Advertisement

Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Nanoparticle Catalysts in Oxygen Reduction by Interfacial Engineering

  • Christopher P. Deming
  • Peiguang Hu
  • Ke Liu
  • Shaowei ChenEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Nanostructure Science and Technology book series (NST)

Abstract

Currently, the widespread integration of fuel cells into the energy market is limited by the large amounts of precious metal catalysts necessary for effective oxygen reduction (ORR) and sufficient energy output. To meet this challenge, many methods have been successfully adopted to improve the activity of fuel cell electrocatalysts and to provide a basis for controlled manipulation of particle properties, specifically, the interaction between the catalyst surface and ORR intermediates. Of these, interfacial engineering of the nanoparticle surface has proven an effective and facile method for enhancing catalytic activity and is the focus of this chapter. What follows is a review of electrocatalytic enhancement from the prospective of surface modifications for nanoparticle alloys, organically capped nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles. For alloy nanoparticles, the mixing of the metals will modify the d band structure of the surface atoms and result in different binding affinities for oxygenated intermediates. Organic functionalization will alter the kinetics of catalysis by imparting electronic effects on the surface atoms based on the nature of the ligand and nature of the interfacial bond. Surface oxygen vacancies and other stoichiometry modifications of metal oxide particles have also been shown to alter surface properties and thus alter the dynamics of oxygen electroreduction. In each case, we closely examine the connection between particle characteristics and activity as well present experimental methods used to control these properties and the prevailing theories detailing the basis for electrocatalytic enhancement.

Keywords

Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalytic Activity Alloy Catalyst Interfacial Engineering Ligand Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors thank the National Science Foundation for partial support of the work.

References

  1. 1.
    Wagner FT, Lakshmanan B, Mathias MF (2010) Elecrochemistry and the future of the automobile. J Phys Chem Lett 1:2204–2219. doi:10.1021/jz100553m|JGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cano-Castillo U (2013) Hydrogen and fuel cells: potential elements in the energy transition scenario. Rev Mex Fis 59(2):85–92Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stephens IEL, Bondarenko AS, Grønbjerg U, Rossmeisl J, Chorkendorff I (2012) Understanding the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction on platinum and its alloys. Energy Environ Sci 5(5):6744. doi: 10.1039/c2ee03590a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Norskov JK, Rossmeisl J, Logadottir A, Lindqvist L, Kitchin JR, Bligaard T, Jonsson H (2004) Origin of the overpotential for oxygen reduction at a fuel-cell cathode. J Phys Chem B 108:17886–17892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Song C, Zhang J (2008) PEM fuel cell electrocatalysis and catalyst layers: fundamentals and applications. Electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rabis A, Rodriguez P, Schmidt TJ (2012) Electrocatalysis for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: recent achievements and future challenges. ACS Catal 2(5):864–890. doi: 10.1021/cs3000864 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lim D-H, Wilcox J (2012) Mechanisms of the oxygen reduction reaction on defective graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles from first-principles. J Phys Chem C 116(5):3653–3660. doi: 10.1021/jp210796e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sabatier P (1911) Announcement. Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation for catalysis. Ber Dtsch Chem Ges 44:1984–2001. doi: 10.1002/cber.19110440303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kinoshita K (1990) Particle-size effects for oxygen reduction on highly dispersed platinum in acid electrolytes. J Electrochem Soc 137(3):845–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yano H, Inukai J, Uchida H, Watanabe M, Babu PK, Kobayashi T, Chung JH, Oldfield E, Wieckowski A (2006) Particle-size effect of nanoscale platinum catalysts in oxygen reduction reaction: an electrochemical and Pt-195 EC-NMR study. Phys Chem Chem Phys 8(42):4932–4939. doi: 10.1039/B610573d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lim B, Jiang MJ, Camargo PHC, Cho EC, Tao J, Lu XM, Zhu YM, Xia YN (2009) Pd-Pt bimetallic nanodendrites with high activity for oxygen reduction. Science 324(5932):1302–1305. doi: 10.1126/science.1170377 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen ZW, Waje M, Li WZ, Yan YS (2007) Supportless Pt and PtPd nanotubes as electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction reactions. Angew Chem Int Ed 46(22):4060–4063. doi: 10.1002/Anie.200700894 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xiao L, Zhuang L, Liu Y, Lu JT, Abruna HD (2009) Activating Pd by morphology tailoring for oxygen reduction. J Am Chem Soc 131(2):602–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Savadogo O, Lee K, Oishi K, Mitsushima S, Kamiya N, Ota KI (2004) New palladium alloys catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in an acid medium. Electrochem Commun 6(2):105–109. doi: 10.1016/J.Elecom.2003.10.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shao MH, Sasaki K, Adzic RR (2006) Pd-Fe nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. J Am Chem Soc 128(11):3526–3527. doi: 10.1021/Ja060167d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang JL, Vukmirovic MB, Sasaki K, Nilekar AU, Mavrikakis M, Adzic RR (2005) Mixed-metal Pt monolayer electrocatalysts for enhanced oxygen reduction kinetics. J Am Chem Soc 127(36):12480–12481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang JL, Vukmirovic MB, Xu Y, Mavrikakis M, Adzic RR (2005) Controlling the catalytic activity of platinum-monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction with different substrates. Angew Chem Int Ed 44(14):2132–2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greeley J, Stephens IEL, Bondarenko AS, Johansson TP, Hansen HA, Jaramillo TF, Rossmeisl J, Chorkendorff I, Norskov JK (2009) Alloys of platinum and early transition metals as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts. Nat Chem 1(7):552–556. doi: 10.1038/Nchem.367 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bing YH, Liu HS, Zhang L, Ghosh D, Zhang JJ (2010) Nanostructured Pt-alloy electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cell oxygen reduction reaction. Chem Soc Rev 39(6):2184–2202. doi: 10.1039/B912552c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhou Z-Y, Kang X, Song Y, Chen S (2012) Ligand-mediated electrocatalytic activity of pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reactions. J Phys Chem C 116(19):10592–10598. doi: 10.1021/jp300199x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    He G, Song Y, Phebus B, Liu K, Deming CP, Hu P, Chen S (2013) Electrocatalytic activity of organically functionalized silver nanoparticles in oxygen reduction. Sci Adv Mater 5(11):1727–1736. doi: 10.1166/sam.2013.1624 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cheng FY, Zhang TR, Zhang Y, Du J, Han XP, Chen J (2013) Enhancing electrocatalytic oxygen reduction on MnO2 with vacancies. Angew Chem Int Ed 52(9):2474–2477. doi: 10.1002/anie.201208582 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Strasser P, Koh S, Anniyev T, Greeley J, More K, Yu CF, Liu ZC, Kaya S, Nordlund D, Ogasawara H, Toney MF, Nilsson A (2010) Lattice-strain control of the activity in dealloyed core-shell fuel cell catalysts. Nat Chem 2(6):454–460. doi: 10.1038/Nchem.623 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kitchin JR, Norskov JK, Barteau MA, Chen JG (2004) Modification of the surface electronic and chemical properties of Pt(111) by subsurface 3d transition metals. J Chem Phys 120(21):10240–10246. doi: 10.1063/1.1737365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stephens IE, Bondarenko AS, Perez-Alonso FJ, Calle-Vallejo F, Bech L, Johansson TP, Jepsen AK, Frydendal R, Knudsen BP, Rossmeisl J, Chorkendorff I (2011) Tuning the activity of Pt(111) for oxygen electroreduction by subsurface alloying. J Am Chem Soc 133(14):5485–5491. doi: 10.1021/ja111690g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stamenkovic VR, Mun BS, Arenz M, Mayrhofer KJJ, Lucas CA, Wang GF, Ross PN, Markovic NM (2007) Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces. Nat Mater 6(3):241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stamenkovic VR, Fowler B, Mun BS, Wang GF, Ross PN, Lucas CA, Markovic NM (2007) Improved oxygen reduction activity on Pt3Ni(111) via increased surface site availability. Science 315(5811):493–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhou ZY, Kang XW, Song Y, Chen SW (2012) Enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles in oxygen reduction by chlorophenyl functionalization. Chem Commun 48(28):3391–3393. doi: 10.1039/C2cc17945h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu K, Kang XW, Zhou ZY, Song Y, Lee LJ, Tian D, Chen SW (2013) Platinum nanoparticles functionalized with acetylene derivatives: Electronic conductivity and electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction. J Electroanal Chem 688:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    He GQ, Song Y, Liu K, Walter A, Chen S, Chen SW (2013) Oxygen reduction catalyzed by platinum nanoparticles supported on graphene quantum dots. ACS Catal 3(5):831–838. doi: 10.1021/Cs400114s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Song Y, Chen SW (2014) Graphene quantum-dot-supported platinum nanoparticles: defect-mediated electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6(16):14050–14060. doi: 10.1021/Am503388z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen W, Chen SW, Ding FZ, Wang HB, Brown LE, Konopelski JP (2008) Nanoparticle-mediated intervalence transfer. J Am Chem Soc 130(36):12156–12162. doi: 10.1021/Ja803887b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen W, Zuckerman NB, Kang XW, Ghosh D, Konopelski JP, Chen SW (2010) Alkyne-protected ruthenium nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 114(42):18146–18152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kang XW, Chen W, Zuckerman NB, Konopelski JP, Chen SW (2011) Intraparticle charge delocalization of carbene-functionalized ruthenium nanoparticles manipulated by selective ion binding. Langmuir 27(20):12636–12641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhou ZY, Ren J, Kang X, Song Y, Sun SG, Chen S (2012) Butylphenyl-functionalized Pt nanoparticles as CO-resistant electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation. Phys Chem Chem Phys 14(4):1412–1417. doi: 10.1039/c1cp23183a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang N, Niu W, Li L, Liu J, Tang Z, Zhou W, Chen S (2015) Oxygen electroreduction promoted by quasi oxygen vacancies in metal oxide nanoparticles prepared by photoinduced chlorine doping. Chem Commun 51:10620–10623. doi: 10.1039/C5CC02808F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cheng F, Su Y, Liang J, Tao Z, Chen J (2010) MnO2-based nanostructures as catalysts for electrochemical oxygen reduction in alkaline media. Chem Mater 22(3):898–905. doi: 10.1021/cm901698s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cheng FY, Chen J (2012) Metal-air batteries: from oxygen reduction electrochemistry to cathode catalysts. Chem Soc Rev 41(6):2172–2192. doi: 10.1039/c1cs15228a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goodenough JB, Cushing BL (2003) Handbook of fuel cells-fundamentals, technology and applications, vol 2. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Suntivich J, Gasteiger HA, Yabuuchi N, Nakanishi H, Goodenough JB, Shao-Horn Y (2011) Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Nat Chem 3(7):546–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Xiong L, Kannan AM, Manthiram A (2002) Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) electrocatalysts synthesized by an aqueous route for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrochem Commun 4(11):898-903. Pii: S1388-2481(02)00485xGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wu JB, Zhang JL, Peng ZM, Yang SC, Wagner FT, Yang H (2010) Truncated octahedral Pt3Ni oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts. J Am Chem Soc 132(14):4984–4985. doi: 10.1021/ja100571h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mavrikakis M, Hammer B, Norskov JK (1998) Effect of strain on the reactivity of metal surfaces. Phys Rev Lett 81(13):2819–2822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rodriguez JA, Goodman DW (1992) The nature of the metal bond in bimetallic surfaces. Science 257(5072):897–903. doi: 10.1126/Science.257.5072.897 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen MS, Kumar D, Yi CW, Goodman DW (2005) The promotional effect of gold in catalysis by palladium-gold. Science 310(5746):291–293. doi: 10.1126/Science.1115800 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stamenkovic V, Mun BS, Mayrhofer KJJ, Ross PN, Markovic NM, Rossmeisl J, Greeley J, Norskov JK (2006) Changing the activity of electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction by tuning the surface electronic structure. Angew Chem Int Ed 45(18):2897–2901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Xiao L, Huang B, Zhuang L, Lu JT (2011) Optimization strategy for fuel-cell catalysts based on electronic effects. Rsc Adv 1(7):1358–1363. doi: 10.1039/C1ra00378j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Greeley J, Norskov JK (2009) Combinatorial density functional theory-based screening of surface alloys for the oxygen reduction reaction. J Phys Chem C 113(12):4932–4939. doi: 10.1021/Jp808945y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fernandez JL, Raghuveer V, Manthiram A, Bard AJ (2005) Pd-Ti and Pd-Co-Au electrocatalysts as a replacement for platinum for oxygen reduction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. J Am Chem Soc 127(38):13100–13101. doi: 10.1021/Ja0534710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Suo YG, Zhuang L, Lu JT (2007) First-principles considerations in the design of Pd-alloy catalysts for oxygen reduction. Angew Chem Int Ed 46(16):2862–2864. doi: 10.1002/Anie.200604332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sleightholme AES, Varcoe JR, Kucernak AR (2008) Oxygen reduction at the silver/hydroxide-exchange membrane interface. Electrochem Commun 10(1):151–155. doi: 10.1016/J.Elecom.2007.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Guo JS, Hsu A, Chu D, Chen RR (2010) Improving oxygen reduction reaction activities on carbon-supported Ag nanoparticles in alkaline solutions. J Phys Chem C 114(10):4324–4330. doi: 10.1021/Jp910790u CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chatenet M, Genies-Bultel L, Aurousseau M, Durand R, Andolfatto F (2002) Oxygen reduction on silver catalysts in solutions containing various concentrations of sodium hydroxide—comparison with platinum. J Appl Electrochem 32(10):1131–1140. doi: 10.1023/A:1021231503922 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Varcoe JR, Slade RCT (2005) Prospects for alkaline anion-exchange membranes in low temperature fuel cells. Fuel Cells 5(2):187–200. doi: 10.1002/Fuce.200400045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Slanac DA, Hardin WG, Johnston KP, Stevenson KJ (2012) Atomic ensemble and electronic effects in Ag-rich AgPd nanoalloy catalysts for oxygen reduction in alkaline media. J Am Chem Soc 134(23):9812–9819. doi: 10.1021/Ja303580b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chen S, Templeton AC, Murray RW (2000) Monolayer-protected cluster growth dynamics. Langmuir 16:3543–3548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Templeton AC, Wuelfing MP, Murray RW (2000) Monolayer protected cluster molecules. Acc Chem Res 33(1):27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cavaliere S, Fdr R, Etcheberry A, Herlem M, Perez H (2004) Direct electrocatalytic activity of capped platinum nanoparticles toward oxygen reduction. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 7(10):A358. doi: 10.1149/1.1792259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baret B, Aubert PH, L’Hermite MM, Pinault M, Reynaud C, Etcheberry A, Perez H (2009) Nanocomposite electrodes based on pre-synthesized organically capped platinum nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes. Part I: Tuneable low platinum loadings, specific H upd feature and evidence for oxygen reduction. Electrochim Acta 54(23):5421–5430. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.04.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Genorio B, Strmcnik D, Subbaraman R, Tripkovic D, Karapetrov G, Stamenkovic V, Pejovnik S, Markovic N (2010) Selective catalysts for the hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions by patterning of platinum with calix[4]arene molecules. Nat Mater 9:998–1003. doi: 10.1038/nmat2883 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Strmcnik D, Escudero-Escribano M, Kodama K, Stamenkovic V, Cuesta A, Markovic N (2010) Enhanced electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction based on patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide. Nat Chem 2:880–885. doi: 10.1038/nchem.771 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pietron JJ, Garsany Y, Baturina O, Swider-Lyons KE, Stroud RM, Ramaker DE, Schull TL (2008) Electrochemical observation of ligand effects on oxygen reduction at ligand-stabilized Pt nanoparticle electrocatalysts. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 11(8):B161. doi: 10.1149/1.2937448 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kostelansky CN, Pietron JJ, Chen MS, Dressick WJ, Swider-Lyons KE, Ramaker DE, Stroud RM, Klug CA, Zelakiewicz BS, Schull TL (2006) Triarylphosphine-stabilized platinum nanoparticles in three-dimensional nanostructured films as active electrocatalysts. J Phys Chem B 110(43):21487–21496. doi: 10.1021/Jp062663u CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Song Y, Liu K, Chen SW (2012) AgAu bimetallic janus nanoparticles and their electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction in alkaline media. Langmuir 28(49):17143–17152. doi: 10.1021/La303513x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lima FHB, Zhang J, Shao MH, Sasaki K, Vukmirovic MB, Ticianelli EA, Adzic RR (2007) Catalytic activity-d-band center correlation for the O2 reduction reaction on platinum in alkaline solutions. J Phys Chem C 111:404–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hull RV, Li L, Xing YC, Chusuei CC (2006) Pt nanoparticle binding on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Chem Mater 18(7):1780–1788. doi: 10.1021/Cm0518978 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Palaniselvam T, Irshad A, Unni B, Kurungot S (2012) Activity modulated low platinum content oxygen reduction electrocatalysts prepared by inducing nano-order dislocations on carbon nanofiber through N-2-doping. J Phys Chem C 116(28):14754–14763. doi: 10.1021/Jp300881p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Timperman L, Feng YJ, Vogel W, Alonso-Vante N (2010) Substrate effect on oxygen reduction electrocatalysis. Electrochim Acta 55(26):7558–7563. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.09.076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vogel W, Timperman L, Alonso-Vante N (2010) Probing metal substrate interaction of Pt nanoparticles: structural XRD analysis and oxygen reduction reaction. Appl Catal Gen 377(1–2):167–173. doi: 10.1016/j.apcata.2010.01.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Liu X, Yao KX, Meng CG, Han Y (2012) Graphene substrate-mediated catalytic performance enhancement of Ru nanoparticles: a first-principles study. Dalton Trans 41(4):1289–1296. doi: 10.1039/C1dt11186h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ferrari AC, Basko DM (2013) Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene. Nat Nanotechnol 8(4):235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dresselhaus MS, Terrones M (2013) Carbon-based nanomaterials from a historical perspective. Proc IEEE 101(7):1522–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kim J, Yin X, Tsao KC, Fang S, Yang H (2014) Ca(2)Mn(2)O(5) as oxygen-deficient perovskite electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction. J Am Chem Soc 136(42):14646–14649. doi: 10.1021/ja506254g CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher P. Deming
    • 1
  • Peiguang Hu
    • 1
  • Ke Liu
    • 1
  • Shaowei Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations