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Structure, Composition, and Function of Biocrust Lichen Communities

  • Roger RosentreterEmail author
  • David J. Eldridge
  • Martin Westberg
  • Laura Williams
  • Martin Grube
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 226)

Abstract

In this chapter we examine the structure, composition, and function of soil biocrust (i.e., biological soil crust) communities dominated by lichens. Lichens are composite organisms resulting from a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium. Biocrust lichens can tolerate a wide range of abiotic stresses such as desiccation, extreme temperature, and high light intensity, making them well adapted to life in arid, semiarid, and polar deserts where resources are limited and competition from vascular plants is low. The ability of some lichens to fix atmospheric nitrogen also gives them a competitive advantage over other organisms in environments that are recovering from disturbance. Biocrust lichens perform many important ecological functions such as providing habitat for microfauna, stabilizing soils, fixing nitrogen and carbon, and enhancing water flow through the soil. However, as with other biocrust taxa, they are highly susceptible to physical disturbances such as trampling by livestock, disturbance by vehicular traffic, and fire. Biocrust lichen ecology is hampered by a lack of information on the distribution of many taxa, difficulties of identifying small organisms, and the high cost of sampling environments where biocrust lichens are likely to form a major component of the surface biota. The adoption of morphological groups for classifying biocrust lichens has helped to simplify the study of biocrust community ecology, but more sophisticated DNA sequencing techniques are needed in order to better understand their ecology, distribution, and how they interact with other soil crust organisms.

Keywords

Soil Crust Lichen Species Biological Soil Crust Morphological Group Bromus Tectorum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the European Commission for funding the BioDiversa project SCIN as well as the local funding agencies for administration of the ERA network.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Rosentreter
    • 1
    Email author
  • David J. Eldridge
    • 2
  • Martin Westberg
    • 3
  • Laura Williams
    • 4
  • Martin Grube
    • 5
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentBoise State UniversityBoiseUSA
  2. 2.Centre for Ecosystem ScienceUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of BotanySwedish Museum of Natural HistoryStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Faculty of Biology, Plant Ecology and SystematicsUniversity of KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany
  5. 5.Institute of Plant SciencesUniversity of GrazGrazAustria

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