Basics: Theory

  • Jürgen RettingerEmail author
  • Silvia Schwarz
  • Wolfgang Schwarz


The chapter on Basics: Theory summarises basic electrochemical principles for the understanding of electrophysiology. This includes electrical characteristics of biological membranes and the distribution of essential ion activities between extracellular environment and cytoplasm. The basis of the thermodynamical equations is presented for Donnan, Nernst and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equations.


Relative Permeability Permeability Ratio Electrical Potential Gradient Nernst Potential Independence Principle 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jürgen Rettinger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Silvia Schwarz
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Schwarz
    • 3
  1. 1.Multi Channel Systems GmbHReutlingenGermany
  2. 2.Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Acupuncture Mechanism and Acupoint FunctionFudan UniversityShanghai-PudongChina
  3. 3.Institut für BiophysikGoethe-Universität FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany

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