Ecophysiology of Campos Rupestres Plants

  • Rafael S. Oliveira
  • Anna Abrahão
  • Caio Pereira
  • Grazielle S. Teodoro
  • Mauro Brum
  • Suzana Alcantara
  • Hans Lambers
Chapter

Abstract

Campos rupestres are rocky seasonally-dry environments that occur over mountaintops in central Brazil. Plant growth is limited and prone to fire during the dry winter, and soils are severely nutrient-impoverished. Plants in these habitats exhibit a wide range of strategies to cope with these limitations. Campos rupestres plants show different rooting depths, according to plant habit and substrate. Water status in plants varies between stable water potentials in isohydric species to water potentials changing according to air humidity in anisohydric plants, some of them being dessication-tolerant and dormant during the dry season (resurrection plants). Carbon assimilation in the dry season is therefore limited by water availability, especially in dessication-tolerant species. A wide variety of mineral nutrition strategies allow effective nutrient acquisition in campos rupestres: mycorrhizas, non-mycorrhizal sand-binding root specializations, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, carnivory, parasitism. The incidence of natural fires may have played a role in the ecological and evolutionary processes that have molded the current flora of campos rupestres, as well as the occurrence of specific functional traits in these habitats. Unveiling the relative importance and prevalence of in situ adaptation and adaptive divergence in the lineages that diversified in campos rupestres will allow us to further discuss mechanisms related to trait evolution and adaptive radiation in campos rupestres.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Fundo de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo for funding our research (project 2010/17204-0), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Conselho Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível superior for the scholarships, scholarship 2010/50327-8 to G.S. Teodoro, and project grant number CAPES PVE 88887.108541/2015-00. We thank Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (Sisbio 43511-2) and Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais (056/2014) for the licenses to work in campos rupestres. We also acknowledge the Graduate Programs of Ecology and Plant Biology at Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Finally, we would like to thank the editor for the invitation to write the chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael S. Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anna Abrahão
    • 1
    • 2
  • Caio Pereira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Grazielle S. Teodoro
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mauro Brum
    • 1
  • Suzana Alcantara
    • 4
  • Hans Lambers
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Biologia VegetalUniversidade Estadual de CampinasCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.School of Plant BiologyUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Departamento de Engenharia FlorestalUniversidade Federal de LavrasLavrasBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de BotânicaUniversidade Federal de Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil

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