Archipelago of Montane Forests Surrounded by Rupestrian Grasslands: New Insights and Perspectives

  • Marcel S. Coelho
  • G. Wilson Fernandes
  • Priscila Pacheco
  • Victor Diniz
  • Alline Meireles
  • Rubens M. dos Santos
  • Felipe A. Carvalho
  • Daniel Negreiros
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we describe, for the first time, the natural islands of Atlantic rainforests, regionally known as capões (heretofore called Atlantic forest islands, or simply forest islands), associated to the Espinhaço Range under the perspective of the landscape context in which they are immersed. The structure, composition and reproductive aspects of the vegetation are analyzed, as are their soil properties. Forest islands of the Espinhaço Range have a similar floristic composition to the semi-deciduous forests of southeastern Brazil, that are associated to the Atlantic rainforest domain, despite having been classified in its climate regime as ombrophilous vegetation. The forest islands of the Espinhaço Range are classified as disjunctions of broadleaved, evergreen, cloud, montane tropical forest located on mountain ridges, rocky slopes or swamps. Forest islands are always associated to mountains, which have concentrated rainfall and cloudiness. The forest islands are located in an ecological transition zone and are strongly influenced by elements of the Atlantic rainforest biome, despite the elements of the Cerrado biome (in the present case, in a matrix of rupestrian grasslands), which are present in minor proportions. The influence of the rupestrian grassland ecosystem increases according to the levels of disturbance suffered by the vegetation. The forest islands are an edaphoclimatic formation, hence dependent on specific climate and soil properties for their development. Soil physical properties, such as drainage, are more relevant than their chemical properties, like nutrient input, to the establishment and development of the forest islands. Among the several threats, fire stands out, causing large decreases in the dimensions of the forest and changes in the successional dynamics of the vegetation. These natural islands, which are mostly immersed in matrices of rupestrian grasslands, have a high biogeographical importance, especially as a refuge for the seasonal surrounding environment. However, they may be under a fast-paced threat due to recurrent anthropogenic fires and the potential effects of climate and land use changes.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank FAPEMIG, CNPq and Reserva Vellozia for finantial and logistical support. To Ramón Perea (Stanford University) for reading the manuscript and for suggestions.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcel S. Coelho
    • 1
  • G. Wilson Fernandes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Priscila Pacheco
    • 1
  • Victor Diniz
    • 1
  • Alline Meireles
    • 1
  • Rubens M. dos Santos
    • 3
  • Felipe A. Carvalho
    • 1
  • Daniel Negreiros
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecologia Evolutiva & Biodiversidade/DBG, ICBUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Department of BiologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Departamento de Ciências Florestais, Campus Universitario Jardim EldoradoUniversidade Federal de LavrasLavrasBrazil

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