GIS frameworks, devised principally within geography, have made it possible to converge many different lines of data into synthetic map projections that can be manipulated and compared so as to yield new insights into the nature of archaeological sites and their locations. Had geomorphology been housed exclusively within geology departments, it is unlikely that GIS methodology would have entered the arsenal of archaeological geology as quickly as it has. Sedimentology and its close relationship to paleoenvironmental study, particularly in quaternary research, have continued to be a major component of archaeological geology. Likewise, the mapping the surface and subsurface of an archaeological locale provides crucial information as to the why of a site’s specific location and possible function.

Keywords

Last Glacial Maximum Archaeological Site Fluvial System Structure From Motion Geomorphic Setting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Al-Suwaidi M, Ward BC, Wilson MC, Hebda RJ, Nagorsen DW, Marshall D, Ghaleb B, Wigen RJ, Enkin RJ (2006) Late Wisconsinan port Eliza cave deposits and their implications for human coastal migration, Vancouver Island, Canada. Geoarchaeology 21(4):307–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrose SH, Lorenz KG (1990) Social and ecological models for the Middle Stone Age in southern Africa. In: Mellars P (ed) The emergence of modern humans: an archaeological perspective. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 3–33Google Scholar
  3. Anderson DG, Gillam C (2000) Paleoindian colonization of the Americas: implications from an examination of physiography, demography, and artifact distribution. Am Antiq 65(1):43–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews TD, MacKay G, Andrew L (2009) Hunters of the alpine ice: the NWT ice patch study. Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre, YellowknifeGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews TD, MacKay G, Andrew L (2012) Archaeological investigations of alpine ice patches in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic 65(1):1–21Google Scholar
  6. Angelucci DE, Bassetti M (2009) Humans and their landscape from the Alpine Last Glacial Maximum to the Middle Holocene in Trentino: geoarchaeological considerations. Preistoria Alpina 44(5):59–78Google Scholar
  7. Anuskiewicz RJ, Dunbar JS (1993) Of Prehistoric man at ray hole springs: a drowned sinkhole located 32 KM offshore on the continental shelf in 12 M seawater. In: Diving for science 1993: Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences Thirteenth Annual Scientific Diving Symposium, Pacific Grove, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  8. Ashley GM, Driese SG (2000) Paleopedology and paleohydrology of a volcaniclastic paleosol interval: Implications for early Pleistotcene stratigraphy and paleoclimatic record, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J Sediment Res 70(5):1065–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Backwell L, d’Errico F, Wadley L (2008) Middle stone age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa. J Archaeol Sci 35(6):1566–1580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey G, Flemming N (2008) Archaeology of the continental shelf: marine resources, submerged landscapes and underwater archaeology. Quat Sci Rev 27(23-24):2153–2165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balco G, Rovey CW II (2010) Absolute chronology for major Pleistocene advances of the Laurentide Ice sheet. Geology 38:795–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baldwin WE, Morton RA, Putney TR, Katuna MP, Harris MS, Gayes PT, Driscoll NW, Denny JF, Schwab WC (2006) Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf. Geol Soc Am Bull 118(5/6):533–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartolomei G, Broglio A, Cattani L, Cremaschi M, Lanzinger M, Leonard P (1985) Risultati preliminari dalle nuove ricerche nella Grotta di Paina. Jagen und Sammeln. Jahrbuch des Bernischen Historischen Museum, Bern, pp 63–64, 43–54Google Scholar
  14. Basso K (1996) Wisdom sits in places. University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  15. Bender SJ (1983) Hunter-gatherer subsistence and settlement in a mountainous environment: the prehistory of the Northern Tetons. State University of New York at AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  16. Bender SJ, Wright GA (1988) High-altitude occupations, cultural process, and high plains prehistory: retrospect and prospect. Am Anthropol 90(3):619–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benedict JB (1985) Arapaho Pass: glacial geology and archeology at the crest of the Colorado Front Range. Center for Mountain Archeology Research Report, no. 3. Ward, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  18. Benjamin J (2010) Submerged prehistoric landscapes and underwater site discovery: reevaluating the ‘Danish Model’ for international practice. J Island Coast Archaeol 5:253–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Benjamin J, Hale A (2012) Marine, maritime, or submerged prehistory? Contextualizing the prehistoric underwater archaeologies of inland, coastal and offshore environments. Eur J Archaeol 15(2):237–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Berner EK, Berner RA (2012) Global environment: water, air, and geochemical cycles. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  21. Besse M (ed) (2014) Around the Petit-Chasseur site in Sion (Valais, Switzerland) and new approaches to the bell beaker culture, Proceedings of the International Conference (Sion, Switzerland – October 27th–30th 2011). Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Bettis EA III, Muhs DR, Roberts HM, Wintle AG (2003) Last glacial loess in the conterminous USA. Quat Sci Rev 22(18):907–1946Google Scholar
  23. Bisi F, Broglio A, Guerreschi A, Radmilli A (1983) L'Epigravettien Evolue et final dans la zone haute et moyenne adriatique. Rivista di scienze preistoriche 32(1):229–265Google Scholar
  24. Blumenschine RJ, Masao FT (1991) Living sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania? Preliminary landscape archaeology results in the basal Bed II lake margin zone. J Hum Evol 21:451–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blumenschine RJ, Peters CR (1998) Archaeological predictions for hominid land use in the paleo-Olduvai Basin, Tanzania, during lowermost Bed II times. J Hum Evol 34:565–607. doi: 10.1006/jhev.1998.0216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bonnefille R (1984) Palynological research at Olduvai Gorge. Nat Geog Soc Res Rep 17:227–243Google Scholar
  27. Bordes F (1954) The Deposits in Pech-De-Laze (Dordogne), vol 1, Mousterien in the Acheulian Tradition. Anthropologie 58(5–6):401–432Google Scholar
  28. Bordes F (1968) The old stone age, vol 30. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Bordes F (1972) A tale of two caves. Harper and Row, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Bruins HJ, MacGillivray JA, Synolakis CE, Benjamini C, Keller J, Kisch HJ, Klügel A, Van Der Plicht J (2008) Geoarchaeological tsunami deposits at Palaikastro (Crete) and the Late Minoan IA eruption of Santorini. J Archaeol Sci 35(1):191–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bryson RA (1988) What the climatic past tells us about the environmental future. Earth 88:230–247Google Scholar
  32. Brunet M, Guy F, Pilbeam D, Mackaye HT, Likius A, Ahounta D, Beauvilain A, Blondel C, Bocherens H, Boisserie J-R, De Bonis L, Coppens Y, Dejax J, Denys C, Duringer P, Eisenmann V, Fanone G, Fronty P, Geraads D, Lehmann T, Lihoreau F, Louchart A, Mahamat A, Merceron G, Mouchelin G, Otero O, Pelaez Campomanes P, Ponce De Leon M, Rage J-C, Sapanet M, Schuster M, Sudre J, Tassy P, Valentin X, Vignaud P, Viriot L, Zazzo A, Zollikofer C (2002) A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature 418:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Camuto C (2004a) Air. In: Dallmeyer D (ed) Elemental south. The University of Georgia Press, AthensGoogle Scholar
  34. Camuto C (2004b) Fire in the path. In: Dallmeyer D (ed) Elemental south. The University of Georgia Press, AthensGoogle Scholar
  35. Carey C (1999) Secrets of the sacrificed. Discov Archaeol 1(4):46–53Google Scholar
  36. Carr TL, Turner MD (1996) Investigating regional lithic procurement using multi-spectral inagery and geophysical prospection. Archaeol Prospect 3:109–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cerling TE, Hay RL (1986) An isotopic study of paleosol carbonates from Olduvai Gorge. Quatern Res 25:63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chase PG, Debénath A, Dibble HL, McPherron SP (2009) The cave of Fontéchevade: recent excavations and their paleoanthropological implications. Cambridge University Press, New York, 270 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Chowns TM, Schultz BS, Griffin JR, Crook MR Jr (2008) Relocation of Brunswick river and other estuaries on the Georgia, USA coast as a consequence of Holocene transgression. Southeast Geol 45(3):143–159Google Scholar
  40. Clottes J (2001) La Grotte Chauvet – L’Art des Origines. Editions de Sevil, ParisGoogle Scholar
  41. Clottes J, Courtin J (1996) The cave beneath the sea: paleolithic images at cosquer. H. N. Abrams, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Coles BJ (1998) Doggerland: a speculative survey. Proc Prehist Soc 64:45–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Coles BJ (2000) Doggerland: the cultural dynamics of a shifting coastline. In: Pye K, Allen JRL (eds) Coastal and estuarine environments: sedimentology, geomorphology and geoarchaeology, vol 175, Geological Society, London, Special Publications. The Geological Society of London, London, pp 393–401Google Scholar
  44. Conroy GC, Pontzer H (2012) Reconstructing human origins: a modern synthesis, 3rd edn. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Corboud P (2004) Une plongée dans l’histoire la recherché: la découverte des sites littoraux préhistoriques lémaniques. Archéologie Suisse 27(4):22–29Google Scholar
