Advertisement

The Role of Biocrusts in Arid Land Hydrology

  • Sonia ChamizoEmail author
  • Jayne Belnap
  • David J. Eldridge
  • Yolanda Cantón
  • Oumarou Malam Issa
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 226)

Abstract

Biocrusts exert a strong influence on hydrological processes in drylands by modifying numerous soil properties that affect water retention and movement in soils. Yet, their role in these processes is not clearly understood due to the large number of factors that act simultaneously and can mask the biocrust effect. The influence of biocrusts on soil hydrology depends on biocrust intrinsic characteristics such as cover, composition, and external morphology, which differ greatly among climate regimes, but also on external factors as soil type, topography, and vegetation distribution patterns, as well as interactions among these factors. This chapter reviews the most recent literature published on the role of biocrusts in infiltration and runoff, soil moisture, evaporation, and non-rainfall water inputs (fog, dew, water absorption), in an attempt to elucidate the key factors that explain how biocrusts affect land hydrology. In addition to the crust type and site characteristics, recent studies point to the crucial importance of the type of rainfall and the spatial scale at which biocrust effects are analyzed to understand their role in hydrological processes. Future studies need to consider the temporal and spatial scale investigated to obtain more accurate generalizations on the role of biocrusts in land hydrology.

Keywords

Hydraulic Conductivity Bare Soil Tengger Desert Antecedent Soil Moisture Gurbantunggut Desert 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

SC was supported by the project BACARCOS (CGL2011-29429), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology and European Union ERDF funds. JB was supported by the US Geological Survey’s Ecosystems and Climate and Land Use programs. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US government.

References

  1. Almog R, Yair A (2007) Negative and positive effects of topsoil biological crusts on water availability along a rainfall gradient in a sandy arid area. Catena 70:437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnau-Rosalén E, Calvo-Cases A, Boix-Fayos C, Lavee H, Sarah P (2008) Analysis of soil surface component patterns affecting runoff generation. An example of methods applied to Mediterranean hillslopes in Alicante (Spain). Geomorphology 101:595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barger NN, Herrick JE, Van Zee J, Belnap J (2006) Impacts of biological soil crust disturbance and composition on C and N loss from water erosion. Biogeochem 77:247–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belnap J (2006) The potential roles of biological soil crusts in dryland hydrologic cycles. Hydrol Process 20:3159–3178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belnap J, Eldridge DJ (2003) Disturbance and recovery of biological soil crusts. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management, vol 150, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin, pp 363–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belnap J, Büdel B, Lange OL (2003) Biological soil crusts: characteristics and distribution. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management, vol 150, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belnap J, Welter JR, Grimm NB, Barger N, Ludwig JA (2005) Linkages between microbial and hydrologic processes in arid and semi-arid watersheds. Ecology 86:298–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belnap J, Wilcox BP, Van Scoyoc MV, Phillips SL (2013) Successional stage of biological soil crusts: an accurate indicator of ecohydrological condition. Ecohydrology 6:474–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berdugo M, Soliveres S, Maestre FT (2014) Vascular plants and biocrusts modulate how abiotic factors affect wetting and drying events in drylands. Ecosystems 17:1242–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowker MA, Mau RL, Maestre FT, Escolar C, Castillo-Monroy AP (2011) Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles of various biological soil crust organisms. Funct Ecol 25:787–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowker MA, Eldridge DJ, Val J, Soliveres S (2013) Hydrology in a patterned landscape is co-engineered by soil-disturbing animals and biological crusts. Soil Biol Biochem 61:14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cantón Y, Solé-Benet A, Domingo F (2004) Temporal and spatial patterns of soil moisture in semi-arid badlands of SE Spain. J Hydrol 285:199–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cantón Y, Solé-Benet A, de Vente J, Boix-Fayos C, Calvo-Cases A, Asensio C, Puigdefábregas J (2011) A review of runoff generation and soil erosion across scales in semi-arid south-eastern Spain. J Arid Environ 75:1254–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chamizo S, Cantón Y, Miralles I, Domingo F (2012a) Biological soil crust development affects physicochemical characteristics of soil surface in semi-arid ecosystems. Soil Biol Biochem 49:96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chamizo S, Cantón Y, Rodríguez-Caballero E, Domingo F, Escudero A (2012b) Runoff at contrasting scales in a semiarid ecosystem: a complex balance between biological soil crust features and rainfall characteristics. J Hydrol 452–453:130–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chamizo S, Cantón Y, Lázaro R, Solé-Benet A, Domingo F (2012c) Crust composition and disturbance drive infiltration through biological soil crusts in semi-arid ecosystems. Ecosystems 15:148–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chamizo S, Cantón Y, Domingo F, Belnap J (2013a) Evaporative losses from soils covered by physical and different types of biological soil crusts. Hydrol Process 27:324–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chamizo S, Cantón Y, Lázaro R, Domingo F (2013b) The role of biological soil crusts in soil moisture dynamics in two semiarid ecosystems with contrasting soil textures. J Hydrol 489:74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen RY (2012) Source of soil condensation water in the Gurbantunggut Desert. J Desert Res 32:985–989Google Scholar
  20. Colica G, Li H, Rossi F, Li D, Liu Y, De Philippis R (2014) Microbial secreted exopolysaccharides affect the hydrological behavior of induced biological soil crusts in desert sandy soils. Soil Biol Biochem 68:62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drahorad SL, Steckenmesser D, Felix-Henningsen P, Lichner L, Rodný M (2013) Ongoing succession of biological soil crusts increases water repellency—a case study on Arenosols in Sekule, Slovakia. Biologia 68(6):1089–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eldridge DJ (2003) Biological soil crusts and water relations in Australian deserts. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management, vol 150, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin, pp 315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eldridge DJ, Greene RSB (1994) Microbiotic soil crusts: a review of their roles in soil and ecological processes in the rangelands of Australia. Aust J Soil Res 32:389–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eldridge DJ, Zaady E, Shachak M (2000) Infiltration through three contrasting biological soil crusts in patterned landscapes in the Negev, Israel. Catena 40:323–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eldridge DJ, Zaady E, Shachak M (2002) Microphytic crusts, shrub patches and water harvesting in the Negev Desert: the Shikim system. Landsc Ecol 17:587–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eldridge DJ, Bowker MA, Maestre FT, Alonso P, Mau RL, Papadopoulos J, Escudero A (2010) Interactive