Neuroimaging in Dementia

  • Frederik BarkhofEmail author
  • Mark A. van Buchem


Dementia refers to a clinical syndrome rather than a disease. Dementia is usually defined as an acquired condition involving multiple cognitive impairments that are sufficient to interfere with activities of daily living. It is usually but not necessarily progressive. Memory impairment is one of the most common deficits, but other domains such as language, praxis, visual-perceptive and most notably executive functions are often involved. With increasing loss of function due to these cognitive problems, there is progressive difficulty with activities of daily living. Many of the diseases that cause dementia have a relentlessly progressive course with an insidious onset; many have long durations (e.g. 5–10 years from diagnosis) and relatively prolonged end-stage period of where all self-care and independence is lost. Dementia places tremendous burdens on patients, their families and carers and on health and social care systems. The most important causes of dementia have an age-related incidence. As a result the prevalence and societal costs of dementia are predicted to rise dramatically over the coming decades.


Ageing Dementia MRI PET Amyloid Alzheimer Microbleeds Small vessel disease Vascular dementia 

Suggested Reading

  1. Harper L, Barkhof F, Scheltens P, Schott JM, Fox NC (2014) An algorithmic approach to structural imaging in dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85(6):692CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Frederik Barkhof, Nick C. Fox, António J. Bastos-Leite, Philip Scheltens (2002) Neuroimaging in dementia hardcover. Lancet Neurol 1(1):13–21Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology & Nuclear MedicineVU University Medical CentreAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institutes of Neurology and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyLeiden University Medical CentreLeidenThe Netherlands

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