  46. Corti ECC (1951) The distruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Routledge and Kegan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Cortegoso V (2005) Mid-Holocene hunters in the Andes Mountains: environment, resources and technological strategies. Quat Int 132(1):71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dalmeri G, Bassetti M, Cusinato A, Kompatscher K, Kompatscher MH (2005) The discovery of a painted anthropomorphic figure at Riparo Dalmeri and new insights into alpine Epigravettian art. Preistoria Alpina 41:163–169Google Scholar
  49. Dart R (1957) The osteodontokeratic culture of Australopithecus prometheus. Transvaal Museum Memoirs, no. 10. PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  50. Davis WM (1899) The geographical cycle. Geogr J 14:481–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Davis LG (2006) Geoarchaeological insights from Indian Sands, a Late Pleistocene Site on the Southern Northwest Coast, USA. Geoarchaeology 21(4):351–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. de Lumley H (1969) A paleolithic camp at Nice. Sci Am 220(5):42–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. DeMenocal PB (1995) Plio-Pleistocene African climate. Science 270(5233):53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Deocampo DM, Ashley GM (1999) Siliceous islands in a carbonate sea: modern and Pleistocene spring-fed wetlands in Ngorongoro Crater and Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J Sediment Res 69:1147–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Deocampo DM, Blumenschine RJ, Ashley GM (2002) Wetland diagenesis and traces of early hominids, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Quatern Res 57(2):271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dibble HL, McPherron SJ, Chase P, Farrand WR, Debénath A (2006) Taphonomy and the concept of Paleolithic cultures: the case of the Tayacian from Fontéchevade. PaleoAnthropology, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  57. Dibble HL, McPherron SP, Sandgathe D, Goldberg P, Turq A, Lenoir M (2009a) Context, curation, and bias: an evaluation of the Middle Paleolithic collections of Combe-Grenal (France). J Archaeol Sci 36(11):2540–2550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dibble HL, Berna F, Goldberg P, McPherron SP, Mentzer S, Niven L, Turq A (2009b) A preliminary report on Pech de l’Azé IV, layer 8 (Middle Paleolithic, France). PaleoAnthropology 2009:182–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dixon EJ (1983) Pleistocene proboscidean fossils from the Alaskan continental shelf. Quatern Res 20(1):113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dixon EJ (2013) Late Pleistocene colonization of north America from northeast Asia: new insights from large-scale paleogeographic reconstructions. Quat Int 285:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dixon TN (2004) The crannogs of Scotland: an underwater archaeology. Tempus Publications Limited, StroudGoogle Scholar
  62. Dort W Jr (1978) Geologic basis for assignment of >18,000 year age to cultural material at the Shriver site, Daviss County, Northwestern Missouri. Abstracts. Geological Society of America Annual MeetingGoogle Scholar
  63. Dunbar JS, Webb SD, Faught M, Anuskiewicz RJ, Stright MJ (1989) Archaeological sites in the drowned tertiary karst region of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. In: Underwater Archaeology Proceedings from the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  64. Easterbrook DS (1998) Surface processes and landforms. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Edgerton FN (1962) The scientific contributions of François Alphonse Forel, the founder of limnology. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Hydrologie 24(2):181–199Google Scholar
  66. Erlandson JM, Tveskov MA, Byram RS (1998) The development of maritime adaptations on the southern northwest coast of north America. Arctic Archaeol 35(1):6–22Google Scholar
  67. Erlandson JM, Torben CR, Todd JB, Casperson M, Culleton B, Fulfrost B, Garcia T, Guthrie DA, Jew N, Kennett DJ, Moss ML, Reeder L, Skinner C, Watts J, Willis L (2011) Paleoindian seafaring, maritime technologies, and coastal foraging on California’s channel islands. Science 331(6021):1181–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Faught MK (2004a) Submerged Paleoindian and Archaic Sites of the Big Bend, Florida. J Field Archaeol 29(3/4):273–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Faught MK (2004b) The underwater archaeology of paleolandscapes, Apalachee Bay, Florida. Am Antiq 69(2):275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Faught MK (2008) Archaeological roots of human diversity in the new world: a compilation of accurate and precise radiocarbon ages from earliest sites. Am Antiq 73(4):670–698Google Scholar
  71. Faught MK, Donoghue JF (1997) Marine inundated archaeological sites and paleofluvial systems: examples from a karst-controlled continental shelf setting in Apalachee Bay. Geoarchaeology 12(5):417–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Faught MK, Gusick AE (2011) Submerged prehistory in the Americas. In: Benjamin J, Bonsall C, Pickard C, Fischer A (eds) Submerged prehistory. Oxbow, Oxford, pp 145–157Google Scholar