effects of three ecosystem engineers on infiltration in a semi–arid Mediterranean grassland. Ecosystems 13:499–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eldridge DJ, Val J, James AI (2011) Abiotic effects predominate under prolonged livestock-induced disturbance. Austral Ecol 36:367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Felde V, Peth S, Uteau-Puschmann D, Drahorad S, Felix-Henningsen P (2014) Soil microstructure as an under-explored feature of biological soil crust hydrological properties: case study from the NW Negev Desert. Biodivers Conserv 23:1687–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fischer T, Veste M, Wiehe W, Lange P (2010) Water repellency and pore clogging at early successional stages of microbiotic crusts on inland dunes, Brandenburg, NE Germany. Catena 80:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fischer T, Yair A, Veste M (2012a) Microstructure and hydraulic properties of biological soil crusts on sand dunes: a comparison between arid and temperate climates. Biogeosci Discuss 9:12711–12734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fischer T, Veste M, Bens O, Hüttl RF (2012b) Dew formation on the surface of biological soil crusts in central European sand ecosystems. Biogeosciences 9:4621–4628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fischer T, Yair A, Veste M, Geppert H (2013) Hydraulic properties of biological soil crusts on sand dunes studied by 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: a comparison between an arid and a temperate site. Catena 110:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gao S, Ye X, Chu Y, Dong M (2010) Effects of biological soil crusts on profile distribution of soil water, organic carbon and total nitrogen in Mu Us Sandland, China. J Plant Ecol 3:279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. George DB, Roundy BA, St. Clair LL, Johansen JR, Schaalje GB, Webb BL (2003) The effects of microbiotic soil crusts on soil water loss. Arid Land Res Manag 17:113–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Greene RSB, Nettleton WD, Chartres CJ, Leys JF, Cunningham RB (1998) Runoff and micromorphological properties of grazed haplargids, near Cobar, N.S.W., Australia. Aust J Soil Res 36:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harper KT, Marble JR (1988) A role for nonvascular plants in management of arid and semi-arid rangelands. In: Tueller PT (ed) Vegetation science applications for rangeland analysis and management. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, pp 135–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Herrick JE, Van Zee JW, Belnap J, Johansen JR, Remmenga M (2010) Fine gravel controls hydrologic and erodibility responses to trampling disturbance for coarse-textured soils with weak cyanobacterial crusts. Catena 83:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kidron GJ (2007) Millimeter-scale microrelief affecting runoff yield over microbiotic crust in the Negev Desert. Catena 70:266–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kidron GJ, Benenson I (2014) Biocrusts serve as biomarkers for the upper 30 cm soil water content. J Hydrol 509:398–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kidron GJ, Büdel B (2014) Contrasting hydrological response of coastal and desert biocrusts. Hydrol Process 28:361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kidron GJ, Tal SY (2012) The effect of biocrusts on evaporation from sand dunes in the Negev Desert. Geoderma 179–180:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kidron GJ, Yair A (1997) Rainfall-runoff relationships over encrusted dune surface, Nizzana, western Negev, Israel. Earth Surf Process Landf 22:1169–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kidron GJ, Monger HC, Vonshak A, Conrod W (2012) Contrasting effects of microbiotic crusts on runoff in desert surfaces. Geomorphology 139–140:484–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lan S, Hu C, Rao B, Wu L, Zhang D, Liu Y (2010) Non-rainfall water sources in the topsoil and their changes during formation of man-made algal crusts at the eastern edge of Qubqi Desert, Inner Mongolia. Sci China Life Sci 53:1135–1141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Li SZ, Xiao HL, Song YX, Li JG, Liu LC (2002) Impact of microbiotic soil crusts on rainfall interception in an artificial vegetation area of the Tengger Desert. J Desert Res 6:612–616Google Scholar
  46. Li XJ, Li XR, Song WM, Gao YP, Zheng JG, Jia RL (2008) Effects of crust and shrub patches on runoff, sedimentation, and related nutrient (C, N) redistribution in the desertified steppe zone of the Tengger Desert, Northern China. Geomorphology 96:221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li XR, Zhang ZS, Huang L, Liu LC, Wang XP (2009) The ecohydrology of the soil–vegetation system restoration in arid zones: a review. Sci Cold Arid Reg 1:0199–0206Google Scholar
  48. Li XR, He MZ, Zerbe S, Li XJ, Liu LC (2010) Micro-geomorphology determines community structure of biological soil crusts at small scales. Earth Surf Process Landf 35:932–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lichner L, Hallett PD, Orfánus T, Czachor H, Rajkai K, Šír M, Tesař M (2010) Vegetation impact on the hydrology of an aeolian sandy soil in a continental climate. Ecohydrology 3:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lichner L, Holko L, Zhukova N, Schacht K, Rajkai K, Fodor N, Sándor R (2012) Plants and biological soil crust influence the hydrophysical parameters and water flow in an aeolian sandy soil. J Hydrol Hydromech 60:309–318Google Scholar
  51. Lichner L, Hallett PD, Drongová Z, Czachor H, Kovacik L, Mataix-Solera J, Homolák M (2013) Algae influence the hydrophysical parameters of a sandy soil. Catena 108:58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu LC, Li SZ, Duan ZH, Wang T, Zhang ZS, Li XR (2006) Effects of microbiotic crusts on dew deposition in the restored vegetation area at Shapotou, northwestern China. J Hydrol 328:331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu LC, Song YX, Gao YH, Wang T, Li XR (2007) Effects of microbiotic crusts on evaporation from the revegetated area in a Chinese desert. Soil Res 45:422–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ludwig JA, Wilcox BP, Breshears DD, Tongway DJ, Imeson AC (2005) Vegetation patches and runoff-erosion as interacting ecohydrological processes in semi-arid landscape. Ecology 86:288–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lusby GC (1970) Hydrologic and biotic effects of grazing versus non-grazing near Grand Junction, Colorado. J Range Manag 23:256–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mager DM (2010) Carbohydrates in cyanobacterial soil crusts as a source of carbon in the southwest Kalahari, Botswana. Soil Biol Biochem 42:313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mager DM, Thomas AD (2011) Extracellular polysaccharides from cyanobacterial soil crusts: a review of their role in dryland soil processes. J Arid Environ 75:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Malam Issa O, Trichet J, Défarge C, Couté A, Valentin C (1999) Morphology and microstructure of microbiotic soil crusts on a tiger bush sequence (Niger, Sahel). Catena 37:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Malam Issa O, Défarge C, Trichet J, Valentin C, Rajot JL (2009) Microbiotic soil crusts in the Sahel of Western Niger and their influence on soil porosity and water dynamics. Catena 77:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Malam Issa O, Valentin C, Rajot JL, Cerdan O, Desprats J-F, Bouchet T (2011) Runoff generation fostered by physical and biological crusts in semi-arid sandy soils. Geoderma 167–168:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maphangwa KW, Musil CF, Raitt L, Zedda L (2012) Differential interception and evaporation of fog, dew and water vapour and elemental accumulation by lichens explain their relative abundance in a coastal desert. J Arid Environ 82:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mazor G, Kidron GJ, Vanshak A, Abeliovich A (1996) The role of cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides in structuring desert microbial crusts. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 21:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Miralles-Mellado I, Cantón Y, Solé-Benet A (2011) Two-dimensional porosity of crusted silty soils: indicators of soil quality in semi-arid rangelands? Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:1289–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pan YX, Wang XP, Zhang YF (2010) Dew formation characteristics in a revegetation-stabilized desert ecosystem in Shapotou area, Northern China. J Hydrol 387:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rao B, Liu Y, Wang W, Hu C, Dunhai L, Lan S (2009) Influence of dew on biomass and photosystem II activity of cyanobacterial crusts in the Hopq Desert, northwest China. Soil Biol Biochem 41:2387–2393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rao BQ, Wu YW, Li H, Li DH, Liu YD (2011) Comparison studies on dew condensation of different developmental artificial crusts in Hopq Desert. J Soil Water Conserv 25:159–164Google Scholar
  67. Rodríguez-Caballero E, Cantón Y, Chamizo S, Afana A, Solé-Benet A (2012) Effects of biological soil crusts on surface roughness and implications for runoff and erosion. Geomorphology 145–146:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rodríguez-Caballero E, Cantón Y, Chamizo S, Lázaro R, Escudero A (2013) Soil loss and runoff in semiarid ecosystems: a complex interaction between biological soil crusts, micro-topography and hydrological drivers. Ecosystems 16:529–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rodríguez-Caballero E, Cantón Y, Lázaro R, Solé-Benet A (2014a) Cross-scale interactions and nonlinearities in the hydrological and erosive behavior of semiarid catchments: the role of biological soil crusts. J Hydrol 517:815–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rodríguez-Caballero E, Escribano P, Cantón Y (2014b) Advanced image processing methods as a tool to map and quantify different types of biological soil crust. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 90:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rodríguez-Caballero E, Aguilar MA, Cantón Y, Chamizo S, Aguilar FJ (2015) Swelling of biocrusts upon wetting induces changes in surface micro-topography. Soil Biol Biochem 82:1–5, Short communicationCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rossi F, Potrafka RM, Garcia Pichel F, De Philippis R (2012) The role of the exopolysaccharides in enhancing hydraulic conductivity of biological soil crusts. Soil Biol Biochem 46:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rozenstein O, Karnieli A (2014) Identification and characterization of biological soil crusts in a sand dune desert environment across Israel-Egypt border using LWIR emittance spectroscopy. J Arid Environ 112:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith SM, Abed RMM, Garcia-Pichel F (2004) Biological soil crusts of sand dunes in Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts, USA. Microbiol Ecol 48:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Souza-Egipsy V, Ascaso C, Sancho LG (2002) Water distribution within terricolous lichens revealed by scanning electron microscopy and its relevance in soil crust ecology. Mycol Res 106:1367–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sun Y, Li X, Xu H, Yang Z, Tang J, Zhang X (2008) Effect of soil crust on evaporation and dew deposition in Mu Us sandy land, China. Front Environ Sci Eng china 