Evaluation of the Cerebral Vessels

  • Robert A. WillinskyEmail author


Evaluation of the cerebral vessels traditionally demonstrates the lumen of the vessel (the so-called luminogram). The methods include computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). All three methods can evaluate the veins, but CT venography (CTV) and MR venography (MRV) are traditionally done separately from CTA and MRA. In the last decade, dynamic 3D CTA and MRA techniques can be done that provide a hemodynamic evaluation of both the arteries and the veins. These dynamic 3D techniques give a great overview of the cerebral circulation but lack spatial resolution. DSA remains the “gold standard” in the evaluation of the arteries and the hemodynamics. We believe the gadolinium-enhanced MRV is now the “gold standard” in the evaluation of the venous system.


Cerebral arteries Cerebral veins Imaging Cerebrovascular diseases Computed tomography angiography Magnetic resonance angiography Digital subtraction angiography Vasculitis Amyloid Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome 

Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joint Department of Medical ImagingToronto Western Hospital, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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