  73. Fernández-Hernandez J, González-Aguilera D, Rodríguez-Gonzálvez P, Mancera-Taboada J (2015) Image based modelling from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry: an effective, low-cost tool for archaeological applications. Archaeometry 57(1):128–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fiedel SJ, Southon JR, Brown TA (1995) The GISP ice core record of volcanism since 7000 B.C. Science 267:256–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Finley JB, Kornfeld M, Andrews BN, Frison GC, Finley CC, Bies MT (2005) Rockshelter archaeology and geoarchaeology in the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming. Plains Anthropol 50(195):227–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fischer A (2011) Stone Age on the Continental Shelf: an eroding resource. In: Benjamin J, Bonsall C, Pickard C, Fischer A (eds) Submerged prehistory. Oxbox Books, Oxford, UK, pp 298–310Google Scholar
  77. Fitch S, Thomson K, Gaffney V (2005) Late Pleistocene and Holocene depositional systems and the palaeogeography of the Dogger Bank, North Sea. Quatern Res 64(2):185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fladmark KR (1979) Routes: alternative migration corridors for early man in North America. Am Antiq 44:183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Flatman JC, Evans AM (2014) Prehistoric archaeology of the continental shelf: the state of the science in 2013. In: Evans AM, Flatman JC, Flemming NC (eds) Prehistoric archaeology of the continental shelf: a global review. Springer, New York, pp 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Follmer LR (1982) The geomorphology of the Sangamon surface: its spatial and temporal attributes. In: Thorn CE (ed) Space and time in geomorphology. Allen and Unwin, London, pp 117–146Google Scholar
  81. Fontana, F, Guerreschi A, Liagre J (2002) RiparoTagliente. La serie epigravettiana. In: Aspes A (ed) La Preistoria Veronese. Contributie aggiornamenti. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, 5, pp 42–47Google Scholar
  82. Frankel HR (2012) The continental drift controversy, vol I–IV. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  83. Fredengren C (2002) Crannogs: a study of people’s interaction with lakes, with particular reference to Lough Gara in the north-west of Ireland. Wordwell, DublinGoogle Scholar
  84. Gaffney V, Thomson K, Fitch S (eds) (2007) Mapping doggerland: the Mesolithic landscapes of the Southern North Sea. Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  85. Garrison EG (1999) A history of engineering and technology, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  86. Garrison EG, McFall G, Noakes SE (2008) Shallow marine margin sediments, modern marine erosion and the fate of sequence boundaries Georgia Bight (USA). Southeast Geol 45(3):143–159Google Scholar
  87. Garrison EG, Weaver W, Littman SL, Cook Hale J, Srivastava P (2012a) Late quaternary paleoecology and Heinrich events at Gray’s reef national marine sanctuary, South Atlantic Bight, Georgia. Southeast Geol 48(4):165–184Google Scholar
  88. Garrison EG, Cook Hale J, Holland JL, Kelley AR, Kelley JT, Lowery D, Merwin DE, Robinson DS, Schaefer CA, Thomas BW, Thomas LA, Watts GP (2012b) Prehistoric site potential and historic shipwrecks on the Atlantic outer continental shelf. OCS study, BOEM 2012-008. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Atlantic OCS RegionGoogle Scholar
  89. Garrison EG, Anderson TA, Schneider KA (2013a) Shallow geophysical prospection in Fribourg, Switzerland: a ground radar survey of medieval and roman sites. In: Vermeulen F, Corsi C (eds) Non-destructive approaches to complex archaeological sites in Europe: a round-up. Radio-Past Colloquium, Ghent, pp 15–17Google Scholar
  90. Garrison EG, Cook Hale J, Holland JL, Kelley AR, Kelley JT, Lowery D, Merwin DE, Robinson DS, Schaefer CA, Thomas BW, Thomas LA, Watts GP (2012c) Prehistoric Site Potential and Historic Shipwrecks on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. OCS Study, BOEM 2012-008. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Atlantic OCS RegionGoogle Scholar
  91. Garrison EG, Cook Hale J, Faught MK (2013b) Scientific diving in Coastal Georgia: 8000 year-old trees, prehistoric shell middens and sea level change. In: Proceedings of the 2013 AAUS/ESDP Curaçao Joint International Scientific Diving Symposium, 24–27 Oct 2013, CuraçaoGoogle Scholar
  92. Gibbard PL, Head MJ (2009) IUGS ratification of the quaternary system/period and the Pleistocene series/epoch with a base at 2.588 MA. Quaternaire 20(4):411–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Goldberg P, Miller CE, Schiegl S, Ligouis B, Berna F, Conard NJ, Wadley L (2009) Bedding, hearths, and site maintenance in the Middle Stone age of Sibudu cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 1(2):95–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Goldberg P, Sherwood SC (2006) Deciphering human prehistory through the geoarcheological study of cave sediments. Evol Anthropol 15:20–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Grine FE, Klein RG, Volman TP (1991) Dating, archaeology, and human fossils from the Middle Stone Age Levels of Die Kelders, South Africa. J Hum Evol 21:363–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Grøn O (2006) Does the future of investigations in Mesolithic and Neolithic peat bog settlements lie under water? Notae Praehistoricae 26:1–8Google Scholar
  97. Grøn O (2007) The investigation of submerged stone age landscapes using diving as a research tool: an example from Denmark. Underw Technol 27(3):109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Grøn O, Skaarup J (2004) Submerged stone age coastal zones in Denmark: investigation strategies and results. CBA Res Rep 141:53–56, English Heritage/Council for British Archaeology. YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Gruhn R (1994) The pacific coast route of initial entry: an overview. In: Bonnichsen R, Steele DG (eds) Method and theory for investigating the peopling of the Americas. Centerfor the Study of the First Americans, Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp 249–256Google Scholar
  100. Gruhn R (1998) Linguistic evidence in support of the coastal route of earliest entry in the New World. Man 23:77–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hafner A (2012) Archaeological discoveries on Schnidejoch and at other ice sites in the European alps. Arctic 65(Suppl 1):189–202Google Scholar
  102. Harris MS, Gayes PT, Kindinger JL, Flocks JG, Krantz DE, Donovan P (2005) Quaternary geomorphology and modern coastal development in response to an inherent geologic framework: an example from Charleston. South Carolina J Coastal Res 21:49–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Harris MS, Sautter LR, Johnson KL, Luciano KE, Sedberry GR, Wright EE, Siuda AN (2013) Continental shelf landscapes of the southeastern United States since the last interglacial. Geomorphology 203:6–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hassan FA (1988) Fluvial systems and geoarchaeology in arid lands with examples fromnorth Africa, the Near East and the American Southwest. In: Stein JK, Farrand WR (eds) Archaeological sediments in context. Center for the Study of Man, OronoGoogle Scholar
  105. Hay RL (1976) Geology of Olduvai Gorge: a study of sedimentation in a Semiarid basin. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  106. Hay RL (1990) Olduvai Gorge; a case history in the interpretation of hominid Paleoenvironments in East Africa. In: Laporte LF (ed) Establishment of a Geologic Framework for Paleoanthropology. Geological Society of America Special Papers 242, Boulder, CO, pp 23–37Google Scholar
  107. Hay RL, Kyser TK (2001) Chemical sedimentology and paleoenvironmental history of Lake Olduvai, a Pliocene lake in northern Tanzania. Geol Soc Am Bull 113(12):1505–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Henri-Martin G (1957) La Grotte de Fontechevade. Première Partie: Historique, Fouilles, Stratigraphie, Archéologie. Archives de l’Institut de Paléontologie Humaine 28. Masson et Compagnie, ParisGoogle Scholar
  109. Henshilwood CS, Sealy JC, Yates R, Cruz-Uribe K, Goldberg P, Grine FE, Klein RG, Poggenpoel C, Van Niekerk K, Watts I (2001) Blombos Cave, southern Cape, South Africa: preliminary report on the 1992–1999 excavations of the Middle Stone Age levels. J Archaeol Sci 28(4):421–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Holcomb DW (1996) Shuttle imaging radar and archaeological survey in the China Taklamakan desert. J Field Archaeol 19(1):129–138Google Scholar
  111. Hsű K (1995) The geology of Switzerland. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  112. Inbar M, Hubp JL, Villers Riuz L (1994) The geomorphological evolution of the Paricutin cone and lava flow, Mexico, 1943–1990. Geomorphology 9:57–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ivester AH, Leigh DS, Godfrey-Smith DI (2001) Chronology of Inland Eolian Dunes on the Coastal Plain of Georgia, USA. Quat Res 55:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Klein RG (2000) Archaeology and the evolution of human behavior. Evol Anthropol 9:17–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Keller EA, Pinter N (2002) Active tectonics: earthquakes, uplift and landscape, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  116. Kelley JT, Belknap DF, Kelley AR, Claesson SH (2013) A model for drowned terrestrial habitats with associated archeological remains in the northwestern gulf of Maine, USA. Mar Geol 338:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kremer K, Simpson G, Girardclos S (2012) Giant Lake Geneva tsunami in AD 563. Nat Geosci 5:756–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kröpelin S, Verschuren D, Lézine A-M, Eggermont H, Cocquyt C, Francus P, Cazet J-P, Fagot M, Rumes B, Russel JM, Darius F, Conley DJ, Schuster M, von Suchodolutz H, Dr. Engstrom R (2008) Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years. Science 320:765–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kuper R, Lohr H, Lγning J, Stehli P, Zimmerman A (1977) Der Band Keramische Siedlungplatz Langweiler, 9, Gem. Aldenhoven, Kr. Dγren. Rheinische Ausgrabungen 18. Rheinland – Verlag, BonnGoogle Scholar
  120. Larsen D, Brock CF (2014) Sedimentology and petrology of the Eocene Memphis Sand and younger terrace deposits in surface exposures of western Tennessee. Southeastern Geol 50(4):193–214Google Scholar