2:480–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tao Y, Zhang YM (2012a) Effects of leaf hair points of a desert moss on water retention and dew formation: implications for desiccation tolerance. J Plant Res 125:351–360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Tao Y, Zhang YM (2012b) Effects of leaf hair points on dew deposition and rainfall evaporation rates in moss crusts dominated by Syntrichia caninervis, Gurbantunggut Desert, northwestern China. Acta Ecol Sin 32:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tighe M, Haling RE, Flavel RJ, Young IM (2012) Ecological succession, hydrology and carbon acquisition of biological soil crusts measured at the micro-scale. PLoS One 7(10):e48565CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Verrecchia E, Yair A, Kidron GJ, Verrecchia K (1995) Physical properties of the psammophile cryptogamic crust and their consequences to the water regime of sandy soils, north–western Negev Desert, Israel. J Arid Environ 29:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang XP, Li XR, Xiao HL, Berndtsson R, Pan YX (2007) Effects of surface characteristics on infiltration patterns in an arid shrub desert. Hydrol Process 21:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wang CP, Zhou HS, Liao CY, Sun CZ, Han XH (2011) Effects of soil algae crust on soil evaporation in the Loess Plateau. J Northwest Forest Univ 26:8–13Google Scholar
  83. Wang XP, Pan YX, Hu R, Zhang YF, Zhang H (2014) Condensation of water vapour on moss-dominated biological soil crust, NW China. J Earth Syst Sci 123:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Warren SD (2003a) Synopsis: influence of biological soil crusts on arid land hydrology and soil stability. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management, vol 150, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin, pp 349–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Warren SD (2003b) Biological soil crusts and hydrology in North American deserts. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management, vol 150, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin, pp 327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weber B, Olehowski C, Knerr T, Hill J, Deutschewitz K, Wessels DCJ, Eitel B, Büdel B (2008) A new approach for mapping of biological soil crusts in semidesert areas with hyperspectral imagery. Remote Sens Environ 112:2187–2201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wilcox BP, Breshears DD, Allen CD (2003) Ecohydrology of a resource conserving semiarid woodland: effects of scale and disturbance. Ecol Monogr 73:223–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wu YS, Hasi E, Wu X (2012) Characteristics of surface runoff in a sandy area in southern Mu Us sandy land. Chin Sci Bull 57:270–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Xiao B, Zhao YG, Shao MA (2010) Characteristics and numeric simulation of soil evaporation in biological soil crusts. J Arid Environ 74:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Xiao B, Wang QH, Zhao YG, Shao MA (2011) Artificial culture of biological soil crusts and its effects on overland flow and infiltration under simulated rainfall. Appl Soil Ecol 48:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yair A (2003) Effects of biological soil crusts on water redistribution in the Negev desert, Israel: a case study in longitudinal dunes. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management, vol 150, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin, pp 303–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yair A, Almog R, Veste M (2011) Differential hydrological response of biological topsoil crusts along a rainfall gradient in a sandy arid area: northern Negev desert, Israel. Catena 87:326–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yu Z, Lü H, Zhu Y, Drake S, Liang C (2010) Long-term effects of revegetation on soil hydrological processes in vegetation-stabilized desert ecosystems. Hydrol Process 24:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zaady E, Arbel S, Barkai D, Sarig S (2013) Long-term impact of agricultural practices on biological soil crusts and their hydrological processes in a semiarid landscape. J Arid Environ 90:5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zhang ZS, Zhu HM, Tan HJ, Chen YW, Pan YX (2007) Evaporation from soils covered with biological crusts in revegetated desert: a case study in Shapotou Desert research and experiment station. Acta Pedol Sin 44:404–410Google Scholar
  96. Zhang XY, Li XY, Wang W, Ma YJ (2008) Experimental observation analysis on dew formation in southern Mu us Sandy Land. Arid Meteorol 26:8–13Google Scholar
  97. Zhang J, Zhang Y, Downing A, Cheng J, Zhou X, Zhang B (2009a) The influence of biological soil crusts on dew deposition in Gurbantunggut Desert, Northwestern China. J Hydrol 379:220–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhang J, Zhang YM, Zhou XB, Zhang BC, Wei ML (2009b) The influence of biological soil crusts on dew deposition and characteristics of soil surface in Gurbantunggut Desert. Acta Ecol Sin 29:6600–6608Google Scholar
  99. Zhao Y, Xu M (2013) Runoff and soil loss from revegetated grasslands in the Hilly Loess Plateau Region, China: influence of biocrust patches and plant canopies. J Hydrol Eng 18:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonia Chamizo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jayne Belnap
    • 2
  • David J. Eldridge
    • 3
  • Yolanda Cantón
    • 1
  • Oumarou Malam Issa
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyUniversity of AlmeriaAlmeriaSpain
  2. 2.U.S. Geological SurveySouthwest Biological Science CenterMoabUSA
  3. 3.Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.URCAReimsFrance
  5. 5.UMR 242 IEES-Paris, IRD representation au NigerNiameyNiger

Personalised recommendations