Experimental Study of Transverse Mixing of Pollutants in Trapezoidal Open Channel

  • Ali Mansour Lagoun
  • Salim Benziada
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


Problems related to water mixing becoming more important, especially when it comes to evaluate the impact of a domestic, industrial or thermal discharge on the receiving stream. The need to predict the water quality according to the rate of the dispersion of pollutants has pushed researchers to develop several mixing models. These models, developed from the Advection–Dispersion Equation, are aimed to identify and predict the spatiotemporal evolution of the concentration of a given pollutant.

Since streams often have a much greater width than the depth; vertical mixing of pollutants is complete and transverse mixing is predominant. Away from the injection point; the problem becomes one-dimensional; is the longitudinal dispersion.

In this article, the transverse mixing problem has been studied in a trapezoidal channel, several concentration measurements in the longitudinal and lateral direction of the flow were performed, and for different scenarios of injections of pollutant in the channel, the results obtained show a great influence of the flow and quantity of pollutants on the transverse mixing phenomenon.


Trapezoidal channel Pollution Transverse mixing Transport of pollutants Phenol 


  1. Chanson, H. (2004). Environmental hydraulics of open channel flow. Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data, 423p.Google Scholar
  2. Chaudhry, M. H. (2008). Open channel flow (2nd ed., 523p). Library of Congress, Control Number: 2007936602. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Czernuszenko, W., & Alexey, R. (2005). Three-dimensional model of flow and mixing processes in open channels. In Water quality hazards and dispersion of pollutants (pp. 35–54). Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Demetracopoulos, A. C., & Stelan, H. G. (1983a). Transverse mixing in wide and shallow rivers: Case study. Journal of Environment Engineering, 109(3), 685–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Demetracopoulos, A. C., & Stelan, H. G. (1983b). Model of Mississipi river pool: Mass transport. Journal of Environment Engineering, 109(5), 1006–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dingman, S. L. (2009). Fluvial hydraulics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 559p.Google Scholar
  7. Ernest, F. B., & Horace, W. K. (1996). Handbook of hydraulics (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. 611p.Google Scholar
  8. Fischer, H. B. (1966). Longitudinal dispersion in laboratory and natural streams. Report N°. KH-R-12 . Journal of Water Resources Division, 250p.Google Scholar
  9. Fischer, H. B. (1967). The mechanisms of dispersion in natural streams. Journal of Hydraulic Division. ASCE, 93(HY6), 187–215.Google Scholar
  10. Fischer, H. B. & John, E. L. (1979). Mixing in inland and coastal waters. Academic Press. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data, 458p.Google Scholar
  11. Gharbi, S. (1999). Évaluation des coefficients de mélange longitudinal et transversal des polluants dans les cours d'eau: proposition de nouvelles formules. Thèse Doctorat à l’université Laval, Québec, 197p.Google Scholar
  12. Gualtieri, C., & Dragutin, T. M. (2008). Fluid mechanics in environmental interfaces, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 332p.Google Scholar
  13. Hibbs, D., Gulliver, J., Voller, V., & Chen, Y. F. (1999). An aqueous concentration model for riverine spills. Journal of Hazardous Materials, A64, 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jabour, D. (2006). Etude expérimentale et modélisation de la dispersion en champ lointain suite à un rejet accidentel d'un polluant miscible dans un cours d'eau. Application à la gestion de crise. Thèse Doctorat à l’Université de Provence, 246p.Google Scholar
  15. Jobson, H. E. (1997). Predicting travel time and dispersion in rivers and streams. Journal of Hydraulics Engineering. ASCE, 123(11), 971–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lencastre, A. (2005). Hydraulique Général. Edition Eyrolles, 633p.Google Scholar
  17. Rutherford, J. C. (1994). River mixing. New York: Willey. 347p.Google Scholar
  18. Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A., & Pujol, L. (1999). Study on the hydrodynamic of the Ebro River lower course using tritium as radiotracer. Water Research, 33(10), 2345–2356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shen, H. T., & Yapa, P. D. (1995). A simulation model for chemical spills in the upper St Lawarence River. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 21(10), 652–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Steve, W., & Russell, M. (2005). On the theoretical prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficients in a compound channel. In Water quality hazards and dispersion of pollutants (pp. 69–84). Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Van Prooijen, B. G., & Uijttewaal, W. S. J. (2005). Horizontal mixing in shallow flows; Physical aspects and numerical modelling. In Water quality hazards and dispersion of pollutants (pp 55–68). Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. New York: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Laboratory of Water SciencesPolytechnic National School of AlgiersAlgiersAlgeria
  2. 2.Laboratory of Environment, Water, Geomechanics and Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering (FGC)University of Sciences & Technology HouariBoumediene (USTHB)AlgiersAlgeria
  3. 3.Scientific and Technical Research Center on Physical and Chemical Analyses (CRAPC)Bou-IsmailAlgeria

Personalised recommendations