  121. Lavin L (1988) Coastal adaptations in southern New England and southern New York. In: Archaeology of Eastern North America. pp 101–120Google Scholar
  122. Leakey MD (1971) Olduvai Gorge, Volume 3, Excavations in Beds I and II, 1960–1963. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  123. Leigh DS (1998) Evaluating artifact burial by eolian versus bioturbation processes, South Carolina sandhills, USA. Geoarchaeology 13:309–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lencolais G, Auffret J-P, Bourillet J-F (2003) The quaternary channel river: seismic stratigraphy of its palaeo-valleys and deeps. J Quat Sci 18(3-4):245–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Leopold LB, Bull WB (1979) Base level, aggradation, and grade. Proc Am Philos Soc 123(3):168–202Google Scholar
  126. Levin HL (1988) The earth through time, 3rd edn. Saunders College Publishing, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  127. Lübke H (2002) Submarine stone age settlements as indicators of sea-level changes and the coastal evolution of the Wismar Bay area. Greifswalder Geographische Arbeiten 27:202–210Google Scholar
  128. Luhmann L, Robson S, Kyle S, Boehm J (2013) Close-range photogrammetry and 3D imaging. Walter de Gruyter, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mannoni T (1984) Metodi di datazione dell’edilizia storica. Archeologia Medievale 11:396Google Scholar
  130. Marin-Spiotta E, Chaopricha NT, Plante AF, Diefendorf AF, Mueller CW, Grandy AS, Mason JA (2014) Long-term stabilization of deep soil carbon by fire and burial during early Holocene climate change. Nat Geosci 7:428–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Martin C (1993) Radiocarbon ages on late Pleistocene loess stratigraphy of Nebraska and Kansas, Central Great Plains, U.S.A. Quat Sci Rev 12:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. McCauley JF, Schaber GG, Breed CS, Grolier MJ, Haynes CU, Issawi B, Elachi C, Blom R (1982) Subsurface valleys and geoarchaeology of the Eastern Sahara revealed by Shuttle Radar. Science 218:1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. McKay ED (1979) Stratigraphy of Wisconsin and older loesses in southwestern Illinois. Ill Geol Surv Guideb 14:37–67Google Scholar
  134. McMorrow J (1995) Multispectral remote sensing of archaeological sites: NERC airborne thematic mapper images of the Oxford flood plain. In: Beavis J, Baker K (eds) Science and the site. Bournemouth University Occasional Papers 1, BournemouthGoogle Scholar
  135. Merwin DE (2010) Submerged evidence of early human occupation in the New York Bight. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Stony Brook UniversityGoogle Scholar
  136. Momaday NS (1994) Values. In: Hill N Jr (ed) Words of power: voices from Indian America. Fulcrum, GoldenGoogle Scholar
  137. Morrison I (1985) Landscape with lake dwellings: the crannogs of Scotland. University Press, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  138. Munro R (1882) Ancient Scottish lake-dwellings or crannogs: with a supplementary chapter on remains of lake-dwellings in England. D. Douglas, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  139. Nur A, Ron H (1997) Earthquake-inspiration for Armageddon. Biblic Archaeol Rev 23(4):49–55Google Scholar
  140. Odum EP (1995) Ecology: science and society. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  141. Osborn HF (1916) Men of the old stone age, 2nd edn. Chas. Scribner’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  142. Osterwalder C, Andre R (1980) La Suisse Prehistorique, vol 1, 24th edn. Heures, LausanneGoogle Scholar
  143. Oviatt CG, Swinehart JB, Wilson JR (1997) Dryland landforms, hazards and risks. In: Busche RM (ed) Laboratory manual for physical geology, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  144. Palmer AN (1991) Original morphology of limestone caves. GSA Bull 103:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pandey RN (1987) Palaeo-environment and prehistory of Nepal. Contrib Nepal Stud CNAS TU 14(2):111–124Google Scholar
  146. Pavich MJ, Markewich HW, Litwin RJ, Smoot JP, Brook GA (2010) Significance of Marine oxygen isotope stage OIS5a and OIS3 OSL dates from estuarine sediments flanking Chesapeake Bay. In Annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, Baltimore, MD, Abstracts with Programs, 42(1), p 101Google Scholar
  147. Pearson CE, Weinstein RA, Wiseman DE, McClendon CM (1982) Sedimentary studies of prehistoric archaeological sites: criteria for the identification of submerged archaeological sites of the northern gulf of Mexico continental shelf. Coastal Environments, Baton Rouge, 118 pGoogle Scholar
  148. Pearson CE, Kelley DB, Weinstein RA, Gagliano SA (1986) Archaeological investigations of the outer continental shelf: a study within the Sabine River Valley, Offshore Louisiana and Texas. OCS Study, MMS 86-0119. U.S. Department of the Interior. Minerals Management Service, New OrleansGoogle Scholar
  149. Pearson CE, Weinstein RA, Kelley DB (2008) Prehistoric site discovery on the outer continental shelf, United States of America. Paper presented at the 6th World Archaeological Conference, Dublin, Jun 28–Jul 4Google Scholar
  150. Pearson CE, Weinstein RA, Gagliano SM, Kelley DB (2014) Prehistoric site discovery on the outer continental shelf, gulf of Mexico, United States of America. In: Evans A, Flatman J, Flemming N (eds) Prehistoric archaeology of the continental shelf: a global review. Springer, New York, pp 53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Penck A, Bruckner E (1909) Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter, vol 2. Tauchnitz, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  152. Pennisi E (2013) Out of the Kenyan mud, an ancient climate record. Science 341:476–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Peters CR, Blumenschine RJ (1995) Landscape perspectives on possible land use patterns for early hominids in the Olduvai Basin. J Hum Evol 29:321–362. doi: 10.1006/jhev.1995.1062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154.  Peters CR, Blumenschine RJ (1996) Landscape perspectives on possible land use patterns for early Pleistocene hominids in the Olduvai Basin, Tanzania: part II, expanding the landscape models. In: Magori C et al (eds) Four million years of hominid evolution in Africa: papers in honour of Dr. Mary Douglas leakey’s outstanding contribution in paleoanthropology. pp 175–221. Kaupia-Darmstadter Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte, 6, DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
  155. Pettijohn FJ (1975) Sedimentary rocks. Harper and Brothers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  156. Peyrony D (1938) La Micoque, les fouilles recentes, leurs significations. Bull Soc Préhist Fr 6:257–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Pizzuto JE (2012) Predicting the accumulation of mercury‐contaminated sediment on riverbanks—an analytical approach. Water Resour Res 48(7):W07518. doi: 10.1029/2012WR011906
  158. Potts R (1998) Variability selection in hominid evolution. Evol Ecol 7:81–96Google Scholar
  159. Ramiro B, Hajduk A, Gil AF, Neme GA, Durán V, Glascock MD, Giesso M, Borrazzo K, de la Paz Pompei M, Salgán ML, Cortegoso V, Villarosa G, Rughini AA (2011) Obsidian in the south-central Andes: geological, geochemical, and archaeological assessment of north Patagonian sources (Argentina). Quat Int 245(1):25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Ramuz CF (1983) Les âmes dans le glacier. La Semaine littéraire, 1er et 8 février 1913, in Nouvelles, croquis et morceaux, vol III. Slatkine, Genève, pp 7–28Google Scholar
  161. Reagan MJ, Rowlett RM, Garrison EG, Dort W Jr, Bryant VM Jr, Johannsen CJ (1978) Flake tools stratified below Paleo-Indian artifacts. Science 200:1272–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Reckin R (2013) Ice patch archaeology in global perspective: archaeological discoveries from alpine ice patches worldwide and their relationship with paleoclimates. J World Prehistory 26(4):323–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Renfrew C, Bahn PG (1996) Archaeology: theories, methods and practice. Thames & Hudson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  164. Renfrew C, Bahn PG (2000) Archaeology: theories, methods and practice. Thames & Hudson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  165. Renfrew C, Bahn PG (2004) Archaeology: theories, methods and practice. Thames & Hudson, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  166. Reitz EJ (1982) Availability and use of fish along coastal Georgia and Florida. Southeast Archaeol 1(1):65–88Google Scholar
  167. Rietz E, Reitz EJ (1988) Evidence for coastal adaptations in Georgia and South Carolina. Archaeol East North Am 16:137–158Google Scholar
  168. Riccardi AC (2009) IUGS ratified ICS recommendation on redefinition of Pleistocene and formal definition of base of quaternary. International Union of Geological SciencesGoogle Scholar
  169. Rick TC, Erlandson JM (2009) Coastal exploitation. Science 325(5943):952–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Rick TC, Erlandson JM, Jew NP, Reeder-Myers LA (2013) Archaeological survey, paleogeography, and the search for Late Pleistocene Paleocoastal peoples of Santa Rosa Island, California. J Field Archaeol 38(4):324–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rinaldo A, Dietrich WE, Rigon R, Vogel GK, Rodriguez-Iturbe I (1995) Geomorphological signatures of varying climate. Nature 374:632–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Russell DA, Rich FJ, Schneider V, Lynch-Stieglitz J (2009) A warm thermal enclave in the Late Pleistocene of the South-eastern United States. Biol Rev 84:173–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sandweiss DH, Solís RS, Moseley ME, Keefer DK, Ortloff CR (2009) Environmental change and economic development in coastal Peru between 5,800 and 3,600 years ago. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(5):1359–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sauer C (1925) The morphology of landscape. In: University of California Publications in Geography, vol 22. pp 19–53Google Scholar
  175. Sauter MR (1976) Switzerland from earliest times to the roman conquest. Thames and Hudson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  176. Sackett J (1999) The archaeology of Solvieux: an Upper Paleolithic open air site in France (No. 19). Cotsen Institute of ArchaeologyGoogle Scholar
  177. Schmidt P, Prraz G, Slodczyk A, Bellot-gurlet L, Archer W, Miller CE (2012) Heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age (MSA): temperature induced transformations of silcrete and their technological implications. J Archaeol Sci 39(1):135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Shimelmitz R, Kuhn SL, Jelinek AJ, Ronen A, Clark AE, Weinstein-Evron M (2014) ‘Fire at will’: the emergence of habitual fire use 350,000 years ago. J Hum Evol 77:196–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sigurdsson H (1999) Melting the earth: the history of ideas on volcanic eruptions. New York, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  180. Sikes NE (1994) Early hominid habitat preferences in East Africa: paleosol carbon isotopic evidence. J Hum Evol 27(1):25–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Spindler K (1994) The man in the ice. Harmony, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  182. Stahlschmidt MC, Miller CE, Ligouis B, Hambach U, Goldberg P, Berna F, Richter D, Urban B, Serangeli J, Conard NJ (2015) On the evidence for human use and control of fire at Schöningen. J Hum Evol 89:181–201, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.04.0040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Stein JK (1993) Scale in archaeology, geosciences, and geoarchaeology. In: Stein JK, Linse AR (eds) Effects of scale on archaeological and geoscientific perspectives, Geological Society of America Special Paper 283. Geological Society of America, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  184. Stright MJ (1986a) Evaluation of archaeological site potential on the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf using high-resolution seismic data. Geophysics 51(3):605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Stright MJ (1986b) Human occupation of the continental shelf during the Late Pleistocene/early Holocene: methods for site location. Geoarchaeology 1(4):347–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Stright MJ (1995a) Archaeological geology of the archaic period in north America. In: Bettis EA III (ed) Archaeological geology of the archaic period in North America. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 131–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Stright MJ (1995b) Archaic period sites on the continental shelf of north America: the effect of relative sea-level changes on archaeological site locations and preservation. In: Bettis EA III (ed) Archaeological geology of the archaic period in North America, Geological Society of America Special Paper 297. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 131–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Stubbs CCA, Sautter L, Scott HM (2007) The transect river channel: sonar and scuba exploration of an ancient river. Poster presentation, Southeastern Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Savannah, Georgia, March 29thGoogle Scholar
  189. Tarbuck EJ, Lutgens FK (1996) Earth: an introduction to physical geology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  190. Thieme H (1997) Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature 385:807–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tilston M, Arnott RW, Rennie CD, Long B (2015) The influence of grain size on the velocity and sediment concentration profiles and depositional record of turbidity currents. Geology 43(9):839–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tobias PV (1991) Olduvai Gorge, vol. 4a and 4b: the skulls, endocasts and teeth of homo habilis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  193. Vincent WF, Bertola C (2012) François Alphonse FOREL. Archives des Sciences 65:51–64Google Scholar
  194. Vineyard JD, Feder GL (1982) Springs of Missouri, revised edn. WR29. Missouri Geological Survey and Water Resources, Jefferson City, MOGoogle Scholar
  195. Wascher HL, Alexander JD, Ray BW, Beavers AH, Odell RT (1960) Characteristics of soils associated with glacial tills in northeastern Illinois. University of Illinois, Agricultural Station, Bulletin No. 665. Champaign-UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  196. West LT, Dubos RB (2013) Soils of the blue ridge mountains in Georgia properties, diversity and suitabillity for wine grape production. In: Schroeder PA, Forrest JT, German JM (eds) The Dahlonega wine and gold district: geology and terroir of viticulture in Northeastern Georgia. Georgia Geological Society Guidebook 33(1):69–82Google Scholar
  197. Williams JM (1984a) A new resisitivity device. J Field Archaeol 11:110–114Google Scholar
  198. Williams MAJ (1984b) Late quaternary prehistoric environments in the Sahara. In: Clark JD, Brandt SA (eds) From hunters to farmers. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 74–83Google Scholar
  199. Wilson JT (1966) Did the Atlantic close and then re-open? Nature 211:676–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wright GA, Bender S, Reeve S (1980) High country adaptions. Plains Anthropol 25(89):181–197Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations